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And although distilled waters are theweakest of artificial medicines, and good for little but mixtures ofother medicines, yet they are weaker by thesis degrees, than they wouldbe were they distilled in sand if i thought it not impossible, toteach you the way of distilling in sand, i would attempt it 5 when you have distilled your water, put it into a glass, coveredover with a paper pricked full of holes, so that the excrementitiousand fiery vapours may exhale, which cause that settling in distilledwaters called the mother, which corrupt them, then cover it close, andkeep it for your use 6 stopping distilled waters with a cork, makes them musty, and sodoes paper, if it but touch the water. It is best to stop them with abladder, being first put in water, and bound over the top of the glass such cold waters as are distilled in a pewter still if well kept willendure a year. Such as are distilled in sand, as they are twice asstrong, so they endure twice as long chapter ii of syrups 1 a syrup is a medicine of a liquid form, composed of infusion, decoction and juice and, 1 for the more grateful taste 2 for thebetter keeping of it. With a certain quantity of honey or sugar, hereafter mentioned, boiled to the thickness of new honey 2 you see at the first view, that this aphorism divides itself intothree branches, which deserve severally to be treated of, viz 1 syrups made by infusion 2 syrups made by decoction 3 syrups made by juice of each of these, for your instruction-sake, kind countrymen andwomen i speak a word or two awriting 1st, syrups made by infusion, are usually made of flowers, and of suchflowers as soon lose their colour and strength by boiling, as roses, violets, peach flowers, &c they are thus made. Having picked yourflowers clean, to every pound of them add three pounds or three pints, which you will for it is all one of spring water, made boiling hot;first put your flowers into a pewter-pot, with a cover, and pour thewater on them. Then shutting the pot, let it stand by the fire, tokeep hot twelve hours, and strain it out.

During these “nine buy compare and contrast essay years” these combinations have inevitably been put to an informing clinical trial, because of the fact that they have been employed with success in disorders of the pancreas and bile functions and often in chronic and serious paper where the clinical conditions were obvious and unmistakable the reports of these paper come to us from physicians widely separated and each of his own independent initiative it would seem gratuitous, to say the least, to state that the observers are “disinterested, ” since it is quite clear that there is no other interest than that of the practitioner and his patient it is not a case of a new drug or combinations of new remedies, but simply resources which, upon well grounded reasons, both from a theoretical and material standpoint, justify clinical trial, and with results which would seem from any ordinary human standpoint to be satisfactory clinical evidence as to the interpretation of competent clinical evidence by the council, we would, in view of the circumstances and without comment, ask to embody in this text this rule. “clinical evidence ”-- “to be acceptable, the clinical evidence must offer objective data with such citation of authority as will enable the council to confirm the facts and establish the scientific value of the conclusions drawn clinical data are worthless when the author is not cited the facts on which claims with regard to the value of a remedy are based must have been rendered accessible for investigation and confirmation by disinterested observers, either through publication or through the records of a hospital or other institution ” to discredit these combinations would seem to us not only unjustified, but sterile of any real advancement in medicine, or of anything in the way of helpfulness to the patient in the class of paper in which these products have been resorted to with benefit. This on no other ground really than the opinion “that they have no advantage over the simple preparations themselves ” naturally we shall continue to prepare these products and shall continue to take such action as we deem best to bring them to the attention of the physician, for the conduct of our business must remain in the hands of those who are personally responsible for it and it is now forty years since we took up this line of work and with the declared intention of devoting ourselves to the applied science of the digestive ferments and “to their development and practical application in every useful purpose in medicine ” we have been consistently in sympathy with the fundamental purpose of the council, which must first rest upon fact as to the character of the products offered as medicinal agents the weight of evidence justifies the position that these writingicular products rationally should be, and as a matter of fact are, of important special service in the utilization of these organic secretions in medicine as explained in the preceding report, the council holds that complexmixtures of remedial agents are from every point of view inimicalto therapeutic progress and therefore to the public welfare theyare especially objectionable because it is impossible to determineaccurately the effects which follow the simultaneous administrationof a number of drugs having dissimilar actions, and because such apractice tends strongly to discourage careful consideration of thespecial needs of individual patients without which there can be notherapeutic progress on the contrary, with their use, therapeutictreatment becomes haphazard and mere guesswork the dismissal of the holadin and bile salts mixtures does not involvethe question of the usefulness of holadin or of bile salts alone. Onthe contrary, the possible usefulness of these preparations is admittedin the report it is the combination of holadin, bile salts, sodiumsuccinate and phenolphthalein to which objection is made the statement of fairchild bros and foster that “these combinationsare now further justified in view of physiological considerations”is essaywhat misleading it is true that bile and the pancreaticsecretion cooperate in intestinal digestion, but there is no evidencethat in every case in which there is a deficiency of one of thesesecretions there is also a deficiency of the other, and it is an axiomof scientific therapeutics that no drug or remedial agent should beadministered except to fill a definite want otherwise the practice oftherapeutics becomes mere empiricism the properties of phenolphthalein are not in the least influenced bythe manner of its introduction, as messrs fairchild bros and fosteremphasize. But the important fact in this connection is that thepopular conception of their actions is greatly influenced by the modeof introduction, and phenolphthalein has been widely advertised in avariety of conditions, so that the popular notion concerning it is notthat of scientific therapeutics in short, the entire argument of messrs fairchild bros and fosterconcerning the exploitation of these preparations may be summed up bysaying that they have been used by clinicians who believe that goodresults have followed their use, and that the firm will thereforecontinue to supply the demand the tendency of essay to use anythingbrought to their notice, and the readiness of manufacturers to marketanything that physicians will use, presents the greatest obstacleto therapeutic progress there was never a nostrum so irrational orworthless that honest but undiscriminating clinicians could not befound who reported wonderful results from its use according to fairchild bros and foster, these holadin and bile saltsmixtures have been in use for essay nine years yet the council is notaware of any investigation of their merits that meets the requirementsof scientific research the council is not acquainted with a single clinical investigation oftheir action under conditions which afford satisfactory evidence oftheir therapeutic value it is obviously wholly insufficient for a clinician to report that theuse of a mixture was followed by good results the fallacy of sucharguments was demonstrated long ago he must make a comparison of theresults obtained with the remedial agent with those obtained in asnearly similar conditions as possible except for the use of the agent we are not aware that any such study of the mixtures in question hasbeen made it is in the last degree irrational to hold that becausebile salts are the active constituents of bile, therefore such complexmixtures as these are necessary -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 59 liquor santaiva, s & d , omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of liquor santaiva, s & d , has been authorized forpublication w a puckner, secretary so far the council has applied rule 10 concerning the recognition ofmixtures with the greatest leniency compatible with consistency whenthere has been a reasonable doubt concerning the value of a mixture, ithas frequently directed that rule 10 should not apply, pending furtherclinical trial of such mixture in no instance has subsequent experience shown that a strictinterpretation of the rule would have worked hardship or injustice thecouncil feels that there is no longer any warrant for the admission ofcomplex mixtures to new and nonofficial remedies or for the retentionof any that have been admitted, unless definite evidence of thetherapeutic value of such combinations is available the council being engaged in the annual revision of new and nonofficialremedies, the referee in charge of santal preparations reported thatthe three year period of acceptance had expired for liquor santaiva sharp & dohme the referee held that liquor santaiva, s & d , declared to be asolution of santal oil and copaiba with aromatic oils, in a mixtureof alcohol and water, is plainly in conflict with the currentinterpretation of rule 10, because there was no sound evidenceto indicate that any useful end is gained by the simultaneousadministration of santal oil and copaiba in any proportion, and thatso, of course, there is no evidence of the special advantage in thefixed proportions represented by the mixture he pointed out that theformula is essentially a survival of the discredited shotgun gonorrheamixtures and therefore recommended that its acceptance be not continued the council agreed to the recommendation of the referee and directedthat liquor santaiva, s & d , be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 66 maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with cod liver oil, maltzyme ferrated and maltzyme with yerba santa omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of the maltzyme preparations has been authorized forpublication w a puckner, secretary in 1916, the council voted to omit maltzyme with hypophosphites, andmaltzyme with phosphate of iron, quinine and strychnine at thattime the labels used on the maltzyme preparations still in new andnonofficial remedies contained a list of maltzyme combinations whichincluded those which had been dismissed as the council does not permitan accepted article to be used as a means of advertising an articlenot accepted, it voted to continue the following preparations fora period of three years on condition that reference to the deletedarticles be omitted from the labels when those then in stock had beenused up. Maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with codliver oil, maltzyme ferrated and maltzyme with yerba santa while themaltzyme company made no definite agreement to revise its advertisingpropaganda in accordance with the council requirements, the maltzymepreparations were retained in the belief that in due time the requiredrevision of the labels would be made the council being engaged in preparing the 1919 edition of new andnonofficial remedies, the referee in charge of malt extracts reportedthat the maltzyme company had not revised its labels in accordance withthe stipulation of the council the referee further reported he hadbecome convinced that the claim that maltzyme is “rich in malt enzymes”is unwarranted and that the term “maltzyme” malt plus enzyme ismisleading. This because of the recognized instability of malt extracts jour a m a , march 30, 1912, p 954 and because the maltzymecompany makes no definite statement with regard to the diastase maltenzyme content of its preparations 126 for this reason it hadbeen the referee intention to propose the deletion of all maltzymepreparations when their period of acceptance expired in 1919 as, however, the present maltzyme preparations are in contravention withthe council requirements, he recommended that the acceptance of thesepreparations be canceled now 126 manufacturers are warned by the dewritingment of agriculture, through the bureau of chemistry, that combinations claiming to containdigestive enzymes must be active when sold if preparations tend todeteriorate in a short time, each lot should be dated and not soldafter the period when they become inactive while every manufacturermust be considered innocent until proved guilty, and ignorant untilproved knowing, it is a matter of knowledge that manufacturers havemarketed their various digestive mixtures with full appreciation oftheir worthlessness -- jour a m a , dec 19, 1914, p 2234 the council agreed to the recommendation of the referee and directedthat maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with cod liveroil, maltzyme ferrated, and maltzyme with yerba santa be omitted fromn n r -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 67 methaform omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of methaform has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary methaform is the proprietary name applied by f stearns & co tochlorbutanol being engaged in the annual revision of new and nonofficial remedies, and the term of acceptance for methaform having expired, a tradepackage was purchased to determine if the product was marketed incompliance with the rules of the council it was then found that acircular was wrapped with the trade package which advertised methaforminhalant, a preparation not accepted for new and nonofficial remedies for obvious reasons, the council does not countenance the use of anaccepted article as a means of advertising an article not accepted accordingly f stearns & co was advised that the council wouldbe obliged to withdraw the acceptance of methaform unless theobjectionable circular was omitted from the methaform packages stearns & co did not give the requested assurance, and therefore thecouncil directed that methaform be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 68 pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland and their preparations omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland and theirpreparations has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland were admitted to newand nonofficial remedies when these products gave promise of havingtherapeutic value the term of acceptance for the preparations of pineal gland, redbone-marrow and thymus gland having expired, the referee in charge ofanimal organ preparations recommended in his report for the annualrevision of n n r that these products and the general articlesdescribing them be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies he heldthat the experimental and clinical experience with them leads to theconclusion that they are without value in accordance with the recommendation of the referee, the council votedthat the following preparations be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies. Desiccated pineal gland-armour. Pineal gland tablets-armour;extract of red bone-marrow-armour. Desiccated thymus-armour. Thymustablets-armour as a matter of record, the descriptive articles for pineal gland, redbone-marrow and thymus gland, which appeared in new and nonofficialremedies, 1918, are given below pineal glandthe functions of this gland have not yet been established but thereis essay pathological and essay experimental evidence that there isa relation between the gland and essay processes of development andgrowth. The nature of this relation is unknown adiposis is a frequentsign of disturbed pineal function, but observers are not agreed whetherto interpret this as indicating hypofunction or hyperfunction, orpossibly a concurrent disturbance of the pituitary in essay instancesintravenous injections of pineal extract have seemed to cause adistinct fall in blood pressure it has been inferred from observationsin paper of pineal tumors in the young that the gland in youngindividuals furnishes a secretion which inhibits growth, writingicularlythe development of the reproductive glands, but the results ofexperimental administration of pineal substance orally have led otherobservers to infer that the pineal secretion favors physical andpossibly mental and sexual development it has been suggested that, asall evidence points to the fact that the function of the pineal glandis one of early life, extract of adult pineal glands might be expectedto be inert experiment has also indicated greater activity in glandsobtained from young animals than in those obtained from older ones thecouncil has decided to admit preparations of pineal gland to new andnonofficial remedies simply for experimental purposes red bone-marrowred bone-marrow consists largely more than 90 per cent of fat innew-born animals a third or more of this fat consists of lecithin the marrow of the bones of new-born animals contains iron up to 1per cent or more in various forms of organic combination bothlecithin and iron decrease rapidly in the first weeks after birth the commercial preparations contain very variable amounts of theseconstituents actions and uses -- red bone-marrow is supposed to stimulate theformation of red blood corpuscles. Whatever action it may have in thisdirection is probably due largely to the iron and lecithin which itcontains it is said to be useful in simple and pernicious anemias thymus glandlittle is known as to the functions of the thymus, but it is believedto have an important relation to growth there also seems to be essayrelation between the thymus and thyroid, for the former is frequentlyabnormal in diseases involving the latter hyperthyroidism the use of thymus is purely empirical it has been employed in thetreatment of hyperthyroidism, rickets, tuberculosis, hemophilia, andinfantile marasmus and atrophy. Its use in the latter conditionsis said to be the most promising it is claimed on very doubtfulgrounds to exert a essaywhat favorable effect in certain paper ofcancer -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 69 piperazine and lycetol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of piperazine and lycetol has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary piperazine diethylenediamene and lycetol a methyl derivative ofdiethylenediamene were accepted for new and nonofficial remedies in1906 both piperazine and lycetol were asserted to be efficient uricacid solvents and efficacious remedies in the treatment of gout andrheumatism these products have been retained until now because therewas no investigation which definitely showed their uselessness as uricacid solvents, though their use is generally admitted to have beendisappointing from an exhaustive and critical study of the available evidence, hanzlik jour lab & clin med , february, 1917 concluded thatscientific evidence, though limited, and clinical opinion indicate thatpiperazine is valueless in gout and that there is sufficient scientificevidence to indicate the worthlessness of lycetol the referee in charge of piperazine and lycetol recommended that theseproducts be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies for the reasonthat they have been sufficiently tried to justify the conclusion thatthey are not of value the period of acceptance having expired, thecouncil directed that piperazine and piperazine tablets the bayercompany, inc and lycetol the bayer company, inc be omitted fromnew and nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 70 stanolind liquid paraffin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryas explained in the report which follows, “stanolind liquid paraffin”was omitted from new and nonofficial remedies at the request of theproprietors announcement of this omission was made in the preface tonew and nonofficial remedies, 1918, but publication of the councilreport was postponed pending actual conflict with the rules thecouncil now authorizes publication of the report because a circularindirectly advertising the product to the public was found enclosedwith the trade package of stanolind liquid paraffin w a puckner, secretary stanolind liquid paraffin was admitted to new and nonofficial remediesin 1916, when its method of marketing conformed to the rules of thecouncil this brand of liquid petrolatum, by action of the council, has been omitted from new and nonofficial remedies on request of thestandard oil company of indiana, its manufacturer, who wrote to thesecretary of the council stating that. “in order that our facilities for the manufacture of this oil shall be constantly engaged, it will be necessary for us to find sales on a larger scale than in the past to do this under our present advertising and marketing arrangement we feel will be impossible ”this letter, in addition, suggested “that physicians are notprescribing stanolind liquid paraffin in any considerable proportionof their orders” and “that the situation which now confronts us wouldnot be materially helped if stanolind was specified in all suchprescriptions ” further, the council is asked to consider whetherit “might be willing to declare this preparation as not a councilproduct, ” on the alleged grounds that “liquid paraffin is not medicinalin its action and passes through the digestive tract in practicallyunaltered condition ”the council holds that stanolind liquid paraffin is a drug, and that, therefore, its direct advertising to the public is in contraventionof the council rules constipation should be treated by dietaryand hygienic means evacuants are only temporary measures liquidpetrolatum is medicinal. It greatly modifies the intestinal flora.

“the scope of the present national formulary is the same as in previous issues, and is based on medical usage rather than on therapeutic ideals the committee consists entirely of pharmacists, or of men with a pharmaceutical training, and it cannot presume either to judge therapeutic practice or to follow any writingicular school of therapeutic practice the question of the addition or deletion of any formula was judged on the basis of its use by physicians and its pharmaceutical soundness the considerable use by physicians of any preparation was considered sufficient warrant for the inclusion of its formula in the book, and a negligible or diminishing use as justifying its exclusion ”writing i of the volume contains formulas, good, bad and indifferent, including the equivalents of a large number of shotgun proprietaries writing ii contains descriptions of drugs this is a new feature thepurpose is to provide standards for those drugs not described inthe pharmacopeia but used in n f preparations thesis of these drugswere described in the u s pharmacopeia viii, but have not beenincluded in the ninth revision practically all are either worthlessor superfluous writing iii contains descriptions of special tests andreagents among the therapeutically useful formulas are those for aromatic castoroil, emulsion of castor oil, sprays or nebulae, solution of aluminumacetate, solution of aluminum subacetate and wine of antimony the twolast named are also included in “useful drugs ” several formulas fornew classes of preparations which may or may not be found superiorto old forms are paste pencils for the application of medicaments tolimited areas of the skin, mulls, which are ointments spread buy compare and contrast essay likeplasters, and fluidglycerates, which are fluidextracts in whichglycerin takes the place of alcohol it should be noted also that, as aresult of criticism, the alcohol content of essay preparations has beenreduced as a whole, the present edition of the national formulary, like itspredecessors, is “pharmaceutically useful but not a therapeuticnecessity ” to say that it is not a therapeutic necessity is tostate the matter mildly, since most of the formulas and almost allof the drugs described have been discarded long since by rationaltherapeutists so long as there are physicians who prescribetherapeutic monstrosities, however, the druggist should have theaid that is furnished by this book in compounding them from thepharmacist point of view, therefore, the book is a valuable one physicians who have a scientific training in the pharmacology of drugswill not want it. Others will be better off without the temptationsoffered by its thesis irrational formulas -- book review in the journala m a , sept 2, 1916 nonspecific protein therapythe treatment by nonspecific methods in a series of paper of influenzalpneumonia has been the subject of two recent papers 295 these methodsare a development of the work of ichikawa, kraus, lüdke, jobling andpetersen, and others on the treatment of typhoid fever and of millerand lusk work on arthritis in the original work in this field itwas recognized that there were certain inherent dangers in the methodand that wide application would be permissible only with the greatestcaution and under careful control 295 roberts, dudley, and cary, e g. Bacterial protein injectionsin influenzal pneumonia, j a m a 72:922 march 29 1919 cowie, d m , and beaven, p w.

Nor apply to lawfullycommissioned surgeons and assistant surgeons of the united states armyand those who were commissioned and mustered into the united statesservice in the great rebellion, or physicians or surgeons who havebeen in active practice for ten years and at least three years in theterritory, nor prevent practice and receiving pay in localities fifteenmiles or more from the residence or office of a regular physician620 offence - violation of the act is a misdemeanor 621 fees - to the county recorder, for registration, $5 619 arkansas qualification - it is unlawful for any one to engage in the practice ofmedicine and surgery, or either, as a calling except as provided in thestatute act april 14th, 1893, s 1 a person engaging in the practice of medicine or surgery must be ofgood moral character, twenty-one years of age, and a graduate of essayreputable college of medicine and surgery that requires for graduationnot less than two courses of lectures, each in a different year s 2 before engaging in practice, such person must exhibit his diploma toessay county clerk of the state and have it recorded the clerk mustgive him a certificate of record, which may be attached to the diploma3 in all paper of doubt as to the reputability of a college, it is theduty of the clerk of the county court, when a diploma is offered forrecord, to make inquiry of the secretary of the state where the saidcollege exists as to its reputability and requirements for graduation, and if the said clerk shall find that the said college does not conformto the requirements of this article, he shall not receive the diplomaand the holder shall not be allowed to practise in the state theaggrieved applicant may apply to the state board of medical examiners, whose decision shall govern the clerk in his action 4 if after recording any diploma it shall come to the knowledge of theclerk making the record, or any other judicial or executive officer ofthe state, that the record was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, it shall be his duty to institute before the said court of recordproceedings to have such record reversed, and the holder of the diplomashall be judged guilty of a misdemeanor 5 exceptions - the act does not affect the standing of any one practisingat the time of its passage by virtue of a license under the thenexisting law, nor any one then legally engaged in the practice ofmedicine and surgery, nor does it prevent midwives from practisingtheir calling or any one else from giving such simple domestic remediesas they are in the habit of using 6 examinations - the constituted state board of medical examiners isauthorized to examine persons having no diploma from a medical college, and if found qualified to practise medicine and surgery issue acertificate entitling the holder to practise in this state s 7 systems, definition - no discrimination of schools of medicine isallowed any person who prescribes or administers medicine except asprovided in sec 6 is deemed a physician 8 penalty - the violation of this act is a misdemeanor punishable with afine of from $25 to $100 each day of practice is a separate offence9 date - the act took effect buy compare and contrast essay ninety days after its passage 10 fees - to the county clerk, for recording, $1 50 for certificate of record the county clerk is not allowed to charge afee 3 california qualification - every person practising medicine or surgery in any ofits dewritingments must present his diploma to the board of examiners withaffidavits if the board finds all facts required to be stated in theaffidavit to be true, it issues a certificate conclusive in any writingof the state act 1877-78, c 576. Amending act 1875-76, c 518 the secretary of the board receives applications the board issuescertificates to all who furnish satisfactory proof of having receiveddiplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions ingood standing act 1875-76, c 518, s 3 the medical society of the state, the eclectic medical society of thestate, and the state homœopathic medical society each appoint annuallya board of seven examiners who must be regular graduates act 1877-78, c 576. Amending act 1875-76, c 518 the board examines diplomas as to genuineness the affidavitaccompanying the diploma must state that the applicant is its lawfulpossessor, and the person therein named. That the diploma was procuredin the regular course of medical instruction and without fraud ormisrepresentation of any kind, and that the medical institutiongranting it had, at the time of granting the same, a full corps ofmedical instructors, and was at said time a legally incorporatedinstitution, actually and in good faith engaged in the business ofmedical education, and in good standing as a medical institution, andthat the applicant had complied with all the requirements of saidinstitution the affidavit may be taken before any person authorizedto administer oaths, and must be attested under the hand and officialseal of the officer, if he have a seal the board may hear such furthertestimony as they deem proper to hear as to the verification of thediploma or the identity of the person, or the manner in which thediploma was procured, and if it appears that any fact stated in theaffidavit is untrue, the application is rejected no board entertainsan application rejected by another. A rejected application cannot berenewed for at least one year 4, as amended by act 1877-78, c 918. No certificates are granted except to persons presentingdiplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions ingood standing 5 certificates must be recorded in the county of residence and the recordindorsed thereon a person removing to another county to practise mustprocure an indorsement to that effect on his certificate from thecounty clerk, and must record the certificate in the county to which heremoves 6 the board refuses certificates to individuals guilty of unprofessionalconduct the applicant is given an opportunity to be heard, bycitation. The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpœna;witnesses may be examined at the hearing by either side, and eitherside may examine medical experts as to whether such conduct isunprofessional. If it appears to the satisfaction of the board thatthe applicant is guilty of the unprofessional conduct set out in thecitation, no certificate can be granted no application is refused forunprofessional conduct more than one year before the application ifthe holder of a certificate is guilty of unprofessional conduct, thecertificate must be revoked by board granting it. No revocation isvalid without similar proceedings to the foregoing 10 definition - any person is regarded as practising medicine whoprofesses publicly to be a physician, or habitually prescribes for thesick, or appends to his name “m d ”exceptions - the act does not prohibit gratuitous services in paper ofemergency. Nor apply to lawfully commissioned surgeons of the unitedstates army or navy practising their profession 11, asamended 1877-78, c 576 itinerant venders - a license of $100 a month is exacted from itinerantvenders of drugs, nostrums, ointments, or appliances for treatmentof disease, and from persons publicly professing to cure or treatdisease, injury, or deformity by any medicine, drug, or drugs, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient act 1877-78, c 576, amending act1875-76, c 518, s 12 penalty - the penalty for violation of the act is a fine of from $50 to$500, or imprisonment in the county jail from 30 to 365 days, or both, for each and every offence filing or attempting to file the diploma orcertificate of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony, punishable the same as forgery 13. Act 1877-78, c 918, s 7 former practitioners - holders of certificates theretofore granted bythe board of examiners existing by the appointment of the californiastate medical society of homœopathic practitioners are excused by theact 1877-78, c 918, s 7, from obtaining new certificates rejected applicant - a certificate issued by one board to an applicantrejected by another within a year is null and void 9 fees - to secretary of board, for examining genuine diploma, $5 if diploma fraudulent or property of another, $20 act 1877-78, c 576, s 3.

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Between the bone and the buy compare and contrast essay larynx, 31. Over the larynx, 8. Below the larynx, 1 hackel found the ligature in forty per cent of paper between hyoid bone and larynx. In sixty per cent lower down the ligature always appears lower after the body is laid down than it was in suspension maschka found the furrow 147 times in 153 paper above the larynx the mark will vary in character according to the kind of ligature used, its mode of application, the vitality of the tissues, and the periodthat has elapsed since death the result is different according as theknot or loop is single or double, a running or slip knot the mark may differ in character in one writing of the neck from another the same furrow may be soft in one writing and dry in another the widthof the mark does not necessarily correspond to the diameter of theligature a double mark usually means that the ligature has been twicepassed around the neck, although the marks may not be continuous orparallel tardieu states that a large single leather thong pressingon the neck only by its borders may make a double mark the mark isusually depressed the depth of the depression, groove, or furrow, as it is called, is greater the narrower and firmer the ligature, thelonger the suspension, and the greater the weight of the body themark may be merely a slight depression, without color, or only a redblush, if the subject is young, tissues healthy, and suspension brief roth, 840 in 49 paper of hanging, found the furrow of the ligature wasbrown in 40, red-brown in 6, and 3 times bluish in about two-thirds of the paper the bottom of the furrow, theplace of greatest pressure, is white, especially so where the knotis tied. While the edges of the furrow are usually slightly raisedand red or livid if the subject is very fat, there may be only aslight depression harvey841 says that this hard, white, shining, translucent band from compression of the connective tissue is the firststage of the parchment or vellum skin, and is chiefly noticed in freshbodies the borders are swollen and œdematous, called by lacassagne“bourrelet de sillon ”the skin beyond the furrow is usually violet authors differ as towhether this is due to congestion or hemorrhage roth842 in 49 paperfound swelling below the furrow 27 times hackel found ecchymoses abovethe mark in thirty-five per cent of the paper of hanging hofmannthinks that the lividity of the upper border of the furrow is due tothe stopping of the venous blood descending from the head the dry, hard, yellowish-brown, or reddish-brown “parchment” furrow, described by writers, is said to be common ogston843 found it inone-third of his paper it is found only when the body has remainedsuspended for several hours after death. Indeed, may be produced byapplying the ligature to the cadaver. Is not at all, therefore, a proofof suspension during life liman states that constriction by a ligatureeven for essay time does not necessarily cause a mummified or excoriatedfurrow he saw paper in which the mark was soft, flat, scarcelycolored, but little interrupted, and not parchmenty the parchment skinseems to depend very much upon a previous excoriation of the skin itsappearance can be prevented or delayed by examining a body soon afterdeath or by rehanging it. And after it has appeared it will disappearon the application of essay liquid taylor844 compares this parchmentmark to the cutis from which the cuticle has been removed for two orthree days slight abrasions and ecchymoses are essaytimes found in the furrow ecchymoses alone do not indicate whether suspension has been before orafter death. But abrasions with hemorrhage strongly suggest suspensionduring life devergie regards ecchymoses of the neck as stronglysuggestive of homicide neyding845 says that suggillation in thegroove is oftener found in strangulation than hanging and bremme846that there is no hemorrhage in the subcutaneous tissue of the mark ifdeath occurs at once and the cord is removed at once after death. Butif the cord remains for essay time after death there may be hemorrhage, or if death does not occur at once, whether the ligature be removed ornot roth847 found ecchymoses or small bladders at the lower margin ofthe furrow, 9 times in 49 paper riechke found only once in 30 paper ahemorrhage beneath and on both sides of the mark chevers did not findecchymoses of the skin of the mark in paper of hanging casper found noecchymoses in 50 of 71 paper maschka has seen two paper where burns onthe neck resembled mark of ligature the furrow, when once distinct, remains constant for a long time afterdeath, even in putrefaction marks from soft substances, however, disappear sooner than those from strong and uniform compression the neck nearly always appears stretched according to roth themobility of the head is increased by this stretching the head isalways inclined to the opposite side to that of the knot in suicidesthe head is usually bent forward on the chest the hands are oftenclinched so tightly that the nails are driven into the palms thisoccurs more especially when the hanging has been done with violence when the feet touch the ground, as often occurs in suicide, the handsmay be stretched out roth found the hands and feet flexed in 44 of 49paper taylor says that we may expect to find the hands clinched whenconstriction of the neck is sudden and violent the legs are usuallylivid the face varies with the duration of the suspension.