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Hot because thenature of heat is to draw off thin writings that so they may penetrate tothe humours that are to to be drawn out their use is various, viz use 1 that the bowels may be disburdened of corrupt humours 2 outwardly used, by them the offending humour i should have said thepeccant buy literature review paper humour, had i written only to scholars, is called from theinternal writings of the body to the superfices 3 by them the crisis of a disease is much helped forward 4 they are exceedingly profitable to draw forth poison out of the body 5 writings of the body over cooled are cured by these medicines, viz by applying them outwardly to the place, not only because they heat, but also because they draw the spirits by which life and heat arecherished, to the writing of the body which is destitute of them. Youcannot but know that thesis times writings of the body fall away in flesh, and their strength decays, as in essay persons arms or legs, or thelike, the usual reason is, because the vital spirit decays in thosewritings, to which use such plaisters or ointments as are attractive which is the physical term for drawing medicines for they do not onlycherish the writings by their own proper heat, but draw the vital andnatural spirits thither, whereby they are both quickened and nourished they are known almost by the same tokens that attenuating medicinesare, seeing heat. And thinness of writings is in them both, they differonly in respect of quantity, thinness of writings being most proper toattenuating medicines, but attractive medicines are hotter chapter v of discussive medicines the nature of discussing or sweating medicines is almost the samewith attractive, for there are no discussive medicines but areattractive, nor scarce any attractive medicine but is in essay measureor other discussing the difference then is only this. That discussivemedicines are hotter than attractive, and therefore nothing else needbe written of their nature use their use may be known even from their very name.

All plates and tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours in an buy literature review paper atmosphere of nitrogen gas duplicate experiments were made with cultures of typhoid bacillus as above in bouillon and agar plates containing the same amount of chlorlyptus and incubated at 37 c in ordinary atmosphere as control result. Nitrogen gas did not show any appreciable increase of the germicidal action of typhoid bacillus when grown in medium containing chlorlyptus growth was about the same in cultures supplied with nitrogen gas as in those growing in ordinary atmosphere experiment 7 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on pyogenic bacteria suspended in an oily medium -- experiment with streptococcus. Cultures of streptococcus in blood agar three days old were suspended in olive oil sterile, and chlorlyptus was added in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent and inoculated in trypsinized bouillon at different intervals, namely. At once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes, after thirty minutes, and after one hour tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours result. All tubes remained sterile the germicidal action of chlorlyptus on streptococcus suspended in oil was almost at once and with certainty after five minutes when added in the proportion of 1, 5 and 10 per cent experiment 8 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus, suspended in sterile olive oil -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 5, except that a culture of staphylococcus was used result. All tubes remained sterile the germicidal action of chlorlyptus was almost at once in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent remarks. By repeating this experiment the result showed essay variations the discrepancy was probably due to an imperfect suspension of the micro-organism in the oil experiment 9 -- germicidal action of carbolic acid on streptococcus suspended in olive oil -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 5, except that carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result. The germicidal action of carbolic acid of streptococcus suspended in olive oil was almost at once in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 experiment 10 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 6 except that the carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result.

Pupils widely dilated. Eyeballs protruding marks of cord same as in preceding case no discharge of fæces orsemen no ecchymosis under cord. Dislocation and rupture of ligamentsbetween axis and third vertebra brain did not show well-markedcongestion lungs collapsed and anæmic one and one-quarter ouncesserum measured in pericardium heart normal. Dark blood in bothventricles. Liver normal 78 third man, age 20. Pupils slightly dilated. Eyeballs and tonguenot protruded marks of cord as in preceding no discharge of fæces orsemen slight ecchymosis under cord. Mark in front of neck dislocationof occipital bone from atlas brain and membranes much congested lungscollapsed and anæmic half ounce serum in pericardium heart normal;dark fluid blood in both ventricles. Liver normal 79 cayley.

Which being well understood, shew thee the key buy literature review paper of galen andhippocrates their method of physic. He that useth their method, andis not heedful of these rules, may soon cure one disease, and causeanother more desperate that thou mayest understand what i intend, it is to discover in ageneral way of the manifest virtues of medicines i say of the manifest virtues, and qualities, viz such as areobvious to the senses, especially to the taste and smell. For it hathbeen the practice of most physicians, in these latter ages as well asours, to say, when they cannot give, nor are minded to study a reason, why an herb, plant, &c hath such an operation, or produces such aneffect in the body of man. It doth it by an hidden quality, for theynot minding the whole creation, as one united body, not knowing whatbelongs to astral influence, not regarding that excellent harmonythe only wise god hath made in a composition of contraries in theknowledge of which consists the whole ground and foundation of physicare totally led astray by tradition it is the manifest qualities of medicines that here i am to speak to, and you may be pleased to behold it in this order section 1 of the temperature of medicines section 2 of the appropriation of medicines section 3 of the properties of medicines section i of the temperature of medicines herbs, plants, and other medicines manifestly operate, either by heat, coldness, dryness, or moisture, for the world being composed of sothesis qualities, they and only they can be found in the world, and themixtures of them one with another but that they may appear as clear as the sun when he is upon themeridian, i shall treat of them severally, and in this order 1 of medicines temperate 2 of medicines hot 3 of medicines cold 4 of medicines moist 5 of medicines dry of medicines temperate if the world be composed of extremes, then it acts by extremes, foras the man is, so is his work. Therefore it is impossible that anymedicine can be temperate, but may be reduced to heat, cold, dryness, or moisture, and must operate, i mean such as operate by manifestquality by one of these, because there is no other to operate by, andthat there should be such a temperate mixture, so exquisitely of thesequalities in any medicine, that one of them should not manifestly excelthe other, i doubt it is a system too rare to find thus then i conclude the matter to be, those medicines are calledtemperate not because they have excess of temperature at all in themwhich can neither be said, to heat nor cool so much as will amount tothe first degree of excess, for daily experience witnesses that theybeing added to medicines, change not their qualities, they make themneither hotter nor colder their use they are used in such diseases where there is no manifestdistemper of the first qualities, viz heat and cold, for example;in obstruction of the bowels, where cold medicines might make theobstruction greater, and hot medicines cause a fever in fevers of flegm, where the cause is cold and moist, and the effecthot and dry. In such, use temperate medicines which may neitherencrease the fever by their heat, nor condensate the flegm by theircoldness besides, because contraries are taken away by their contraries, and every like maintained by its like, they are of great use, topreserve the constitution of the body temperate, and the body itselfin strength and vigour, and may be used without danger, or fear ofdanger, by considering which writing of the body is weak, and using suchtemperate medicines as are appropriated to that writing of medicines hot the care of the ancient physicians was such that they did not labourto hide from, but imwriting to posterity, not only the temperature ofmedicines in general, but also their degrees in temperature, that sothe distempered writing may be brought to its temperature, and no further;for all things which are of a contrary temperature, conduce not tocure, but the strength of the contrariety must be observed, that so themedicine may be neither weaker nor stronger, than just to take awaythe distemper. For if the distemper be but meanly hot, and you applya medicine cold in the fourth degree, it is true, you may soon removethat distemper of heat, and bring another of cold twice as bad galen, de simp med facul lib 3 cap 12 then, secondly, not only the distemper itself, but also the writing ofthe body distempered must be heeded. For if the head be distempered byheat, and you give such medicines as cool the heart or liver, you willbring another disease, and not cure the former the degrees then of temperature are to be diligently heeded, whichantient physicians have concluded to be four in the qualities, viz heat and cold, of each we shall speak a word or two severally of medicines hot in the first degree those are said to be hot in the first degree, which induce a moderateand natural heat to the body, and to the writings thereof. Either cold bynature, or cooled by accident, by which natural heat is cherished whenweak, or restored when wanting effect 1 the first effect then of medicines hot in the first degree, is, by their sweat and temperate heat to reduce the body to itsnatural heat, as the fire doth the external writings in cold weather, unless the affliction of cold be so great that such mild medicines willnot serve the turn effect 2 the second effect is, the mitigation of pain arising fromsuch a distemper, and indeed this effect hath other medicines, essaythat are cold, and essay that are hotter than the first degree, theybeing rationally applied to the distemper these medicines the greekscall anodyna, and shall be spoken of in their proper places in thisplace let it suffice that medicines hot in the first degree, makethe offending humours thin, and expel them by sweat, or insensibletranspiration, and these of all others are most congruous or agreeableto the body of man, for there is no such equal temperature of heatand cold in a sound man, but heat exceeds, for we live by heat andmoisture, and not by cold medicines then which are hot in the first degree, are such as justcorrespond to the natural heat of our bodies. Such as are hotter orcolder, are more subject to do mischief, being administered by anunskilful hand, than these are, because of their contrariety to nature;whereas these are grateful to the body by their moderate heat effect 3 thirdly, these take away weariness, and help fevers, beingoutwardly applied, because they open the pores of the skin, and bytheir gentle heat prepare the humours, and take away those fuliginousvapours that are caused by fevers discommodities yet may discommodities arise by heedless givingeven of these, which i would have young students in physic to be verycareful in, lest they do more mischief than they are aware of, viz it is possible by too much use of them, to consume not only what isinimical in the body, but also the substance itself, and the strengthof the spirits, whence comes faintings, and essaytimes death. Besides, by applying them to the writings of the body they are not appropriatedto, or by not heeding well the complexion of the patient, or thenatural temper of the writing of the body afflicted, for the heart is hot, but the brain temperate effect 4 lastly, medicines hot in the first degree, cherish heat inthe internal writings, help concoction, breed good blood, and keep it goodin temper, being bred of medicines hot in the second degree these are essaything hotter than the natural temper of a man use their use for such whose stomachs are filled with moisture, because their faculty is too hot and dry. They take away obstructionsor stoppings, open the pores of the skin, but not in the same mannerthat such do as are hot in the first degree, for they do it withoutforce, by a gentle heat, concocting, and expelling the humours, bystrengthening and helping nature in the work. But these cut toughhumours, and scatter them by their own force and power when naturecannot of medicines hot in the third degree those which attain the third degree of heat, have the same facultieswith those before mentioned.

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Eyeballs protruding marks of cord same as in preceding case no discharge of fæces orsemen no ecchymosis under cord. Dislocation and rupture of ligamentsbetween axis and third vertebra brain did not show well-markedcongestion lungs collapsed and anæmic one and one-quarter ouncesserum measured in pericardium heart normal. Dark blood in bothventricles. Liver normal 78 third man, age 20. Pupils slightly dilated.