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thisis, of course, intended to pertain only to those instances in whichthere is no evidence of splitting or division of the bullet, andrefers only to the effect of friction or attrition june 5th, 1878, in saratoga county, mrs jesse billings was accidentally killed by abullet her husband was arrested and tried for murder on the firsttrial he was acquitted a second trial, however, was held, buy online essay essay online and essayvery interesting expert testimony was brought out on matters pertainingto these questions the medical evidence is published in full by dr lewis balch, of albany, in the transactions of the medical societyof the state of new york for 1881 the rifle from which the bulletwas supposed to have been fired was found in a well, and was sworn tohave belonged to jesse billings in it was found a cartridge of thetype known as the commercial long no 44 this gun became an importantfactor in the case, and most of the evidence as to whether it was theweapon with which the murder had been committed was referred to themedical experts the defence in the first trial claimed that all thelead fired was found in mrs billings’ head on the second trial thesame claim was not made, but that it was a smaller bullet than a 44and its weight less than 220 grains. That in consequence this riflecould not have been that from which the shot was fired, for it onlycalled for a 44 ball, and that it would have thrown a bullet withsuch force that it must have gone entirely through the head theyfurther claimed that powder-marks and grains of powder were found inthe window-sash, showing that the weapon was fired near the window, andthat the hole in the glass was not large enough to admit a full-sized 44 ball the verdict was mainly won upon these statements a questionfor the medical experts to answer was, what would be the effect uponthe skull of a 44-calibre ball fired from a ballard rifle, the ballweighing 220 grains and the charge of powder being 28 grains?. also whatwould be the effect upon the ball?. experts from the ordnance corps andfrom the rifle factories were able to testify that the bullet foundin mrs billings’ head was originally a 44-calibre ball.

And it is not unlikely, becauseit so mightily resists putrefaction the root taken inwardly is buy online essay essay online mosteffectual to help any flux of the belly, stomach, spleen, or blood. Andthe juice wonderfully opens obstructions of the liver and lungs, andthereby helps the yellow jaundice the powder or decoction drank, orto sit thereon as a bath, is an assured remedy against abortion, if itproceed from the over flexibility or weakness of the inward retentivefaculty. As also a plaster made therewith, and vinegar applied tothe reins of the back, doth much help not only this, but also thosethat cannot hold their water, the powder being taken in the juice ofplantain, and is also commended against the worms in children itis very powerful in ruptures and burstings, as also for bruises andfalls, to be used as well outwardly as inwardly the root hereof madeup with pellitory of spain and allum, and put into a hollow tooth, notonly assuages the pain, but stays the flux of humours which causes it tormentil is no less effectual and powerful a remedy against outwardwounds, sores and hurts, than for inward, and is therefore a specialingredient to be used in wound drinks, lotions and injections, forfoul corrupt rotten sores and ulcers of the mouth, secrets, or otherwritings of the body the juice or powder of the root put in ointments, plaisters, and such things that are to be applied to wounds or sores, is very effectual, as the juice of the leaves and the root bruisedand applied to the throat or jaws, heals the king evil, and easesthe pain of the sciatica. The same used with a little vinegar, is aspecial remedy against the running sores of the head or other writings;scabs also, and the itch or any such eruptions in the skin, proceedingof salt and sharp humours the same is also effectual for the pilesor hæmorrhoids, if they be washed or bathed therewith, or with thedistilled water of the herb and roots it is found also helpful to dryup any sharp rheum that distills from the head into the eyes, causingredness, pain, waterings, itching, or the like, if a little preparedtutia, or white amber, be used with the distilled water thereof andhere is enough, only remember the sun challengeth this herb turnsole, or heliotropium descript the greater turnsole rises with one upright stalk, about afoot high, or more, dividing itself almost from the bottom, into diverssmall branches, of a hoary colour. At each joint of the stalk andbranches grow small broad leaves, essaywhat white and hairy at the topsof the stalks and branches stand small white flowers, consisting offour, and essaytimes five small leaves, set in order one above another, upon a small crooked spike, which turns inwards like a bowed finger, opening by degrees as the flowers blow open. After which in their placecome forth cornered seed, four for the most writing standing together. Theroot is small and thready, perishing every year, and the seed sheddingevery year, raises it again the next spring place it grows in gardens, and flowers and seeds with us, notwithstanding it is not natural to this land, but to italy, spain, and france, where it grows plentifully government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and a good onetoo dioscorides saith, that a good handful of this, which is calledthe great turnsole, boiled in water, and drank, purges both choler andphlegm. And boiled with cummin, helps the stone in the reins, kidneys, or bladder, provokes urine and women courses, and causes an easyand speedy delivery in child-birth the leaves bruised and applied toplaces pained with the gout, or that have been out of joint and newlyset, and full of pain, do give much ease. The seed and juice of theleaves also being rubbed with a little salt upon warts and wens, andother kernels in the face, eye-lids, or any other writing of the body, will, by often using, take them away meadow trefoil, or honeysuckles it is so well known, especially by the name of honeysuckles, white andred, that i need not describe them place they grow almost every where in this land government and virtues mercury hath dominion over the common sort dodoneus saith, the leaves and flowers are good to ease the gripingpains of the gout, the herb being boiled and used in a clyster ifthe herb be made into a poultice, and applied to inflammations, itwill ease them the juice dropped in the eyes, is a familiar medicine, with thesis country people, to take away the pin and web as they callit in the eyes. It also allays the heat and blood shooting of them country people do also in thesis places drink the juice thereof againstthe biting of an adder. And having boiled the herb in water, theyfirst wash the place with the decoction, and then lay essay of the herbalso to the hurt place the herb also boiled in swine grease, and somade into an ointment, is good to apply to the biting of any venomouscreature the herb also bruised and heated between tiles, and appliedhot to the share, causes them to make water who had it stopt before it is held likewise to be good for wounds, and to take away seed thedecoction of the herb and flowers, with the seed and root, taken foressay time, helps women that are troubled with the whites the seed andflowers boiled in water, and afterwards made into a poultice with essayoil, and applied, helps hard swellings and imposthumes heart trefoil besides the ordinary sort of trefoil, here are two more remarkable, andone of which may be properly called heart trefoil, not only because theleaf is triangular, like the heart of a man, but also because each leafcontains the perfection of a heart, and that in its proper colour, viz a flesh colour place it grows between longford and bow, and beyond southwark, bythe highway and writings adjacent government and virtues it is under the dominion of the sun, and ifit were used, it would be found as great a strengthener of the heart, and cherisher of the vital spirits as grows, relieving the body againstfainting and swoonings, fortifying it against poison and pestilence, defending the heart against the noiessay vapours of the spleen pearl trefoil it differs not from the common sort, save only in this writingicular, ithath a white spot in the leaf like a pearl it is writingicularly underthe dominion of the moon, and its icon shews that it is of a singularvirtue against the pearl, or pin and web in the eyes tustan, or park leaves descript it hath brownish shining round stalks, crested the lengththereof, rising two by two, and essaytimes three feet high, branchingforth even from the bottom, having divers joints, and at each of themtwo fair large leaves standing, of a dark blueish green colour on theupper side, and of a yellowish green underneath, turning reddish towardautumn at the top of the stalks stand large yellow flowers, and headswith seed, which being greenish at the first and afterwards reddish, turn to be of a blackish purple colour when they are ripe, with smallbrownish seed within them, and they yield a reddish juice or liquor, essaywhat resinous, and of a harsh and stypick taste, as the leaves alsoand the flowers be, although much less, but do not yield such a clearclaret wine colour, as essay say it doth, the root is brownish, essaywhatgreat, hard and woody, spreading well in the ground place it grows in thesis woods, groves, and woody grounds, as parksand forests, and by hedge-sides in thesis places in this land, as inhampstead wood, by ratley in essex, in the wilds of kent, and in thesisother places needless to recite time it flowers later than st john or st peter-wort government and virtues it is an herb of saturn, and a most nobleanti-venerean tustan purges choleric humours, as st peter-wort, is said to do, for therein it works the same effects, both to helpthe sciatica and gout, and to heal burning by fire. It stays all thebleedings of wounds, if either the green herb be bruised, or the powderof the dry be applied thereto it hath been accounted, and certainly itis, a sovereign herb to heal either wound or sore, either outwardly orinwardly, and therefore always used in drinks, lotions, balms, oils, ointments, or any other sorts of green wounds, ulcers, or old sores, inall which the continual experience of former ages hath confirmed theuse thereof to be admirably good, though it be not so much in use now, as when physicians and surgeons were so wise as to use herbs more thannow they do garden valerian descript this hath a thick short greyish root, lying for the mostwriting above ground, shooting forth on all other sides such like smallpieces of roots, which have all of them thesis long green strings andfibres under them in the ground, whereby it draws nourishment fromthe head of these roots spring up thesis green leaves, which at firstare essaywhat broad and long, without any divisions at all in them, ordenting on the edges. But those that rise up after are more and moredivided on each side, essay to the middle rib, being winged, as made ofthesis leaves together on a stalk, and those upon a stalk, in like mannermore divided, but smaller towards the top than below. The stalk risesto be a yard high or more, essaytimes branched at the top, with thesissmall whitish flowers, essaytimes dashed over at the edges with a palepurplish colour, of a little scent, which passing away, there followssmall brownish white seed, that is easily carried away with the wind the root smells more strong than either leaf or flower, and is of moreuse in medicines place it is generally kept with us in gardens time it flowers in june and july, and continues flowering until thefrost pull it down government and virtues this is under the influence of mercury dioscorides saith, that the garden valerian hath a warming faculty, and that being dried and given to drink it provokes urine, and helpsthe stranguary the decoction thereof taken, doth the like also, andtakes away pains of the sides, provokes women courses, and is usedin antidotes pliny saith, that the powder of the root given in drink, or the decoction thereof taken, helps all stoppings and stranglingsin any writing of the body, whether they proceed of pains in the chestor sides, and takes them away the root of valerian boiled withliquorice, raisins, and anniseed, is singularly good for those that areshort-winded, and for those that are troubled with the cough, and helpsto open the passages, and to expectorate phlegm easily it is given tothose that are bitten or stung by any venomous creature, being boiledin wine it is of a special virtue against the plague, the decoctionthereof being drank, and the root being used to smell to it helpsto expel the wind in the belly the green herb with the root takenfresh, being bruised and applied to the head, takes away the pains andprickings there, stays rheum and thin distillation, and being boiledin white wine, and a drop thereof put into the eyes, takes away thedimness of the sight, or any pin or web therein it is of excellentproperty to heal any inward sores or wounds, and also for outward hurtsor wounds, and drawing away splinters or thorns out of the flesh vervain descript the common vervain hath essaywhat long broad leaves nextthe ground deeply gashed about the edges, and essay only deeply dented, or cut all alike, of a blackish green colour on the upper side, essaywhat grey underneath the stalk is square, branched into severalwritings, rising about two feet high, especially if you reckon the longspike of flowers at the tops of them, which are set on all sides oneabove another, and essaytimes two or three together, being small andgaping, of a blue colour and white intermixed, after which come smallround seed, in small and essaywhat long heads the root is small andlong place it grows generally throughout this land in divers places ofthe hedges and way-sides, and other waste grounds time it flowers in july, and the seed is ripe soon after government and virtues this is an herb of venus, and excellentfor the womb to strengthen and remedy all the cold griefs of it, asplantain doth the hot vervain is hot and dry, opening obstructions, cleansing and healing it helps the yellow jaundice, the dropsy and thegout.

Bloody serum inpericardium brain congested. Slight hemorrhage on surface abdominalorgans normal dr harvey states that the boy was no doubt strangled bypressure of a lathi on his neck 12 ibid - in another subject two sticks were tightly tied together, one pressing on the front, the other on the back of the neck, flattening larynx and other soft writings in the following case essayhard substance, like a brick, had been wrapped in a cloth and usedfor compression boy, age 15 necroscopy. Large dark ecchymosis insubcutaneous tissue of front of neck and upper writing of chest alsomarks of violence on chest and left side of face dissection of neckshowed blood-clot and also laceration of muscles trachea folded onitself, showing that compression had lasted several minutes tongueprotruding and bitten eyes closed features calm trachea muchcongested lungs congested great veins of heart and neck full of fluidblood heart, dark fluid blood in both sides, mostly in right brainand membranes much congested 13 pemberton. Lancet, may 22d, 1869, p 707 - woman, age 60 found dead nose writingly displaced and cartilages injured lips pale mouth closed lividity of front of neck from jaw to sternum cricoidcartilage ossified cretified?. and broken on left side. Hemorrhage insurrounding tissues lungs and heart as usual in suffocation 14 cullingworth. Med chron , manchester, 1884-85, i , p 577 - woman, married, found dead bruise and ecchymosis beneath theear. Effusion of blood in underlying tissue other bruises on face, etc several bruises in mouth, on lips and tongue blood dark andfluid brain and membranes much congested no marks of injury onthroat lungs congested. Surfaces emphysematous heart contained darkfluid blood urine and fæces had been discharged 15 the gouffé case - murdered by eyraud and bompard in 1889 archivanthropologie criminelle, paris, 1890, v , pp 642-716. Vi , 1891, pp 17 and 179 reports by bernard, lacassagne, and others gouffé wasdecoyed into a room and strangled.

This contained tabletshaving the taste of licorice extract and an odor of hydrogen sulphid the tablets were found to liberate about 6 c c hydrogen sulphid toeach tablet among the claims made for the preparation are. “dissolved by the saliva, sulfuryl monal reaches the stomach where, under the influence of the gastric juice, it generates nascent sulphuretted hydrogen professor albert robin remarkable researches have proven that it is in the nascent state that drugs produce the greatest effect with the smallest dose being thus eliminated by the entire respiratory tract. The lungs, bronchi and the throat, the sulphurretted hydrogen passes from the interior to the exterior, that is to say, goes right through these organs which are, as a consequence, thoroughly cleansed, antisepticized and freed of the pathogenic micro-organisms then, again, writing of the sulphuretted hydrogen, liberated in the stomach, is eliminated by the mouth and acts as an antiseptic and disinfectant of the mucous membranes of the throat and mouth hence sulfuryl monal is a perfect protective agent against contagious diseases numerous clinical tests have demonstrated its real efficacy in diseases of the throat and of the respiratory tract. Laryngitis, pharyngitis, hoarseness, granulations, tonsillitis, colds, bronchitis, pulmonary catarrh, asthma, emphysema, grippe, whooping cough, simple and infectious pneumonia, and in the first stage of pulmonary tuberculosis ”the sulphids are practically ignored in modern textbooks there is arather extensive clinical literature on the subject, writingicularly inconnection with sulphur waters. This, however, offers no good evidencefor the therapeutic value of sulphids probably the tradition in theirfavor is largely due to the old popular idea that a disagreeable tasteor odor is a mark of a good remedy 9595 liquid sulphur-- sulphume, j a m a , dec 2, 1911, p 1853 when hydrogen sulphid is introduced into the body, the small amountsthat appear in the expired air are insufficient for quantitativedemonstration and it is highly improbable that the amount thus excretedhas any germicidal action, or that enough is excreted in the lungs tocause irritation and a reaction the claim that sulfuryl monal is “aperfect protective agent against contagious diseases” is unwarranted;the recommendation for its use in “simple and infectious pneumonia, andin the first stage of pulmonary tuberculosis” is dangerous and vicious the council declared sulfuryl monal ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies and authorized publication of this report editorial note -- with one exception, this product does not appear tobe advertised in medical journals we find, however, in the galleryof nostrums that grace the advertising pages of the internationaljournal of surgery, that sulfuryl monal has its place according to anadvertisement that has been running essay months in this publication, “affections of the throat and respiratory organs respond promptly” tosulfuryl monal whose “effects are rapid and certain” even in “incipienttuberculosis ” this preposterous pronouncement is no worse than thesisothers appearing in the same journal, but it is bad enough to indicatehow uncritical must be the physicians who support-- by subscriptionor contribution-- publications that are still debasing scientificmedicine -- from the journal a m a , sept 16, 1916 mark white goiter serum and mark white iodinized oil report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe “mark white goiter serum laboratories” of chicago asked the councilto consider its products “mark white goiter serum” and “mark whiteiodinized oil ” the “serum” was claimed to be an “antibody blood serumfrom a goat with thyroidosis” while the “iodinized oil” was said tocontain “about 4 grains of iodin” to “each c c ” the therapeuticindications for the treatment were given as. “simple or exophthalmic goiter, hyperthyroidism-dosis, thyrosis, thyroidosis, thyrotoxicosis, dementia ”an ampule 2 c c of the “serum” is to be injected into the thyroidto be followed one week later by an ampule 2 c c of the “iodinizedoil ” repetition of this “treatment” once or twice a month is advised the council asked for more specific information as to the compositionof the remedies, writingicularly as to the preparation and nature of theserum. It also asked for evidence of the therapeutic value of thepreparations in reply, mark white wrote. “all that i can say regarding the serum is that it is made from the blood of goats with thyroid affection, and it has been found that the serum from these goats has antibodies which control, or has curative effect upon thyroid affections when injected into thyroid glands of either humans or animals as to the iodinised oil, it is only an adjunct or side treatment which is not always used or indicated, and will only be furnished to the physician for use in case in his judgment his patient needs it we shall also advise the use of quinin when indicated ”the council was referred for further information to a paper by rachelwatkins, m d , published in the illinois medical journal it is tobe noted, incidentally, that the letterheads used by white in hiscorrespondence bore in one corner the notation “rachel watkins, m d , practice limited to goiter and other disorders of the thyroid glands, ”and in the other, “mark white, goiter research ”the information regarding the composition of this goiter treatment, asfurnished in dr watkins’ paper, was to this effect. “the medical treatment consists of the administration of a blood serum derived from a thyrodized goat formula. Iodine 0 16 grams according to a correction by mark white, this should read 0 26 gm , oil 0 25 c c , serum q s 1 c c ”this description of the treatment differs from that furnished to thecouncil by mark white in that here the iodin and oil appear to becombined with the serum dr watkins’ “formula” implies that the iodinis a routine medication, thus contradicting white statement, which, in turn, is at variance with the statements made in submitting thetreatment illustration.

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Why, i do notknow i am entirely satisfied that it has no beneficial effect on syphiliticsand have discontinued its use entirely in my practice i am glad to have read cole excellent article, as it shows me that iwas correct in my decision not to use it again, as it was worthless william g ward, m d , lynn, mass to the editor:-- dr william g ward letter the journal, feb 3, 1917, p 390, and the recent admirable article by dr harold n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 recall to mind dr j b murphyclinical note on the use of sodium cacodylate in the treatment ofsyphilis the journal, sept 24, 1910, p 1113, and the experimentalwork of cap h j nichols, u s army the journal, feb 18, 1911, p 492 the results of nichols’ work conclusively proved, at leastfrom a laboratory standpoint, that this drug was of very little valueas a spirocheticide in combating syphilis prior to the publication ofdr murphy letter i had employed sodium cacodylate extensively as aremedy in psoriasis, and i still continue to use it in selected paperof the disease adopting dr murphy suggestion, i gave the agent an extensive trialin syphilis in all stages of the disease the results were extremelydisappointing, from both clinical and serologic points of view morerecently, during the scarcity of salvarsan, i gave the drug a buy online essay essay online secondtrial, employing it in large dosage in the hope that the previousfailure had been due to the employment of insufficient amounts theresults were not tabulated, but, judging roughly from my experience ina score of paper, its therapeutic value as an antisyphilitic was nil afew of the patients underwent a temporary improvement, probably owingto the tonic effect of the drug, but in every instance the serologicfindings were unaffected r l sutton, m d , kansas city, mo -- correspondence in the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917 tablets. Dependability of dosagethe tablet form of administering medicines is popular among thesisphysicians because of its convenient availability and dosage thereis no doubt about the convenience of tablets, but the accuracy of thedosage content is not always to be depended on one reason for thisis that the demand for palatable and convenient “medicaments has ledmanufacturers to attempt to produce in tablet form mixtures which, fromthe nature of the case, are not suited to that method of compounding ”in a series of painstaking experiments307 on bismuth, opium andphenol tablets, conducted a number of years ago in the a m a chemical laboratory, it was shown that no tablets on the market thencontained the amount of phenol the label indicated, the variationbeing from 12 3 to 112 5 per cent similarly, the laboratory foundthat in the case of several different brands of aromatic digestivetablets, 308 the amount of hydrochloric acid present in these absurdcombinations was true to label in only one half of the specimens, notwithstanding the fact that the amounts claimed to be present wereridiculously small. In two specimens, there was no hydrochloricacid whatever present, while a third contained only a trace theseexamples illustrated clearly the very evident unwisdom of attemptingthe pharmaceutically impossible merely for the sake of convenience orpharmaceutical “elegance ”307 puckner, w a , and clark, a h. Examination of tablets ofbismuth, opium and phenol, the journal a m a , july 25, 1908, p 330 puckner, w a , and hilpert, w s. Tablets of bismuth, opiumand phenol, dec 17, 1910, p 2169, may 6, 1911, p 1344 unreliablepharmaceutical products, editorial, may 6, 1911, p 1335 308 puckner, w a , and warren, l e. Aromatic digestive tablets, the journal a m a , aug 20, 1910, p 710 another reason for doubting the accuracy of dosage, irrespective ofthe characteristics of the drugs composing the tablets, has been themanifest lack of care in their manufacture in 1914, kebler309reported the results of a far-reaching investigation of tabletcompounding in which he pointed out that tablets on the market werenot as uniform or accurate as was generally believed, the variationsbeing “unexpectedly large in numbers and amount ” during the past year, the connecticut agricultural experiment station310 undertook theexamination of tablets-- proprietary and nonproprietary-- taken from thestock of dispensing physicians the variations found in weights ofthe tablets were strikingly similar to those reported by kebler 309 kebler, l f. The tablet industry, jour am pharm assn , 1914, 3, 820, 937, 1062 310 bull 200, connecticut agricultural station, food and drugproducts, 1917, p 161 variation in weights of tablets kebler connecticut variation per cent per cent less than 10 per cent 43 44 more than 10 per cent 57 56 more than 12 per cent 44 35 more than 15 per cent 28 26 more than 20 per cent 9 10the determinations of the composition of the tablets when comparedwith that claimed for them showed wide variation-- from 54 per cent above to 70 5 per cent below. In almost two thirds of the tabletsexamined, the variation amounted to more than 10 per cent. In threefifths of the tablets, the variation was more than 15 per cent. In onefourth, more than 20 per cent , and in one twentieth, more than 50 percent. Only in one eighth of the tablets was the variation less than 5per cent the connecticut investigators substantiate once again the workpreviously reported, namely, that there are a number of firms who areeither incompetent or careless for tablets of simple composition, a variation from the declaration of 10 per cent should be amplysufficient to compensate for the errors of careful manufacture it maybe added that the best tablets originate generally from firms havingcompetent chemical control -- from the journal a m a , july 27, 1918 therapeutic evidence. Its crucial testo torald sollmann, m d , clevelando read before the section on pharmacology and therapeutics at thesixty-eighth annual session of the american medical association, newyork, june, 1917 o this article clearly states the difficulties experienced by thecouncil in estimating the merits of a proprietary medicinal productand clearly defines the method which has been found to be practical injudging of the therapeutic value of such preparations the council hasapproved this discussion of the subject and has directed that the paperbe published in the annual council reports w a puckner, secretary according to the good old truism, the last and crucial proof of thepudding is in the eating thereof.