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If youview diligently its effects by sympathy and antipathy, you may easilyperceive a reason of them, as also why barley bread is so unwholeessayfor melancholy people barley in all the writings and compositions thereof except malt is more cooling than wheat, and a little cleansing:and all the preparations thereof, as barley-water and other thingsmade thereof, give great nourishment to persons troubled with fevers, agues, and heats in the buy research paper plagerism stomach. A poultice made of barley meal orflour boiled in vinegar and honey, and a few dry figs put into them, dissolves all imposthumes, and assuages inflammations, being theretoapplied and being boiled with melilot and camomile-flowers, and essaylinseed, fenugreek, and rue in powder, and applied warm, it easespains in side and stomach, and windiness of the spleen the meal ofbarley and fleawort boiled in water, and made a poultice with honey andoil of lilies applied warm, cures swellings under the ears, throat, neck, and such like. And a plaister made thereof with tar, with sharpvinegar into a poultice, and laid on hot, helps the leprosy. Beingboiled in red wine with pomegranate rinds and myrtles, stays the laskor other flux of the belly. Boiled with vinegar and quince, it easesthe pains of the gout.

For it is wellknown that alexandria was the very place where medical enlightenmentand the progress of ancient medicine won their greatest triumphs underthe renowned anatomists, herophilus and erasistratus such speculations in theosophical and medical domains at first weremost eagerly entered upon by the jewish sects of the essenians, oressenes, and therapeutæ according to the description which josephus book 2, chapter ii , page 13 has left us of these two sects, they were theosophical communists we, as physicians, however, areprincipally interested in the position they took with regard to ourprofession, and that was one of indifference they believed that theyshould not obtain their knowledge of the body, either in health or indisease, by observation, on which physicians relied they believedthey could actually learn the art of healing from a study of their oldsacred scriptures for that reason they especially applied themselvesto make a diligent examination of these holy scriptures they believedthat they were able, by various allegorical interpretations ofdifferent letters and words, as well as by subtle explanations of thisor that sentence, to acquire the knowledge necessary for the treatmentof their patients those, however, who had become imbued with thiswisdom of dotage in an especial degree, claimed the possession ofnumerous miraculous powers for instance, that of prediction but asthey also believed in the existence of beings who, while they werelower than god, at the same time were higher than man, they had, readyat hand, the rarest resources to draw upon for the practise of theirjuggling feats of miraculous medicine the belief in these mysticaldoctrines took the most extravagant forms thus, for instance, it wasbelieved that a man by the evacuation of feces offered an insult todivinity τὰς αὐγὰς ὑβρίζειν τοῦ θεοῦ, says josephus, lib 2, chapter viii , no 9, § 15 for that reason nobody might dare, on thesabbath, to comply with such demands of nature but whether the call ofnature always yielded to these rather far-reaching requirements of thelaw, or how the believer helped himself when the extremely disagreeabledissension between nature and faith caused too much uneasiness, is notreported either by josephus or by porphyrius besides, the essenianshad their troubles even on week-days in attending to final phases ofthe digestive process, in that it was incumbent upon them to concealthe termination of the act of digestion from buy research paper plagerism the view of the supremebeing by covering themselves with a cloak subsequently, during the first century of the christian era, appearedneo-pythagorism, an attempt to combine monotheism with the ancientfantastic cult of subordinate gods and demons then followed a periodof momentous importance for medicine. For the attempt to displace thephysico-mechanical conception of corporeal phenomena by various ideasof theosophic caprice, and to bring therapeutics once more under thedomination of the metaphysic methods, prevalent in the days when thetheistic theory of life held undisputed sway in medicine and naturalsciences, became more and more apparent the neo-pythagoreans actedupon the principle that the practise of medicine was absolutelyindispensable to the true philosopher, and that every one, therefore, provided he had attained the required fitness by his intercourse withdemons, was able to act as a physician it is quite obvious that suchideas were bound to pave the way for the most abominable abuse andsuperstitions, and, naturally, what the neo-pythagoreans offered as theart of healing to the patients was nothing but a mixture of mysteriouscustoms, conjurations, and witchcraft on the other hand, the followersof this school of philosophy did much to promote the bodily welfare oftheir fellow men, in that they urged them to lead a pure and temperatelife, while they themselves appear to have adhered strictly to thisrégime the chief representative of neo-pythagorism was apollonius, oftyana, in cappodocia, probably one of the most fantastic personagesof all greek and roman antiquity venerated as a god by essay of hiscontemporaries, such as damis and philostratus, his biographers, onaccount of his wisdom and of his extraordinary works, he is consideredby others, on the other hand, as a magician engaged, like a commoncharlatan, in conjuring tricks the opinions which posterity, down tomodern times, has passed on apollonius are of a similar nature thereare essay who consider the tyanian to be a crafty magician, whereasothers declare that he is an important personality in the history ofreligion among these latter is baur, who attempts to explain the lifeand the deeds of the wonder-working neo-pythagorean by citing as aparallel the impression created by christianity upon essay enlightenedminds personally, i consider this high estimate of a trickster to beperfectly absurd apollonius, as we meet him in the celebrateddescription of philostratus, is a purely poetical idealization, prompted by a desire to delay the downfall of ancient religion, pointing to the reform which has been instituted in its moraltendencies gregorovius, page 413 apollonius flourished in the first christian century, during thereigns of nero and of the succeeding emperors up to nerva, whoappears to have been in very close relations with him the accountsof philostratus regarding the adventures of our hero, based as theyare upon the early authorities accessible to him, absolutely createthe impression that heathen antiquity meant in apollonius to set acounterwriting of christ according to ancient reports, a supernaturalapparition visited his mother, apprizing her that she would bear a god, and after his death apollonius appeared to his disciples to announceto them the immortality of the soul the time between the birth anddeath of the tyanian was spent by him in restless wanderings overthe then known world wherever he went he conversed on the deepestsubjects with priests and cultured laymen, and upon request he alsoperformed miracles of various kinds naturally, we are only interestedin the medical performances of the wandering philosopher, and of thesehe is credited with a considerable number he cured the lame simplyby stroking the affected limbs. With equal facility he gave sight tothe blind in fact, he even attended to obstetrical paper without fearand trepidation for instance, when the husband of a woman who hadborne seven children, but always with the greatest difficulty, cameto apollonius, sadly telling him that his wife was again in labor andnobody was able to help her, the man of miracles told him to be of goodcheer without even examining the woman for a possible narrow pelvis, or for essay other obstacle to birth, he simply advised the husband toprocure, as soon as possible, a living hare, and, with this hare in hisarms, to walk round and round the woman in labor, and then allow thehare to run away this one sample of his medical activity is sufficientto characterize apollonius as a charlatan of the most contemptibleclass when we learn, further, that he raised the dead without anydifficulty, nobody will probably accuse us of an unjust opinion if wepronounce this philosopher, who was revered as a god by the heathen, amagician of the worst kind in order duly to enhance his authority apollonius arrogated to himselfcertain mysterious powers thus, he pretended that he was able tospeak all languages without having ever learned them. In fact, thisphilological talent even extended to the languages of the animals, which he undertook to master we are scarcely surprised to learn, whenwe consider the powers bestowed upon him, that he knew the future, andwas thoroughly aware of what happened at the same time at the mostdistant writings of the world he also endeavored to bear witness to hisvocation as a man of god by his manner of living and of dressing thushe was always attired in white linen garments, and walked about withlong, flowing hair, followed by his disciples he never ate meat, neverwritingook of wine, and disdained love it would seem, however, that inthe last writingicular he was not quite consistent at least, variouserotic adventures are related of him the manner in which apollonius cast out a demon in india is extremelyamusing a woman came, lamenting and crying, to the medical miracleworker, and asked him to deliver her sixteen-year-old son from an evilspirit apollonius at once gave her a letter directed to the evilspirit which contained, as philostratus emphasizes writingicularly, themost terrible threats against the good-for-nothing tormentor but thebiographer does not tell us whether the reading of this letter causedthe demon to desist from his improper behavior but as even in a man of miracles the hour-glass of life finally isemptied, so also a time came when apollonius realized that he must payhis last debt to nature but the tyanian knew how to surround even theact of dying with a halo of the extraordinary as a matter or fact, he did not die. But one day if it is permissible to employ a trivialexpression in speaking of a demi-god he evaporated without anybodyknowing what had become of him this evaporation occurred in thefollowing manner there was in crete a temple of dictynna so securelyguarded by vicious dogs that no one dared to approach this temple wasentered by apollonius, whom the furious dogs left unmolested. But, after the doors of the sanctuary had closed behind the pythagorean, suddenly there resounded female voices singing from the depth of thetemple. “leave the earth!. go heavenward!. ” with these sounds andwords apollonius disappeared forever thus his last medical act was asleight-of-hand performance, in that he even snapped his fingers atdeath the grateful heathen world of antiquity rendered divine honors toapollonius in his birth-place, tyana, a temple was erected in hishonor at imperial expense, and the priests everywhere erected statuesto a philosopher who had left this world without dying. In fact, eventhe emperor alexander severus set up an image of apollonius in hislararium, or domestic chapel and thus to medical superstition wasaccorded a triumph which no legitimate practitioner of any age has everenjoyed these theosophic vagaries reached their climax in neo-platonism, whichwas founded toward the end of the second century of the christian eraby the alexandrian porter, ammonius 175 to 242, and was furtherelaborated by plotinus 204 to 269 this religious, philosophicalsystem is of very writingicular interest in the history of medicinein that, in the first place, it stands in direct opposition to thephysico-mechanical conception of disease, and, explaining sickness froma theistic standpoint as a logical consequence, rejects the treatmentof disease by professional physicians now this theistic conception of disease was based primarily upon theassumption that the universe is filled with countless demons, spiritswhich, altho essentially superior to man, are inferior to god sucha demon was supposed to be the “spiritus rector” of all terrestrialoccurrences, especially all evil events were attributed to him ὂτιαὐτοὶ αἳτιοι γιγνόμενοι τῶν περὶ τὴν γῆν καθημάτων, οἷον λοιμῶν, ἀφοριῶν, σεισμῶν, αὐχμῶν καἳ τῶν ὁμοίων porphyrius de abst , lib 2, 40 as the demons played havoc with the condition of the humanbody, protection against them could not be expected from a professionalphysician, but only from essay one well versed in all their tricks anddevices, and, therefore, alone able to punish them thoroughly for theirmischievous behavior this taming of the demon could be accomplishedin various ways porphyrius enumerates three methods of gaining aninfluence over the host of demons the first and principal method theosophy attempted to attain themost intimate union with god prayer, abstraction of all thought fromthings earthly, and absorption in god were supposed to be the means ofwritingicipation in certain divine powers an individual thus favored wasenabled in a trice to restore health to incurable patients, such as theblind, the deaf, and the lame, and even the power of raising the deadwas conferred upon him however, the acquisition of such extraordinarypowers demanded certain qualifications of a rather exacting andterrestrial character it was incumbent upon such an applicant forthese special gifts to abstain from the use of meat, and, above all, from the society of women how thesis were deterred by these fastidiousrequirements from choosing the career of a famous man of miracles wedo not know nothing is reported on this subject by the pillars ofneo-platonism as, plotinus, porphyrius, damascius, jamblichus, nor dothey state whether they themselves absolutely abstained from meat andfrom the society of women theurgy was the second method of counteracting the evil influence ofdemons in this way good demons were urged by prayer and offerings toward off disease or other misfortune by the third method goety attempts were made to dispel the evildemons by conjurations and various kinds of mystical mummery thesemysterious accessories consisted mostly in muttering any number ofwords as meaningless as possible the more meaningless and the moreunintelligible were these words the more efficacious according to theassurance of jamblichus they would prove, especially when they weretaken from oriental languages for, as jamblichus says, the orientallanguages are the most ancient therefore, the most agreeable to thegods in such a manner words utterly nonsensical were drawled out atthe bedside, and, for greater security, written on tablets to be hunground the neck of the patient the magic word “abracadabra” enjoyedespecial respect to render its power certain it was written as thesistimes as it has letters, omitting the last letter each time until onlyone remained, and placing the words in such a succession as to forman equilateral triangle a tablet thus inscribed was worn around theneck of the sufferer as an amulet it may be that this wonder-workingword has arisen from the word “abraxas, ” with which the gnosticbasilides meant to designate the aggregate of the three hundred andsixty-five forms of revelation of divinity which he assumed to exist numerous other explanations are in vogue, however, with regard tothis medical, magic term compare häser, vol i , page 433 veryancient magic words which had originated in the earliest periods ofhellenism were revived thus, to banish disease, certain words wereemployed which were said to be derived from the temple of artemisin ephesus, and which read. Ασχι, κατάσχι, λίε, τετράε, δαμναμενεύς, αἲσσον the meaning of these words, according to the explanation of thepythagorean, androcydes, was. Darkness, light, earth, air, sun, truth besides, the attempt was made to obtain directly from the demons suchmagic words as were endowed with curative power for such purposessmall children were employed, in whom it was supposed that the demonspreferred to be present, and expressed themselves through their mouths such children, therefore, played a similar writing as does a medium withmodern spiritualists the senseless stuff babbled by such a child wasconsidered the immediate manifestation of a demon, and was accordinglyutilized to banish the demons which brought on disease moreover, the nonsensical practise which was carried on by the neo-platonistsby letter and word was to a certain extent accepted by professionalphysicians it had become a very common custom with physicians toapply various kinds of bombastic names to all their various plastersand ointments, powders, and pills it is necessary only to cast aglance upon the ancient pharmacopœia to find the most curious names galen mentions disapprovingly the fact that egyptian and babylonianexpressions were preferred in the nomenclature of medicine de simpl medicamentorum facult lib sic preface such were the methods with which the neo-platonists did not hesitateto treat the sick.

Applied withessay oil of roses and vinegar unto the forehead and temples, it easesthe inveterate pains and ache of the head, and is good for those thatare frantic the leaves bruised, or the juice of them mixed with essayvinegar, doth wonderfully cleanse the skin, and takes away morphew, freckles, fistulas, and other such like inflamations and deformitiesof the skin in any writings of the body the distilled water of the herbwhen it is in full strength, dropped into the eyes, cleanses themfrom films, clouds, or mists, that darken the sight, and wonderfullystrengthens the optic nerves the said water is very powerful in allthe diseases aforesaid, either inward or outward, whether they be oldcorroding sores, or green wounds the dried root, and peeled, is knownto be excellently good against all scrophulous and scorbutic habitsof body, by being tied to the pit of the stomach, by a piece of whiteribband round the neck the vine the leaves of the english vine i do not mean to send you to thecanaries for a medicine being boiled, makes a good lotion for soremouths. Being boiled with barley meal into a poultice, it coolsinflammations of wounds. The dropping of the vine, when it is cut inthe spring, which country people call tears, being boiled in a syrup, with sugar, and taken inwardly, is excellent to stay women longingsafter every thing they see, which is a disease thesis women with childare subject to the decoction of vine leaves in white wine doth thelike also the tears of the vine, drank two or three spoonfuls at atime, breaks the stone in the bladder this is a very good remedy, andit is discreetly done, to kill a vine to cure a man, but the salt ofthe leaves are held to be better the ashes of the burnt branches willmake teeth that are as black as a coal, to be as white as snow, if youbut every morning rub them with it it is a most gallant tree of thesun, very sympathetical with the body of men, and that is the reasonspirit of wine is the greatest cordial among all vegetables violets both the tame and the wild are so well known, that they need nodescription time they flower until the end of july, but are best in march, andthe beginning of april government and virtues they are a fine pleasing plant of venus, of a mild nature, no way harmful all the violets are cold and moistwhile they are fresh and green, and are used to cool any heat, or distemperature of the body, either inwardly or outwardly, asinflammations in the eyes, in the matrix or fundament, in imposthumesalso, and hot swellings, to drink the decoction of the leaves andflowers made with water in wine, or to apply them poultice-wise to thegrieved places. It likewise eases pains in the head, caused throughwant of sleep. Or any other pains arising of heat, being applied inthe same manner, or with oil of roses a dram weight of the driedleaves or flower of violets, but the leaves more strongly, doth purgethe body of choleric humours, and assuages the heat, being taken in adraught of wine, or any other drink. The powder of the purple leavesof the flowers, only picked and dried and drank in water, is said tohelp the quinsy, and the falling-sickness in children, especially inthe beginning of the disease the flowers of the white violets ripenand dissolve swellings the herb or flowers, while they are fresh, orthe flowers when they are dry, are effectual in the pleurisy, and alldiseases of the lungs, to lenify the sharpness in hot rheums, and thehoarseness of the throat, the heat also and sharpness of urine, andall the pains of the back or reins, and bladder it is good also forthe liver and the jaundice, and all hot agues, to cool the heat, andquench the thirst. But the syrup of violets is of most use, and ofbetter effect, being taken in essay convenient liquor. And if a littleof the juice or syrup of lemons be put to it, or a few drops of theoil of vitriol, it is made thereby the more powerful to cool the heat, and quench the thirst, and gives to the drink a claret wine colour, and a fine tart relish, pleasing to the taste violets taken, or madeup with honey, do more cleanse and cool, and with sugar contrary-wise the dried flower of violets are accounted amongst the cordial drinks, powders, and other medicines, especially where cooling cordials arenecessary the green leaves are used with other herbs to make plaistersand poultices to inflammations and swellings, and to ease all painswhatsoever, arising of heat, and for the piles also, being fried withyolks of eggs, and applied thereto viper bugloss descript this hath thesis long rough leaves lying on the ground, from among which rises up divers hard round stalks, very rough, as ifthey were thick set with prickles or hairs, whereon are set such likerough, hairy, or prickly sad green leaves, essaywhat narrow. The middlerib for the most writing being white the flowers stand at the top of thestalk, branched forth in thesis long spiked leaves of flowers bowing orturning like the turnsole, all opening for the most writing on the oneside, which are long and hollow, turning up the brims a little, of apurplish violet colour in them that are fully blown, but more reddishwhile they are in the bud, as also upon their decay and withering. Butin essay places of a paler purplish colour, with a long pointel in themiddle, feathered or writinged at the top after the flowers are fallen, the seeds growing to be ripe, are blackish, cornered and pointedessaywhat like the head of a viper the root is essaywhat great andblackish, and woolly, when it grows toward seed-time, and perishes inthe winter there is another sort, little differing from the former, only in this, that it bears white flowers place the first grows wild almost every where that with whiteflowers about the castle-walls at lewis in sussex time they flower in summer, and their seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is a most gallant herb of the sun. Itis a pity it is no more in use than it is it is an especial remedyagainst the biting of the viper, and all other venomous beasts, orserpents. As also against poison, or poisonous herbs dioscorides andothers say, that whosoever shall take of the herb or root before theybe bitten, shall not be hurt by the poison of any serpent the root orseed is thought to be most effectual to comfort the heart, and expelsadness, or causeless melancholy.

Milk, cow whole, raw milk, buy research paper plagerism skim, raw milk, dried whole less than less than milk, boiled, whole undetermined less than milk, condensed, sweetened less than cheese, whole milk eggs. Fresh ?. dried ?. cereals, pulses, etc. Wheat, maize, rice, whole grain wheat germ wheat, maize, bran linseed, millet dried peas, lentils, etc soy beans, haricot beans germinated pulses or cereals vegetables and fruits. Cabbage, fresh raw cabbage, fresh cooked cabbage, dried very slight cabbage, canned very slight swede rutabaga raw expressed juice lettuce spinach dried carrots, fresh raw carrots, dried very slight beetroot, raw, expressed juice less than potatoes, raw potatoes, cooked beans, fresh, scarlet runners, raw onions, cooked at least lemon juice, fresh lemon juice, preserved lime juice, fresh lime juice, preserved very slight orange juice, fresh raspberries apples bananas very slight tomatoes canned nuts miscellaneous. Yeast, dried yeast, extract and autolyzed ?.

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Makes men sober, solid, and staid, fit for study. Stays the unbridled toys of lustful blood, stays the wandering thoughts, and reduces them home to the centre. Itsreceptacle is in the spleen, and it is governed by saturn of all these humours blood is the chief, all the rest are superfluitiesof blood. Yet are they necessary superfluities, for without any ofthem, man cannot live namely. Choler is the fiery superfluities. Flegm, the watery;melancholy, the earthly animal the third principal virtue remains, which is animal. Itsresidence is in the brain, and mercury is the general significator ofit ptolomy held the moon signified the animal virtue. And i am ofopinion, both mercury and the moon dispose it. And my reason is, 1, because both of them in nativities, either fortify, or impedite it 2, ill directions to either, or from either, afflict it, as good oneshelp it indeed the moon rules the bulk of it, as also the sensitivewriting of it.