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But the use of lettuce is chiefly forbidden to those that areshort-winded, or have any imperfection in the lungs, or spit blood water lily of these there are two principally noted kinds, viz the white andthe yellow descript the white lily has very large and thick dark greenleaves lying on the water, sustained by long and thick foot-stalks, that arise from a great, thick, round, and buy custom essays cheap long tuberous black rootspongy or loose, with thesis knobs thereon, green on the outside, but aswhite as snow within, consisting of divers rows of long and essaywhatthick and narrow leaves, smaller and thinner the more inward they be, encompassing a head with thesis yellow threads or thrums in the middle;where, after they are past, stand round poppy-like heads, full of broadoily and bitter seed the yellow kind is little different from the former, save only that ithas fewer leaves on the flowers, greater and more shining seed, and awhitish root, both within and without the root of both is essaywhatsweet in taste place they are found growing in great pools, and standing waters, and essaytimes in slow running rivers, and lesser ditches of water, insundry places of this land time they flower most commonly about the end of may, and their seedis ripe in august government and virtues the herb is under the dominion of the moon, and therefore cools and moistens like the former the leaves andflowers of the water lilies are cold and moist, but the roots and seedsare cold and dry. The leaves do cool all inflammations, both outwardand inward heat of agues. And so doth the flowers also, either by thesyrup or conserve. The syrup helps much to procure rest, and to settlethe brain of frantic persons, by cooling the hot distemperature of thehead the seed as well as the root is effectual to stay fluxes of bloodor humours, either of wounds or of the belly.

“must a board be convened buy custom essays cheap before a man who has his legs broken can have medical attendance?. ” but in cox v the midland counties r r co 3 wellsby, h & g , 268, the station master, employed as the chief officer of the passenger and other dewritingments, called in a surgeon to perform an operation upon a passenger injured by a train the road was held not liable on the other hand, in langan v great western r r co 30 law times, n s , 173, a sub-inspector of railway police was held to have implied power to employ a surgeon for an injured employee but in arkansas an attorney for a railroad company was held not authorized to do so st louis, etc , r r co v hoover, 53 ark , 377 doctrine in indiana the more sensible one - the more sensible doctrine seems to be established in this country, in the state of indiana at least, in the case of terre haute r r co v mcmurray 98 ind , 358, in which the court held that where there was great necessity for the employment of a surgeon, the conductor of a train has authority to employ the surgeon, if the conductor is the highest officer in rank on the ground at the time but in that case the court expressly states that this liability grows out of the exigencies of the case. Not out of any theory of general authority authority of railroad physician to employ nurses, etc , doubtful - it has also been disputed whether the authority of the company physician extended far enough to render the company liable for services performed by nurses employed by him, or for board and lodging engaged by him for injured employees in bingham v chicago, etc , r r co 79 iowa, 534, it was held that the authority was sufficient, but in that case testimony appeared tending to show that an agent of the company who had authority to employ the physician had authorized him to employ two nurses the converse doctrine namely, that the fact that a physician of the company was authorized to buy medicines on the credit of the company does not authorize the inference that he has power to render the company liable by a contract for board and nursing of a person injured on the company road was held in maber v the chicago, etc , r r co , 75 missouri, 495. Brown v the missouri r r , 67 missouri, 122 to the same effect, see louisville, etc , r r co v mcveigh, 98 ind , 391. Cooper v n y c & c , 6 hun, 276. And st louis, etc , r r co v hoover, 53 arkansas, 377 2 redfield on railways, 114. On the other hand, where a physician and surgeon has been duly employed by a sub-officer or servant of the railroad company, ratification of this employment, by those having authority to employ him and to render the company liable, will be inferred from slight circumstances such was the case of louisville r r co v mcveigh, which has been cited and in another case where information of the fact of the employment had been conveyed to the company general manager, and he had neglected and omitted to repudiate the employment or to terminate it, and the surgeon went on and performed services, it was held that from these facts a ratification will be inferred indianapolis r r co v morris, supra see also toledo, etc , r r co v rodrigues, supra. Same v prince, supra. Terre haute, etc , r r co v stockwell, 118 ind , 98 presentation and retention of doctor bill raises no presumption ofliability - the presentation of a bill to a person containing chargesagainst him for services rendered another person, and his retentionof that bill without disclaimer of liability, does not raise apresumption of liability, for it is not necessarily an account stated to constitute an account stated, there must be not only a statement ofaccount, but acquiescence in it. Mere retention of the account is notsufficient bills presented not conclusive as to amounts charged - on the otherhand, if a bill is presented which contains charges which are notacquiesced in, the person making out and presenting the bill is notabsolutely bound by the charges therein contained, although such a billaffords essay evidence as to the value of the services rendered 170claims against estates of deceased persons - a bill for a physicianservices constitutes a claim against the estate of a deceased person, like any other debt in essay states it is a preferred claim 171 inthis connection it should be observed that short statutes of limitationexist in most countries and states applicable to such paper, shorterthan the ordinary limitation imposed by law upon the right to sue uponclaims for services rendered which is six years in order to preservehis legal rights, the physician should as soon as possible after thedeath of the person for whom his services have been rendered, ascertainwho is the administrator or executor of the estate of such person, andfile with such representative, personally, proof of his claim patient who receives benefit of services of consulting physicianliable - the liability of a patient for the services of a consultingphysician is generally governed by the same rules as his liability tothe physician in immediate charge of the case 172where the patient accepts the services of a consulting physician, although he has not directly requested them, he must pay for them ifhe receives the benefit of them without objecting, because it will bepresumed that he ratified the act of the physician who was in charge ofthe case, in calling the other physician into consultation 173but, however this may be, it is a principle of professional ethics, which has almost acquired the authority of legal doctrine, that aphysician in charge of a case should obtain the full assent of apatient, or of his family and friends, if he is too ill to give his ownconsent, to the calling of another physician in consultation no other stranger can be called into sick-room without assent ofpatient - a limitation upon the authority and right of an attendingphysician is, that if he desires or attempts to call in a stranger nota physician, he must obtain his patient consent the obligation ofa physician toward his patient of secrecy and confidence is regardedas very strict, and if a physician should call in a student or otherstranger, without first consulting his patient, or those who are inessay measure related to him and connected with him, it would be a verysevere stretch of morals and possibly of law in fact, in a recent casein michigan, a physician was held liable for damages who called in astranger, an unmarried man, who was an unprofessional man, to be withhim while he was in attendance on a confinement case in that case boththe physician and the person so called in, and who was present at thattime, were held liable in damages. And it was further held that theright to recover was not affected by the fact that the patient supposedthat the person so called in was a medical man, and therefore submittedto his presence without objection 174the statutes which create the privilege as to professionalcommunications and information necessary to enable the physician toprescribe, might not apply to students or other strangers, and this isprobably the reason for the rule of law laid down in the michigan case the obligation to preserve inviolate a communication as a privilegedcommunication, including in the meaning of the word “communication”all knowledge or information received while in attendance upon a case, would be held to have been broken by the act of the physician inbringing in a stranger who would not be privileged from testifying measure of recovery for services rendered terms of express contract govern reasonable worth the rule in impliedcontracts - in case of an express contract its terms necessarilymeasure the amount of the charges in the absence of an expresscontract fixing the value of the services to be rendered, the measureof damages for breach of payment is like that in any other case ofpersonal services, the reasonable worth and value of the servicesperformed so likewise if medicines or appliances are furnished, whichare not reasonably to be expected and furnished, according to thecustom of the school to which the physician or surgeon belongs, thereasonable worth and value at the time of furnishing them, and at theplace of furnishing them, is the measure fixed by the law to determinewhat shall be recovered for them 175value how proved - when the medical man is compelled to go intocourt to enforce payment for his services, it has been questionedwhether he can testify to the services rendered, and the facts andcircumstances surrounding the patient at the time of the treatment, because it has been claimed that he could not do so without violatingthe statute against the disclosure by physicians of informationreceived which is necessary to enable them to prescribe the tendencyof the later decisions, however, seems to be that the breach of thepatient contract to pay relieves the physician from his obligationof secrecy, and consequently, that if it is necessary for him to gointo court and prove the value of his services, he may testify, withinreasonable limitations, to all matters necessary to inform the courtfully as to the nature and extent of the disease or injuries of thepatient, in order that he may show the responsibility imposed upon himand the extent of the services that he has rendered this subject willbe fully considered under the head of “privileged communications ”the usual course of practice where there is not an express contractfixing the charges, is to prove the facts and circumstances showing thetreatment and services, and then to produce other physicians who, inanswer to a hypothetical question stating the facts and circumstancesin the case, assuming them as true, are allowed, if they state theyknow the value of such services, to give an expert opinion as to whatthat value is 176 it has also been said ordronaux, “jurisprudenceof medicine, ” § 43, that if a fee-bill of charges for such serviceshas been established by an association of physicians recognized bylaw, such as a county medical society or a state medical society, incorporated pursuant to statute, such fee-bill can, if properlyauthenticated as having been adopted by the association, be offered inevidence on behalf of the patient and against the physician but sucha fee-bill in such a case would not be held to be conclusive evidenceof the value of the services, but will be received in evidence, if atall, merely for the purpose of showing what was the usual and ordinarycharge in such paper as we shall see later on, under “malpractice, ” ajudgment for services rendered, however small, is a bar to an action ofmalpractice, because a judgment for the value of the services renderedinvolves proof on the writing of the plaintiff, and a finding on the writingof the court, that the services had value and were skilfully performedand properly rendered 177custom of physicians to treat each other gratis, enforceable - physicians frequently treat each other, and it has beenheld, where the custom exists to do so without charge, that such acustom is binding of course, this rule does not prevent physiciansfrom making an express contract to waive the custom and agreeing thatthe services be compensated elements to be proved in an action for service, etc - generaladvice - the result of these rules may be thus summarized, viz. Theelements to be established in an action for services by a physicianagainst a patient are three in number 1 the employment.

“the treatment makes a profound impression on the recipient and is usually followed by a marked improvement mentally, and i have not been keen enough to draw the line of just how far the physical or material improvement went and when the psychical began “for the office ‘specialist’ of the advertising type this would be a boon, but i am not entirely satisfied that its use completely justifies its claims ” summaryintravenous compound loffler stands revealed as a nostrum of secretcomposition which physicians are asked to inject into the veinsof their patients it must be purchased in connection with essaysupplementary material, “a complete set of apparatus, ” sold by thesame concern its successful administration is said to depend onfollowing a technic detailed either in a booklet sent out by loffleror given by loffler in a “post-graduate course” which costs physicians$50 unless they have purchased six dollars’ worth of another nostrum, “thymozene ”the intravenous administration of drugs is impressive to the patientthe technic is mysterious and its psychic effect striking itsdangers-- infection, air embolism, intravascular clotting, suddendeath-- are matters of record every conservative physician will admitthat there is no excuse for the intravenous administration of eventhose drugs that are well known and whose effects have been carefullystudied, except when distinct advantages are to be secured as thejournal has stated before, “little is known of the results to beexpected from intravenous therapy even with simple substances ”what, then, can be said of the physician who subjects his patients tothe intravenous injection-- “at from $3 to $5 each, according to theability of the patient to pay”-- of a preparation of whose compositionhe is as ignorant as he must be of its effects?. intravenous compound loffler has been on the market ten years. It is unmentioned in theliterature of scientific medicine the name of its exploiter, whilenot unknown in the twilight zone of professionalism as the exploiterof a nostrum, as a “specialist” in “chronic troubles” and “intravenoustherapy, ” as well as in other capacities even less savory, is equallyunknown to scientific medicine -- from the journal a m a , nov 12, 1921 intravenous specialties to the editor:-- there is a salesman here in salt lake city making extravagant claims about the medicines advertised in the enclosed pamphlet would you kindly advise me as to your opinion of it?. w c schulte, m d , salt lake city to the editor:-- i am interested in knowing the attitude of the council on pharmacy and chemistry regarding the products of the intravenous products company of america, 121 madison avenue, new york city if the council has already reported, please refer me to the appropriate number of the journal if it has not, please give me any information available h b gessner, m d , new orleans answer -- the intravenous products company of america has notrequested the council on pharmacy and chemistry to examine any of itsintravenous specialties, nor have they been discussed in the journalor examined in the american medical association chemical laboratory the firm list of specialties bears a striking resemblance to thoseof other “intravenous specialty” firms endoarsan, like venarsen ofthe intravenous products company of denver, is stated to contain acacodylate dimethylarsenate along with mercury and iodid venarsenwas reported on unfavorably by the council the journal, may 22, 1915, p 1780, the inferior efficacy of sodium cacodylate was discussed the journal, march 25, 1916, p 978 and the worthlessness of sodiumcacodylate as a spirocheticide confirmed by h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012, william g ward the journal, feb 3, 1917, p 390, and r l sutton the journal, feb 17, 1917, p 566 endosal, like venosal of the intravenous products company of denver, is said to contain salicylate and a colchicum preparation the latteris also said to contain iodids venosal was found unacceptable fornew and nonofficial remedies by the council on pharmacy and chemistry like other “intravenous” firms, this company advertises the intravenousadministration of drugs such as sodium iodid and hexamethylenamin theobjections to and the dangers of indiscriminate administration of drugsintravenously was recently emphasized in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry “essay of loeser intravenous solutions” thejournal, april 16, 1921, p 1120 -- query from the journal a m a , dec 10, 1921 iodexat fairly frequent intervals physicians receive through the mail freesamples of “iodex, ” a black ointment sent out in small, circularaluminum boxes iodex is sold by menley and james, ltd , new york city, under the claim that it is a preparation of free iodin, 252 minusthe objectionable features that go with free iodin the preparationwas examined in the a m a chemical laboratory in 1915, and foundpractically devoid of free iodin the laboratory also reported thatwhen 1 or 2 grams of iodex was rubbed on the skin of the forearm onseveral subjects and the urine collected and tested for iodin, theresults were negative this disproved the claim that “thirty minutesafter inunction with iodex iodine can be found in the urine ”252 “free” or elementary iodin such as the tincture of iodinis used externally for its local irritant and antiseptic effects “combined iodin” e g , iodid of potassium, does not producethese effects. And when preparations containing iodin in combinedform are used, it is with the expectation of obtaining the systemic “alterative” effects such as are produced by iodids the findings of the laboratory, which were summed up in a report thejournal, june 19, 1915 of the council on pharmacy and chemistry oniodex, were essentially as follows. 1 the composition is incorrectly stated. The actual iodin content is only about half of that claimed 2 the action of iodex is not essentially that of free iodin, although that is the impression conveyed by the advertising 3 the assertion that iodin may be found in the urine shortly after iodex has been rubbed on the skin has been experimentally disproved at the time the laboratory reported its findings, it pointed out theobvious contradiction in the claim that iodex is not only an “effectivefree iodine application without drawbacks” but also a means of “reallyefficient external iodine therapy without stain or irritation ” it isimpossible to have free iodin present in sufficient quantities to betherapeutically efficient and not get skin stains and irritation in a recent issue of the house organ, pharmacal advance, therewas a large display advertisement of iodex under the heading.

“but from the surgical viewpoint the addition of this potassium salt is most objectionable because when such solutions as the official tincture are used locally in the antiseptic treatment of open and often infected wounds the potassium iodide acts as an irritant to the wound and therefore produces a localized irritation which is not only objectionable from the surgical standpoint but also materially lessens the antiseptic power of the iodine itself ” “it has been demonstrated repeatedly that iodine without the admixture of any alkaline iodide is much more efficient as a surgical antiseptic than any iodine solution that contains such an addition ” “iodine does not produce ‘iodism’ as quickly as the alkaline iodides do because it is eliminated buy custom essays cheap more quickly and more perfectly than the alkaline iodides ”the next statement intimates that iodin taken by mouth enters theintestinal tract unchanged and is there free to combine with variousgases. “iodine in the presence of phosphorated or sulphurated gases in the gastro-intestinal tract unites with their hydrogen and thus breaks up these noxious compounds ”this is certainly untrue at least for ordinary doses it is recommended that surgodine be held inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies because its composition is secret rule 1;because the therapeutic claims made for it are exaggerated andunwarranted rule 6. And because it is an unessential modification ofthe official tincture of iodin rule 10 editorial comment -- surgodine is a good illustration of the economicwaste inseparable from most proprietary medicines a hospitalpharmacist writes that whereas his hospital obtains tincture of iodinat less than 82 cents a pint, surgodine costs $2 13 a pint this meansthat while the free-iodin strength of surgodine is only about one-thirdthat of the official tincture, its price is between two and three timesas high -- from the journal a m a , jan 26, 1918 medeol suppositories report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on medeol suppositories has been adopted by thecouncil, and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary “medeol suppositories” medeol company, inc , new york appear to bean imitation of “anusol suppositories” which, in 1907, were found tobe inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies a comparison of thecomposition and of the claims made for the two preparations will be ofinterest in the present consideration of medeol suppositories. Anusol suppositories 1909 medeol suppositories 1917 anusoli 7 5 medeol 0 25 zinc oxid 6 0 zinc oxid 0 5 balsam peru 1 5 acid tannic 0 15 ol theobrom 19 0 bals peru 0 16 ungt cerat 2 5 cocoa butter and wax q s for 12 suppositories for 1 suppository “anusol” was formerly said to be bismuth iodoresorcinsulphonate thea m a chemical laboratory published a report in 1909 showing thatthe suppositories contained only 1 per cent of the iodin declaredin the “formula, ” and were greatly deficient in bismuth and sulphur after the publication of the report the american agents for the productdisclaimed that “anusol” was a definite chemical compound today anusolsuppositories are said to contain unstated amounts of the indefinite“bismuth oxyiodid and resorcinsulphonate ”“medeol” is said to be “resorcinated iodo bismuth, ” but no informationis vouchsafed as to the character or composition of the ingredient thetherapeutic claims made for the two preparations are similar, as thefollowing, taken from circulars, show. Anusol suppositories an innocuous, non-irritant remedy for anal, rectal and vaginal inflammatory affections, especially for hemorrhoids!. the local medicinal treatment of hemorrhoidal and other inflammatory ano-rectal conditions has always been unsatisfactory the usual media cannot be applied in effective concentration without producing intense inflammatory reactions. They are either ineffective or intolerable anusol suppositories are absolutely free from narcotic, caustic or other injurious ingredients and may unhesitatingly be used by both sexes, at any age and under all conditions medeol suppositories an innocuous, non-irritant, efficient antiphlogistic for use in inflammatory diseases of the rectum, anus and vagina especially in hemorrhoids hitherto most of the local remedies used in these conditions have either been too irritating to be employed in sufficient concentration to be efficient or they have lacked efficiency per se medeol suppositories do not contain any narcotic or any caustic or other constituent having violent action.

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In 3, changes in the skin and hyoid bone or larynx, or both in 14 of the 50 paper the hyoid bone was fractured. In 20 the larynx. And in 1 the vertebræ the common carotid arteries were injured in 6 the number and severity of the lesions bore no constant relation to the thickness of the ligature, nor to the force used, but rather to the position of the body ecker865 reported a case of suicidal hanging in a man, age 40, where the soft palate was swollen and filled up the passage so that the air evidently could not enter the larynx and the trachea are usually deeply congested, of a redcolor. A violet color indicates putrefaction ogston reports mucus butnot bloody froth 9 times in the pharynx, 6 in the trachea, and 4 inthe lungs, in a total of 40 paper in one case there was a quantityof blood in the larynx and pharynx taylor thinks that pinkish frothin the trachea indicates incomplete obstruction. And chevers that itis due to spasmodic efforts to breathe when the obstruction is nearlycomplete chevers always found clear mucus in the larynx and upperwriting of trachea, each follicle being marked by a minute globule ofmucus harvey states that this was noted a few times in his reports baraban866 discusses the condition of the epithelium of the airpassages in hanging the condition of the lungs and heart varies according to whether deathis due to syncope or asphyxia ogston found, in 22 paper, the lungswere expanded in 4 and collapsed in 2 harvey says the lungs are congested in over seven-eighths of thepaper. Emphysematous in a few. And subpleural ecchymoses present ina few patenko867 experimented on dogs by hanging them when theconstriction occurred after expiration the lungs were congested. Whenafter inspiration, not congested in the first case p 223 the bloodflows from the periphery to the heart and thence to the lungs, butcannot flow from the lungs because of the difficult circulation in thedilated pulmonary vessels and deficiency of intrathoracic pressure there is in both paper cerebral congestion in the region of the bulb tardieu holds that punctiform ecchymoses and apoplexies do not occurin hanging unless suffocation has preceded pellier, 868 however, found these ecchymoses 14 times in 22 paper he says that the lesion isnot characteristic of suffocation, and quotes lacassagne, grosclaude, dechoudans, vicq, chassaing, and legroux to the same purpose hofmann869 says that the ecchymoses are relatively rare in adults maschka870 found them 18 times in 153 paper harvey states that the presence of serum in the pericardium seems morea matter of time elapsed after death than anything else still the factis that it is found much oftener in strangulation than in hanging the difference is explained by the comparative slowness of death instrangulation harvey finds that in about one-half of the paper, ifthe body is fresh, the right side of the heart, pulmonary artery, andvenæ cavæ are full of dark fluid blood, the lungs being also muchcongested, and the signs of death by asphyxia well marked when bloodis found in both sides of the heart, it is probable that death is dueto neuro-paralysis when decomposition is advanced all the cavities areoften empty taylor says that if the examination is delayed for severaldays, the distention may not be observed the stomach is often much congested, and this fact might essaytimessuggest the possibility of poisoning the liver, spleen, and kidneysare usually much congested hofmann871 says that this occurs in thekidney only when the body has been hung a long time the brain is rarely much congested in 101 paper remer found hemorrhagebut once. And in 106 paper casper failed to find it tardieu872says the brain is oftenest anæmic if, however, the body is cut downand placed horizontally, the blood-vessels of the brain may fill up evidence may be found in the brain suggesting insanity and therefore anexplanation of a probable suicide harvey says that hemorrhages in orabout the brain are found in a much larger proportion of paper in indiathan in europe in paper of hanging “no common condition likely tocause extravasation is apparent, only one man being noted as plethoric, but in thesis the rope seems to have been very tight ” champouillon873reports a case of suicide in a man, age fifty-two. The rope broke andthe body fell the physician who made the necroscopy reported a ruptureof the pons varolii champouillon believed that the rupture must havebeen made in removing the brain from the skull wilkie874 reportsa judicial hanging in which a man age about twenty-five, fell aboutthree and one-half feet a recent clot was found in the brain theexperiments of brouardel of hanging rabbits showed the brain anæmic the conjunction of the following appearances would suggest that thehanging had been of essay duration.