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Outwardly, an oil ointment, or plaister of it, is most admirable can i pay someone to do my accounting homework for thegout, to cool the veneral heat of the reins in the french pox. Tostop the toothache, being applied to the aching side. To allay allinflammations, and to help the diseases before premised hedge hyssop divers sorts there are of this plant. The first of which is an italianby birth, and only nursed up here in the gardens of the curious twoor three sorts are found commonly growing wild here, the description oftwo of which i shall give you descript the first is a smooth, low plant, not a foot high, verybitter in taste, with thesis square stalks, diversly branched from thebottom to the top, with divers joints, and two small leaves at eachjoint, broader at the bottom than they are at the end, a little dentedabout the edges, of a sad green colour, and full of veins the flowersstand at the joints, being of a fair purple colour, with essay whitespots in them, in fashion like those of dead nettles the seed is smalland yellow, and the roots spread much under ground the second seldom grows half a foot high, sending up thesis smallbranches, whereon grow thesis small leaves, set one against the other, essaywhat broad, but very short the flowers are like the flowers of theother fashion, but of a pale reddish colour the seeds are small andyellowish the root spreads like the other, neither will it yield toits fellow one ace of bitterness place they grow in wet low grounds, and by the water-sides. Thelast may be found among the bogs on hampstead heath time they flower in june or july, and the seed is ripe presentlyafter government and virtues they are herbs of mars, and as choleric andchurlish as he is, being most violent purges, especially of cholerand phlegm it is not safe taking them inwardly, unless they be wellrectified by the art of the alchymist, and only the purity of themgiven. So used they may be very helpful both for the dropsy, gout, and sciatica. Outwardly used in ointments they kill worms, the bellyanointed with it, and are excellently good to cleanse old and filthyulcers black hellebore it is also called setter-wort, setter-grass, bear-foot, christmas-herb, and christmas-flowers descript it hath sundry fair green leaves rising from the root, each of them standing about an handful high from the earth. Each leafis divided into seven, eight, or nine writings, dented from the middleof the leaf to the point on both sides, abiding green all the winter;about christmas-time, if the weather be any thing temperate, theflowers appear upon foot stalks, also consisting of five large, round, white leaves a-piece, which essaytimes are purple towards the edges, with thesis pale yellow thumbs in the middle.

Andon every branch can i pay someone to do my accounting homework stands a large bush of pale whitish flowers, consistingof four leaves a-piece. The root is essaywhat great, shoots forth thesisbranches under ground, keeping the leaves green all the winter place they grow in thesis places upon the sea-coasts, as well on thekentish as essex shores. As at lid in kent, colchester in essex, anddivers other places, and in other counties of this land time they flower and seed about the time that other kinds do government and virtues the moon claims the dominion of these also the broth, or first decoction of the sea colewort, doth by the sharp, nitrous, and bitter qualities therein, open the belly, and purge thebody. It cleanses and digests more powerfully than the other kind. Theseed hereof, bruised and drank, kills worms the leaves or the juice ofthem applied to sores or ulcers, cleanses and heals them, and dissolvesswellings, and takes away inflammations calamint, or mountain-mint descript this is a small herb, seldom rising above a foot high, with square hairy, and woody stalks, and two small hoary leaves set ata joint, about the height of marjoram, or not much bigger, a littledented about the edges, and of a very fierce or quick scent, as thewhole herb is. The flowers stand at several spaces of the stalk, fromthe middle almost upwards, which are small and gaping like to those ofthe mints, of a pale bluish colour. After which follow small, roundblackish seed the root is small and woody, with divers small stringsspreading within the ground, and dies not, but abides thesis years place it grows on heaths, and uplands, and dry grounds, in thesisplaces of this land time they flower in july and their seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mercury, and a strongone too, therefore excellent good in all afflictions of the brain the decoction of the herb being drank, brings down women courses, and provokes urine it is profitable for those that are bursten, ortroubled with convulsions or cramps, with shortness of breath, orcholeric torments and pains in their bellies or stomach. It also helpsthe yellow-jaundice, and stays vomiting, being taken in wine takenwith salt and honey, it kills all manner of worms in the body ithelps such as have the leprosy, either taken inwardly, drinking wheyafter it, or the green herb outwardly applied it hinders conceptionin women, but either burned or strewed in the chamber, it drives awayvenomous serpents it takes away black and blue marks in the face, andmakes black scars become well coloured, if the green herb not thedry be boiled in wine, and laid to the place, or the place washedtherewith being applied to the hucklebone, by continuance of time, itspends the humours, which cause the pain of the sciatica the juicebeing dropped into the ears, kills the worms in them the leaves boiledin wine, and drank, provoke sweat, and open obstructions of the liverand spleen it helps them that have a tertian ague the body beingfirst purged by taking away the cold fits the decoction hereof, withessay sugar put thereto afterwards, is very profitable for those thatbe troubled with the over-flowing of the gall, and that have an oldcough, and that are scarce able to breathe by shortness of their wind;that have any cold distemper in their bowels, and are troubled withthe hardness or the spleen, for all which purposes, both the powder, called diacaluminthes, and the compound syrup of calamint are the mosteffectual let no women be too busy with it, for it works very violentupon the feminine writing camomile it is so well known every where, that it is but lost time and labour todescribe it the virtues thereof are as follow a decoction made of camomile, and drank, takes away all pains andstitches in the side the flowers of camomile beaten, and made up intoballs with gill, drive away all sorts of agues, if the writing grieved beanointed with that oil, taken from the flowers, from the crown of thehead to the sole of the foot, and afterwards laid to sweat in his bed, and that he sweats well this is nechessor, an egyptian, medicine itis profitable for all sorts of agues that come either from phlegm, ormelancholy, or from an inflammation of the bowels, being applied whenthe humours causing them shall be concocted. And there is nothing moreprofitable to the sides and region of the liver and spleen than it thebathing with a decoction of camomile takes away weariness, eases pains, to what writing of the body soever they be applied it comforts the sinewsthat are over-strained, mollifies all swellings. It moderately comfortsall writings that have need of warmth, digests and dissolves whatsoeverhas need thereof, by a wonderful speedy property it eases all painsof the cholic and stone, and all pains and torments of the belly, andgently provokes urine the flowers boiled in posset-drink provokessweat, and helps to expel all colds, aches, and pains whatsoever, andis an excellent help to bring down women courses syrup made ofthe juice of camomile, with the flowers, in white wine, is a remedyagainst the jaundice and dropsy the flowers boiled in lye, are goodto wash the head, and comfort both it and the brain the oil madeof the flowers of camomile, is much used against all hard swellings, pains or aches, shrinking of the sinews, or cramps, or pains in thejoints, or any other writing of the body being used in clysters, it helpsto dissolve the wind and pains in the belly. Anointed also, it helpsstitches and pains in the sides nechessor saith, the egyptians dedicated it to the sun, because itcured agues, and they were like enough to do it, for they were thearrantest apes in their religion that i ever read of bachinus, bena, and lobel, commend the syrup made of the juice of it and sugar, takeninwardly, to be excellent for the spleen also this is certain, that itmost wonderfully breaks the stone. Essay take it in syrup or decoction, others inject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe myopinion is, that the salt of it, taken half a dram in the morning ina little white or rhenish wine, is better than either. That it isexcellent for the stone, appears in this which i have seen tried, viz , that a stone that has been taken out of the body of a man beingwrapped in camomile, will in time dissolve, and in a little time too water-caltrops they are called also tribulus aquaticus, tribulus lacusoris, tribulusmarinus, caltrops, saligos, water nuts, and water chesnuts descript as for the greater sort of water caltrop it is not foundhere, or very rarely two other sorts there are which i shall heredescribe the first has a long creeping and jointed root, sendingforth tufts at each joint, from which joints rise long, flat, slender, knotted stalks, even to the top of the water, divided towards the topinto thesis branches, each carrying two leaves on both sides, being abouttwo inches long, and half an inch broad, thin and almost transparent;they look as though they were torn.

And it isnot a felony, if through his ignorance of the quality of the medicineprescribed, or of the nature of the disease, or of both, the patient, contrary to his expectations, should die the death of a man killed byvoluntarily following a medical prescription cannot be adjudged felonyin the writingy prescribing unless he, however ignorant of medical sciencein general, had so much knowledge or probable information of the fataltendency of the prescription that it may be reasonably presumed bythe jury to be an act of wilful rashness at least, and not of honestintention and expectation to cure ”the doctrine of the thompson case too broad - this lax statementof the law, made by the learned chief justice in this case, has beenmuch doubted and criticised it appears to be unsound in the length towhich it goes in requiring, in order to constitute criminal liability, what may be termed excessive gross carelessness or wilful grosscarelessness it apparently runs counter to the prevailing opinions ofthe english judges, and to the later decisions of the courts in theunited states, although it is followed and approved in rice v thestate, 8 mo , 561 in rex v long 4 car & p , 308-310, park, j , said. “i call itacting wickedly when a man is grossly ignorant and yet affects to curepeople, or when he is grossly inattentive to their safety ”so in rex v spiller 5 car & p , 353, the court said. “if aperson, whether a medical man or not, professes to deal with thelife and health of another, he is bound to use competent skill andsufficient attention. And if he causes the death of another throughgross want of either he will be guilty of manslaughter ”bishop, in his work on criminal law, lays down the rule that not everydegree of carelessness renders a practitioner liable to criminalprosecution, and that it must be gross, or, as more strongly expressed, “the grossest ignorance or most criminal inattention ”189nevertheless he quotes with approval 2 bishop crim law, 264 theremark of willes, j , that a medical man is taking a leap in the darkif he knew he was using medicines beyond his knowledge. And also theremarks of bayley, j , in rex v simpson 1 lewin, 172, who said inthat case. “i am clear that if a person not having a medical education, and in a place where a person of a medical education might be obtained, takes it upon himself to administer medicines which may have aninjurious effect, and such medicines destroy the life of the person towhom they are administered, it is manslaughter the writingy may not meanto cause death, or the medicine may produce beneficent effects, but hehas no right to hazard medicine of a dangerous tendency when medicalassistance can be obtained if he does, he does it at his peril ”190gross negligence defined - in general it may be stated that grossnegligence is necessary to constitute criminal liability, but this maybe predicated upon, or inferred from, such want of ordinary care andskill as shows gross ignorance, or such want of attention as indicateswilful disregard of the well-known laws of life and health 191gross negligence resulting in injury a misdemeanor - it has also beenheld that although death does not but injury does ensue, as the resultof gross negligence or inattention, that constitutes a misdemeanorpunishable criminally 192in determining degree of negligence circumstances and conditionsgovern - it should be noted, however, that the circumstances andconditions attending the act of alleged criminal malpractice shouldbe given much weight so also should due weight be given to theadvancement of knowledge and education in the world in general, andin the medical profession in writingicular in an early english case, one of the judges remarked that not as much knowledge and skill couldbe expected of a surgeon or physician in a sparsely settled countrydistrict as in a city, and that he was at a loss to know what degreeof knowledge and skill should be required of such a person but ingram v boener, 56 ind , 447, worden, j , said. “it seems to us thatphysicians or surgeons practising in small towns, or in poorly orsparsely settled country districts, are bound to possess and exerciseat least the average degree of skill possessed and exercised by theprofession in such localities generally it is not true, as we think, to say that if a physician and surgeon has exercised such a degreeof skill as is ordinarily exercised in the writingicular locality inwhich he practises, that would be sufficient there might be but fewpractising in the given locality, all of whom might be quacks, ignorantpretenders to knowledge not possessed by them, and it would not doto say that because one possessed and exercised as much skill as theother, he could not be chargeable with the want of reasonable care andskill ”193unlicensed practitioner causing death guilty of manslaughter - sincethe adoption by most civilized states and countries of the salutarypractice of regulating by statute the practice of medicine and surgery, and forbidding persons not duly licensed from practising, and making ita misdemeanor to violate any of these statutes, it is clear that anyperson not having the requisite medical education and a license, whoattempted to administer drugs and medicines or to perform operations, and through want of ordinary knowledge and skill caused the death ofanother, would be held guilty of manslaughter, because he brought aboutthe death while he himself was engaged in a violation of the law inessay states where no discrimination in this respect is made betweenmisdemeanors and felonies, the crime would be murder, punishable bydeath. And it has always been the law that an empiric or quack holdinghimself out as a regular physician is bound to have and exhibit thedegree of skill and care which he professes, and will be strictly heldto the standard of skill of educated and licensed medical men 194as to the legal meaning of the term “ordinary care and skill, ” and therules of evidence applicable in paper of malpractice, a full discussionwill be had below, when considering the subject of civil liability formalpractice civil liability for malpractice any person holding himself out to be a physician or surgeon, or anyphysician or surgeon, who is guilty of malpractice, is liable fordamages, to be recovered in a civil action, instituted by the personinjured, or by those having a legal right to such person services this is so whether the injured person actually employed the defendantto prescribe or treat him, or not the liability flows out of therelationship, without regard to the element of employment, and it mayresult from negligence in treatment, or in prescribing, or in givinginformation and instructions to the patient as to how to take care ofhimself when under treatment the rules of law applicable to the dutiesof a physician to his patient are stated and the authorities supportingthem cited in chapter iv of this work 195ordinary care and skill only required - the leading paper in americaon the subject of civil liability for malpractice are. Leighton v sargent, 7 n h , 460, and carpenter v blake, 60 barb , 485 s c on appeal, 75 n y , 12 in the former case the court said.

“clinical tests, ” it issaid, “covering a period of several years have proved that neither thecondition in the stomach during digestion nor those in the intestineprevent the secretin from entering intact into the circulation ” whenwe meet claims such as this, should we not scrutinize the “tests” aswell as the men who make them?. We are indebted to dr j h moorehead for assistance in writing of thesurgical work -- from the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 articles refused recognition report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybelow appear abstracts of the council action on articles refusedrecognition which were not deemed of sufficient importance to requirelengthy reports. Radio-remthe radium therapy company, schieffelin & co , selling agents, submitted to the council radium emanation generators called “radio-remoutfits, ” designed to generate respectively 200, 1, 000, 2, 000, 5, 000and 10, 000 mache units per twenty-four hours those who are well informed on the subject of radium therapy are of theopinion that the administration of small amounts of radium emanationsuch as generated by certain outfits is without therapeutic value ithas been stated that at the radium institute of london the minimumpreliminary dose is 185 microcuries 500, 000 mache units, and as thesisas 555 microcuries 1, 500, 000 mache units are employed in consideration of these facts the council voted not to accept anyradium emanation generator which produces less than 2 microcuriesof emanation during twenty-four hours accordingly, while acceptingradio-rem outfit no 5, claimed to produce 10, 000 mache units 3 7microcuries and radio-rem outfit no 4, claimed to produce 5, 000 macheunits 1 8 microcuries, the council voted not to accept radio-remoutfit no 3, claimed to produce 2, 000 mache units 0 74 microcurie, radio-rem outfit no 2, claimed to produce 1, 000 mache units 0 37microcurie, and radio-rem outfit c, claimed to produce 200 mache units 0 07 microcurie this report having been submitted to schieffelin & co and their replyconsidered, the council authorized publication of the report see alsoreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 631 olio-phlogosisolio-phlogosis, a liquid preparation to be applied externally by meansof a cotton pad, is advertised by the mystic chemical company, kansascity, mo , thus. “doctor. Don’t fail to use olio-phlogosis liberally for pneumonia, bronchitis and pleurisy it works quickly olio-phlogosis is as far ahead of all medicated kaolin plasters as these plasters were ahead of the old-time moist and soggy poultices ”a pamphlet advises the use of olio-phlogosis in “ all paper of inflammation and congestion, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy, croup, boils, carbuncles, rheumatism, swollen glands, peritonitis, ovaritis, as a surgical dressing, mamitis mastitis ?. vaginitis and metritis on cotton tampon to deplete these writings, septic wounds, old ulcers, chilblain, eczema, neuralgia, inflammation of the eyes and ears, alveolar inflammation, burns, scalds, etc ”according to the information sent to the council by the mystic chemicalcompany, olio-phlogosis has the following composition per gallon. Ol eucalyptus gaultheria drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 2 ol thyme white drs 2 resublimated iodin crystals grs 32 resorcin drs 1 acid boracic c p drs 2 quinine bisulphate drs 4 sodium thiosulphate drs 3-1/2 glycerin c p q s ad gal 1a nonquantitative formula which appears on the label of a sample bottlesent to a physician enumerates the same ingredients except the sodiumthiosulphate the a m a chemical laboratory reports that no free iodin could bedetected in the preparation apparently, then, olio-phlogosis is essentially a skin irritant appliedby means of cotton. It can be expected to be just about as effectiveas the old-fashioned cotton pneumonia jacket, used in conjunction withan aromatic skin irritant, such as camphorated oil or wintergreen ormenthol ointment the odor may have essay psychic effect, and it ispossible that essay of the oily matter may be absorbed by the skin thatsuch small amounts, even if absorbed, can produce any considerablesystemic effect, however, is highly improbable, and the advice thatthis preparation be relied on in pneumonia, pleurisy, peritonitis, etc , is pernicious in the few paper of pneumonia in which heat isindicated, the plain cotton pad will usually be found sufficient ifthe physician consider the addition of a skin irritant desirable, it iseasy to select one from the official preparations it will be far morerational to do so than to invoke the aid of a mystic name and a complexformula to which the patient and his family, at least, will be led togive unmerited credit the claims made for olio-phlogosis are unwarranted. Its compositionis complex and irrational, and the nondescriptive but therapeuticallysuggestive name is likely to lead to uncritical use the councilvoted that the product be refused recognition for conflict with rules6, 8 and 10, and that this report be published -- from the journala m a , aug 19, 1916 the hypophosphite fallacy report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary the introduction of hypophosphites into medicine was due to anerroneous and now discarded theory as to the cause of tuberculosis ofwhich one dr j f churchill of london, and later of paris, was thepromulgator and propagandist 92 this theory was that the so-called“tuberculosis diathesis” was due to a deficiency of phosphorus inthe blood believing that the hypophosphites, while nontoxic, werecapable of further oxidation in the organism, churchill recommendedthem as the best means of supplying the supposedly lacking phosphorus it is now known that tuberculosis is not due to a deficiency ofphosphorus of more importance is the fact, now known, that littlephosphorus, if any, is assimilated from the hypophosphites-- farless than from phosphorus compounds of ordinary food 93 there isno justification for giving hypophosphites for the sake of theirphosphorus content for various reasons, however-- writingly from force ofhabit and writingly because of the power of advertising-- thesis physiciansstill prescribe hypophosphite preparations, and consequently, theyare still included in the pharmacopeia and in textbooks on materiamedica and therapeutics they are put out in the form of “specialties”and of proprietary preparations, and are lauded extravagantly by themanufacturers of the latter 92 churchill, j f.

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15 “insomuch that they brought forth the sick into the streets, and laid them on beds and couches, that at least the shadow of peterpassing by might overshadow essay of them ”probably we shall not be wrong in regarding this procedure as theorigin of that relic cult which was destined to attain such astonishingdimensions in medical practise the mode of treatment by means of prayer was, perhaps, intimatelyconnected with the idea that bodily ailments were divinely ordained tomake the wrath of god distinctly perceptible by man this conception ofpathological processes was a very ancient one we meet with it amongthe egyptians, and we read in the book of exodus that god visited uponpharaoh and his people various bodily afflictions, such as pestilence, black smallpox, death, as in the case of the first-born afterwardchristianity adopted this view of sickness as providential, and thebelief assumed very peculiar forms and dimensions in the middleages in those times any disease occurring epidemically was actuallyconsidered to be an act of retribution on the writing of the divinebeing, a scourge with which god punished sinful christians thus, for instance, syphilis, which originated in naples in 1495, duringthe struggle between the reigning house of aragon and the french, was instantly declared to be the chastisement of god the emperormaximilian declares, in an edict issued august 7, 1495, at worms:“quod novus ille et gravissimus hominum morbus nostris diebus exortus, quem vulgo malum francicum vocant, post hominum memoriam inauditussæpe grassetur, quæ nos justissimæ dei iræ merita debent admonere” gregorovius vii , 386, foot-note 1 but it is very astonishing to observe the causes which aroused thewrath of god so mightily that countless numbers of men were sweptaway thus, for instance, the pious bishop of zeeland, peter paladius, assures us that miliary fever, that terrible disease which devastatedeurope five times from 1486 to 1551, was sent by god, who was angry atthe excessive passion for finery which prevailed at that time medicalscience, as founded on theism, assumed menacing forms, where, in themiddle ages, it associated itself with magic, but as we shall moreexhaustively enlarge upon this point in chapter iv we need merelyrefer here to that writing of our work it is indeed surprising that the above-mentioned manifestations alloccurred in periods in which medicine had already acknowledged thephysico-mechanical interpretation of all organic processes. But thestrangeness of this fact is enhanced by the consideration that, evenin recent times, and even at the present moment, there have been, andare, individuals who not only preach the doctrine that medicine isbound to be subordinate to christian faith, but also find adherents totheir dogmas, and find them in surprising numbers recently we havelearned from two exceedingly instructive examples to what extremes thesentiment of fanatical religion may lead men so soon as they shake offthe steadying influence of physico-mechanical ideas in their theory oflife then theocracy strives for an exclusive ascendancy in the domainof medicine, as is distinctly shown by the position taken by mrs eddy, with her “christian science, ” and rev john alexander dowie, with his“christian catholic church of zion ”if we first of all examine the system of mrs eddy, we find it anabsurd farrago of undigested philosophical odds and ends, illogicalmedical aphorisms, and shallow investigation, which reaches its pitchof folly in the belief that disease has no real foundation in thematerial tissues of the body, but should be explained as arisingexclusively from certain conditions of the mind in accordance withthis conception, which has been borrowed from a natural philosophy longsince relegated to oblivion, the services both of physician and physicare to be rejected, and the treatment of the sick is to be carried onin such a manner that the patient, under supervision of an individualexpert in such affairs, is merely to fix his mind on the spiritual, ordivine, principle inherent in himself we are by no means astonished that a person to whom the laws ofthought are entirely unfamiliar, and who is not very much burdenedwith knowledge of any other kind, should advance such confused andpreposterous theories as those of mrs eddy history teaches us thathuman beings have arisen at all periods, in all ranks of life, and incold blood have given currency to the wildest of theories but the mostinteresting point is that at this day when, as we might believe, theadvances in physical science have enlightened to essay extent even themost unintellectual, mrs eddy is able to find adherents, especiallyamong the best classes of society, and to find them in such numbersthat the authorities have been compelled to interfere in repressing thepractises of this medical superstition i purposely say interesting, and not “astonishing” or “wonderful, ” because the historian, whateverdomain he undertakes to investigate, will always discover thatstupidity has at all times been a power superior to all the influencesof culture and learning mrs eddy, with her christian science, provesto us that even in this era of scientific enlightenment, this truthremains incontrovertible rev john alexander dowie, with his christian catholic church of zion, must be judged from an entirely different view-point than mrs eddy it is true, this latter-day saint arrives at exactly the same end asmrs eddy namely, at the absolute rejection of professional treatment, medical as well as surgical but he arrives at this theory, whichso closely concerns both his own health and that of his adherents, by an entirely different way from that taken by the eddy woman anunquestioning belief, which in its naïveté is almost touching, leadshim to hold that all utterances of the old as well as of the newtestament are direct revelations of god the further consequenceof this constancy of faith is the desire to believe and to followeverything that is contained in the bible, to the widest extent andwith the closest adherence to the wording of the book and as the bookof exodus, xv. 26, states, “i am the lord that healeth thee, ” and inthe epistle to james, v. 14-16, prayer is recommended as the bestremedy in diseases, dowie concludes that prayer must be resorted to asthe sole means of treating and curing all forms of disease prayer isdeclared by him to be much more efficacious, in surgical paper, thanthe skill of the most experienced operator dowie, therefore, occupies exactly the same standpoint as thechristians of the first centuries after christ, who also believedthat prayer would render the best assistance in all ailments of thebody twenty centuries, therefore, with all their immense advance inthe training of thought and in the recognition of nature, have notbeen able to rid humanity of the conception that the omnipotence ofgod, among thesis other manifestations, is to busy itself in the dailyregulation of the human body with all its numerous functions whereverthis conception obtains a firm foothold superstition, with its acts ofmiraculous healing, never fails to follow accordingly, all historicperiods of our cultural development, in which the theocratic belief hasbeen on the ascendant, are characterized by an excessive development ofmedical superstition iv the influence of philosophy upon the form and origin of medical superstitionthe idea that philosophy has exerted any material influence uponsuperstition in medicine may appear strange to thesis for how canit be possible that the science which teaches the laws of thought, which regulates our entire mental activity and guides it in the rightdirection, which points out to us the intricate path of medicaltheory and diagnosis how is it possible that just this science shouldeither take or have taken writing in misleading or obscuring our medicalperception?. we do not by any means intend to impute any such effect tophilosophy quite the contrary!. we are thoroughly aware of the greatinfluence which philosophy is entitled to claim in all sciences withoutexception, and for this reason we believe that modern representativesof medical science would be much better off if they were a little lessat variance with philosophy than they actually are in the wide realm of philosophy there are only certain points wherewe can detect a tendency to promote the development of medicalsuperstition this tendency appears in all endeavors which are made toexplain natural phenomena solely in a speculative manner, or to build atheory of life upon a base of pure assumptions whenever such attemptswere made manifest, and impressed philosophy into their service underthe name of natural philosophy, it resulted in the wide predominance ofmedical superstition it is well known that all prae-socratic philosophy aimed at thediscovery of a single principle as underlying and explaining all thephenomena of nature but in spite of this very apparent tendency, it can scarcely be accused of promoting medical superstition. Forprae-socratic philosophy busied itself in speculations concerningterrestrial phenomena earth and air, fire and water, cold and heat, coming into being and passing away, are the things in which itendeavored to find the elemental basis of nature with its multiformphenomena but upon the study of medicine these endeavors exercised, for the time being, a liberalizing influence they emancipated itfrom the repressive grasp of theism, and opened up the way for anexclusively natural explanation of all processes of the body, inhealth as well as in sickness unfortunately the apparatus, or organon, which philosophy furnished to science in its terrestrial phenomena wasa very questionable one, investigation of the conclusion from analogyand the deductive method being of extremely little value, either inmedical diagnosis or the pursuit of natural science for this reasonmedicine was bound to be encumbered with countless badly foundedhypotheses but other monstrous guesses at truth could not fail tobecome current let us consider, for instance, the absurd theory whichheraclitus of ephesus 500 b c has propounded as to the relationsbetween wine and the human soul as the soul, according to thisphilosopher, naturally was a fiery vapor, and the drier and the morefiery it remained the better, the excessive use of alcohol would notbe advisable, in that the abundant infusion of fluids causes the soulto become wet, which would be harmful to its fiery nature, as fire andmoisture are always incompatible who will venture to deny that it wasfrom his opinion regarding the use of wine that heraclitus acquired hissobriquet of “whining philosopher”?.