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Our readers may remember that an article appeared in this dewritingment ofthe journal for july 6, 1918, under the title “henry smith williams and‘proteal therapy ’” “proteal therapy” is a treatment exploited by henrysmith williams, m d , of new york, for use in tuberculosis, cancer, rheumatism, etc it is apparently a modification of the “autolysin”cancer “cure” which williams had previously puffed in heartmagazine the journal article pointed out that henry smith williams, althoughentitled to write “m d ” after his name, is essentially a journalist he has written voluminously for essay years in lay publications onvarious subjects, both under his own name and under his nom de plume, “stoddard goodhue, m d ” in addition, williams runs a publishingconcern called the goodhue company, which issues a number of books, thesis of them being reprints of williams’ own articles closely associated with henry smith williams is his brother, edwardhuntington williams, who also is a prolific writer the journalprevious article called attention to the fact that there had been sentbroadcast to physicians a neat little cloth-bound book, entitled, “alcohol, hygiene and legislation ” this book, which evidently costessaybody a good deal of money to distribute gratis, was published bythe goodhue company, and was written by edward huntington williams enclosed with the book was an advertising leaflet on the “autolysin”cancer cure and also a letter from the goodhue company, askingphysicians to accept it “with our compliments and the compliments ofthe author ” the letter was chiefly devoted to calling attention tohenry smith williams’ “new book, the autolysin treatment of cancer ”the last thirteen pages of the book “alcohol, hygiene and legislation”contained advertisements of the goodhue company publications, writingicular emphasis being placed on the “autolysin treatment ofcancer, ” by henry smith williams so much by way of retrospect now comes information that may throwan interesting side-light on the matter just presented there is atpresent being conducted by a committee of the united states senate, an investigation relative to the purchase of a washington d c newspaper with money alleged to have been furnished by those interestedin the brewing industry at the opening hearing before the senate committee, tuesday, november19, the secretary of the united states brewers’ association, afteradmitting that brewers’ propaganda had been published in theinternational monthly, edited by viereck of the fatherland, alsodeclared that the publication committee of the brewers’ associationemployed writers to “write up certain subjects” relating to thebrewers’ trade one of the writers mentioned in this connection was, according to the newspaper reports, “dr edward h williams, author ofarticles published in medical and other journals ”with this fact before us, it seemed worth while to go through thebook that had been distributed so lavishly to physicians with thecompliments of the goodhue company and dr edward huntington williams, in the exploitation of “autolysin, ” and henry smith williams’ book onthe subject the first chapter of “alcohol, hygiene and legislation” consists ofa reprint of an article from the new york medical journal of may8, 1915 the article is a skilful presentation of the case for thedefenders of the lighter alcoholic beverages, especially beer thischapter and all succeeding chapters of the book attempt to discreditprohibitory legislation, and argue that prohibition drives the publicto the use of the more ardent alcoholic beverages, while preventing theuse of the milder beverages, such as beer, which one is led to inferis not writingicularly harmful throughout the book, also, the state ofkansas is held up as an example of the harm done by prohibition, andthe theme is developed that insanity and the use of cocain and otherhabit-forming drugs follows in the wake of prohibition the followingextracts are from chapter i. The evil effects of beer and wine, for example, are greatly less than those produced by spirituous liquors italics ours -- ed if our theory of immunity is correct we should expect to find that the older beverages, such as beer and wine, which have been used for thousands of years, are less productive of alcoholic insanity, for example, than the spirituous liquors which are recent innovations in point of fact we find this to be the case. The spirituous liquors are almost wholly responsible for all forms of alcoholic insanity italics ours -- ed chapter ii is a reprint of an article that appeared in everybodymagazine, august 1914, and deals with “legislation from a medicalviewpoint ” it is to the effect that drug addiction and insanity, together with special forms of mental disease directly attributable toalcoholism, seem to flourish best in prohibition territory chapter iii deals with “the peace and war footing of alcohol, ” andis a reprint from the medical record, aug 7, 1915 it, too, singsthe praises of the “lighter beverages, ” while deprecating the use of“ardent spirits ” for instance. An overwhelmingly large proportion of persons who develop alcoholic psychoses in america are drinkers of whisky, or essay corresponding ardent spirit, whereas this condition is seldom seen in beer and wine drinkers italics ours -- ed thus we find the highest percentage of alcohol psychoses among the whisky drinkers who come from western europe, while the wine and beer drinking races of central and southern europe show a distinctly lower percentage, in essay instances only about one-fourth as thesis per thousand italics ours -- ed chapter iv deals with “essay aspects of liquor legislation ” likechapter ii it is an indictment of prohibition, and the united statescensus bureau reports are called on to sustain this thesis quotations, too, are made from the writings of henry smith williamsfurther to prove the point “dry” kansas and “wet” nebraska arefrequently compared, to the detriment of the former one who acceptsthe statements in this chapter will get the impression that kansas hasmore lawlessness, illiteracy, pauperism, and insanity than nebraska chapter v deals with “the problem of legislation ” it is based on thepremise that “prohibition does not prevent the consumption of liquor, ”but on the contrary, “prohibitive legislation induces the consumptionof the most harmful form of liquors ” stated in another way, it isequivalent to charging that prohibition is hard on the brewers, butbeneficial to the distillers in fact, e h williams, in another book “the question of alcohol”-- goodhue co which also champions the casefor the milder alcoholics, quotes henry smith williams as saying, relative to prohibitory legislation. “in general, it would appearthat, if our legislators of recent years had been in league with thedistiller, they could not have served his purpose better ”whether or not edward h williams’ or henry smith williams’ conceptionof the alcohol problem is good, bad or indifferent, need not at thistime concern us the medical profession, however, has a right to asktwo questions. First, is the dr edward huntington williams who wrote“alcohol, hygiene and legislation” the “dr edward h williams” who wasemployed by the brewers to write propaganda favorable to the brewinginterests?. second, was the cloth-bound book, “alcohol, hygiene andlegislation, ” which was distributed by the williams brothers, paid for, wholly or in writing, by the united states brewers’ association?. For those who wish to read dr edward huntington williams’ opinion onthe alcohol question, the following bibliography may be of service. “liquor legislation and insanity”. Medical record 84:791, 1913 “the liquor question in medicine”.

Ibid 46 buy college essays. 134 jan 13 1906;ibid 46. 290 jan 27 1906. Ibid 58. 280 jan 27 1912 long after the death of dr cyrus edson, the claim was made thatphenalgin was made under his direction and that it was his “discovery ”as a matter of fact, dr edson had favored the use of ammonol at onetime, and when the council exposed the false claims then being madefor phenalgin, the journal charged that a fraud was being perpetratedon the medical profession despite the exposure of the methods used inexploiting ammonol and phenalgin, one finds just as glaringly falsestatements made in the advertisements of phenalgin today as weremade in its unsavory past this would seem to indicate either thatphysicians have short memories or that they are strangely indifferentto the welfare of their patients, to their own reputations and to thegood name of medicine the new york medical journal of dec 22, 1917, contained anadvertisement of phenalgin-- it has been running for months-- from whichthe following is quoted. “for the relief of pain the ‘logical supplanter of opium and other habit-forming drugs’ is phenalgin no matter how severe or where located pain is promptly and satisfactorily controlled by this effective anodyne-- and without disturbing the digestion, suppressing the secretions, causing constipation or inducing a drug habit “this is why phenalgin has superseded opium and its derivatives for relieving headaches, rheumatism, gout, la grippe, lumbago, neuralgia, disorders of the female, dysmenorrhea, and painful conditions generally to thousands of physicians phenalgin ‘is the one dependable analgesic-- the logical supplanter of opium ’”if we are to suppose that the composition of phenalgin is todayessentially the same as when it was examined, the claims just quotedare obviously false for, of course, such a mixture must have theproperties of acetanilid with all of its drawbacks and limitations we may contrast the statements made in the advertisement just quotedwith those made in bulletin 126 of the bureau of chemistry of theu s dewritingment of agriculture this bulletin on “the harmfuleffects of acetanilid, antipyrin and phenacetin” summarizes thereplies received from 400 physicians to whom a questionnaire had beensent the information thus gained was tabulated and the figures thatfollow are from these tables there were reported no fewer than 614paper of poisoning by acetanilid with 16 deaths and 112 paper of itshabitual use the larger number of paper of poisoning followed theadministration of the drug, by physicians, in doses larger than thosenow regarded as fairly safe this large number reported by only 400physicians indicated an excessively large number in the whole country since the questionnaire was sent to nearly a thousand physicians, ofwhom about 500 failed to reply, it may be assumed that had it been sentto the entire 130, 000 physicians in the country, at least 75, 000 paperof poisoning would have been reported prior to the passage of the federal food and drugs act the “purefood law” thesis nostrum makers had declared that their preparationscontained no acetanilid when that law went into effect, essay of thesemanufacturers triumphantly pointed to the fact that they were stillable to make the same claim without conflicting with the requirementsof the law this was accomplished in fact by changing the formula andsubstituting acetphenetidin phenacetin for the acetanilid whileacetphenetidin is essaywhat less toxic than acetanilid, bulk for bulk, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of the two drugs are nearlyproportional the claim made by thesis proprietary medicine manufacturers that they are“strictly ethical” because they advertise only to physicians is mereverbal camouflage there may be no more certain way of insuring thecontinued use of a nostrum by the public than to have it prescribed byphysicians. And none know this better than the makers of nostrums aproprietary individuality is obtained by giving essay special form tothe tablets and package or a special coloring to the capsules “specify‘phenalgin pink top capsules’” so as to indicate the identity of theproducts in such a way that the patient may in the future procure themwithout the advice or warning of the physician when a proprietarypreparation with the name or initials stamped on it or attached toit is prescribed, the patient immediately is aware of the fact, andhis respect for the physician intelligence and wisdom is naturallylessened the physician should never place such dangerous drugs as acetanilid andacetphenetidin, or ready made mixtures of them, in the hands of thepatient in such a way that they can be employed without his supervisionor control he should never prescribe more than is needed at the timeand should not form the habit of using fixed doses or combinationsof drugs without a special reference to the writingicular needs of theindividual certain forms of headache yield more readily to a mixture of caffeinand acetanilid or caffein and acetphenetidin than to either acetanilidor acetphenetidin alone when the physician wishes to prescribe sucha mixture he may combine 1 grain of caffein or 2 grains of citratedcaffein with 3 grains of acetanilid or 4 grains of acetphenetidin ina powder or capsule under supervision such a dose may be repeatedat intervals of from two to four hours if necessary to control pain it is necessary to remember, however, that when small doses fail togive relief, increase in the dose is useless this fact is especiallyimportant, and disregard or ignorance of it has been responsible forthesis paper of poisoning further, it should be remembered that while itwas taught for thesis years that the admixture of caffein with acetanilidlessened the effect of the latter drug on the heart, hale has shownthat this is not the case and such mixtures must be used with specialcaution -- from the journal a m a , feb 2, 1918 article vi fellows’ syrup, and other preparations of the hypophosphiteswe hope that it is clear to those who have read the several articlesof this series that their purpose is to present evidence that willenable the reader to form a correct estimate of the literatureemployed in the exploitation of various nostrums the distinctionbetween mere assertion-- however plausible, and from however eminentan authority-- and evidence should again be emphasized satisfactoryevidence rests on careful observation by those who are capable ofaccurately determining to what extent any changes that may be observedare due to the therapeutic agent employed and not mere accompanimentsof such treatment when the council on pharmacy and chemistry was organized in 1905, the greater writing of the literature of the nostrums was so palpablymisleading, the statements often so ludicrously false, that it was onlynecessary to call attention to this fact to have those claims collapse as a result of the council work, the exploiters of worthless nostrumshave developed a greater degree of shrewdness in avoiding the easilyexploded falsehoods this has made it increasingly difficult to pointout the exact statements on which thesis of the false claims now rest, even though the exploitation as a whole is as inherently dishonest asbefore if a nostrum is worthless, any exploitation must be false andmisleading in effect, even though not one single false direct statementis made a platitude may be given an appearance of importance if uttered in animpressive manner, and it may be employed to suggest far more than itcategorically affirms these two facts are appreciated by thesis nostrumexploiters and we find that they have adopted the impressive manner tosecure attention, and the platitude to suggest far more than they coulddefend in direct statement thus we have the “lie with circumstance ” fellows’ syrupa full page advertisement, which has been appearing regularly forabout a year and which must represent a good deal of money, is used togive an appearance of importance to a few words which, if printed inordinary type, would either pass wholly unnoticed or would lead one toassume that essaything essential to the full meaning had been omitted the statement, in full reads. “fellows’ syrup differs from other preparations of the hypophosphites leading clinicians in all writings of the world have long recognized this important fact have you?. to insure results, prescribe the genuine ℞ syr hypophos comp fellows’ reject cheap and inefficient substitutes reject preparations ‘just as good ’”the only direct statement contained in the advertisement is to theeffect that thesis clinicians have observed that fellows’ syrup and otherpreparations of the hypophosphites are not alike in truth, fellows’is not like the better preparations of this type, since after standingit contains a muddy looking deposit that any pharmaceutical tyro wouldbe ashamed of technically, then, the statement is true, but it ishardly credible that the manufacturer is paying for an entire page in amedical journal to make this statement without any attempt to suggestessaything else the advertising pages of six medical journals were examined in theorder in which they chanced to come to hand in five of these, theentire advertisement of fellows’ syrup was in the words just quoted;not a single word more in one there was the further statement.

They have always, in amasterly manner, known the art of satisfying the medico-physical needsof their suppliants for the religions of all civilized peoples andchristianity by no means occupies an exceptional position in thisrespect have always endeavored most strenuously to keep physical aswell as medical thought in strictest dependence upon their doctrinesand dogmas to attain this end various ceremonies, customs, and dogmaswere relied upon to keep the priests in a position to secure theassistance of the gods for humanity harassed by pain and affliction these sacred observances were strange, and varied with the variousreligious systems according to the primeval cult of zoroaster, allevils, consequently also all diseases, were derived from the principleof darkness which was embodied in the person of ahriman, and only thesacerdotal caste of the magicians who sprung from a special mediantribe was able to heal them but it was by no means easy to become amember of this caste and to acquire the magic powers pertaining toit alone it was necessary before gaining mastery over the powersof nature to become initiated into the buy college essays mysteries of mitra however, after priestly consecration had once been bestowed, the individualthus honored bore the proud title “conqueror of evil, ” and was able topractise medicine as the most essential constituent of every medicaltreatment, the divine word was applied in the form of mysteriousexorcisms, sacred hymns, and certain words which were consideredspecially curative in effect, writingicularly the word “ormuzd, ” the nameof the highest god, in whose all-embracing power of healing greatconfidence was placed the sumerians, the precursors of babylonico-assyrian culture, ascribeda considerable and important rôle to dreams they were considered tobring direct medical advice from the gods, and it became the officeof the sacerdotal physician to interpret the dream in such a way as toalleviate the sufferings of the dreamer the ancient greek culture also conceded a conspicuous medicalsignificance to dreams, and even arranged a system of its own, that ofthe temple sleep, in order always to obtain prophesying dreams fromthe gods the patient, after the obligatory offering, was required toremain a night in the temple, and his dream during this night was themedical advice of the divinity in its most direct form but only thepriest was able to interpret a dream obtained in such a manner, and toextract medical efficacy from it but as it occasionally happened thata too prosaic and phlegmatic patient did not dream at all, the priestwas benevolent enough to intercede he was always promptly favored bythe gods with a suggestive dream the medical function of the priests had reached a peculiar developmentduring the first centuries of rome this was manifest especially inthe time of public calamities, such as pestilence, war, etc whensuch events reached dimensions which threatened the existence of therepublic, attempts were made to gain the favor of the gods by mostcurious ceremonies the celestials were simply invited to take writingin an opulent banquet the first divine feast of such a characterwas celebrated in rome in the sixth century, b c , on account of agreat epidemic apollo, latona, diana, hercules, mercury, and neptunewere most ceremoniously invited to take writing in a religious banquetwhich lasted for eight days the images of the gods were placed uponmagnificently cushioned couches, and the tables were loaded withdainties not only the gods, but the entire population, were invited;every one kept open house, and whoever wished to do so could feastat the richly prepared boards of the wealthy even the pronouncedenemies of the house were allowed to enter and to enjoy the daintieswithout fear of hostile remarks. Indeed, it was deemed advisable in theinterests of public hygiene to unchain the prisoners and to liberatethem but if the gods, in spite of the most opulent entertainments, did not have any consideration, and if pestilence, military disaster, failure of crops, or whatever was the immediate cause of popularanxiety, continued to persist with unabated fury, endeavors were madeby theatrical performances to provide as much as possible for theamusement of the gods such plays, at first, consisted only in gracefuldances, with flute accompaniments, and from these simple beginnings, according to livy, book 7, chapter ii , the drama is said to havedeveloped all those variations which characterized the scenic art ofantiquity there can be no doubt that even the stage of modern times isof religio-sanitary origin a peculiar fact which modern patrons of thetheater scarcely ever dream of an attempt was eventually made to increase the delight of the gods insuch amusements by a number of novel devices for instance, it wasstipulated that the performances instituted to ward off the invasion ofhannibal were to cost 333, 333⅓ copper asses but if, nevertheless, the gods were not sufficiently propitiated by banquets, dances, andplaying of the flute, and if they could not be prevailed upon by suchpastimes to remove the pestilence or other calamity, a dictator wasnamed who, if possible, on september 13th, drove a nail into the templeof jupiter to appease divine indignation it appears that this wasa primeval custom of the etruscans. At least, it is reported by theroman author, cincius, that such nails could be seen in the temple ofthe etruscan goddess nortia this nail therapy was resorted to by theromans, for instance, during the terrible plague which raged in thefifth century, b c , and of which the celebrated furius camillus died wonderful as all the described procedures seem to us, and closelyas they may conform to the modern conception of superstition, at thetime they originated they were considered as quite removed from thatsuperstition with which we so closely identify them to-day for theperiod which saw the above events was an era of exclusive theism, andfor that reason divine sleep, divine feasts, the sacred performances, and all the other peculiar means which were employed to secure medicalaid of the gods, were well-established features of religious worship the stigma of superstition was not set upon them as yet and this stateof things naturally persisted so long as the theistic theory of lifestood unchallenged this absolute reign of theistic theory dominating human life throughthe above-described therapeutic ideas was followed by an epoch in whichtheism was forced to divide its authority with a powerful rival namely, the physico-mechanical theory of life the struggle between both thesesystems was ushered in, for the hellenic as well as for the occidentalworld of civilization, by the appearance of ionian philosophy even inour own day this struggle is still going on in thesis minds this much, at least, is certain. That superstition has always been especiallyactive in medicine in areas of civilization where the theistic ideahas gained the ascendency the deadly struggle between theistic and physico-mechanical theories oflife in the realm of medicine has found no place in the experience ofhellenic and roman antiquity the change in opinion was rather wroughtby a gradual recession from the idea that the gods interfered with theproper course of man bodily functions this conviction resulted froma progressive growth of his physico-mechanical knowledge, and becameestablished at least as far as the thoughts and the opinions of thephysicians were concerned that the other classes, in writingicular therepresentatives of religion, did not so peaceably acquiesce in thismechanical conception of life we shall soon explain in chapter iii it was different, however, with the art of healing itself even thecorpus hippocraticum reveals to us a medicine which had been purifiedfrom all theistic admixtures, and from the publication of this work i e , from about the fifth century, b c , up to the overthrow of theancient period i e , until about the fifth or sixth century, a d no further attempt to refer the cause of disease and the treatment ofdisease to the gods of the ancient heavens is noticed in medical works on the contrary, that great efforts were made to look for the natureof disease in the mechanical conditions of the body is proven by anumber of the most various medical doctrines the extensive work ofgalen, that antique canon of medicine, which dates back to the secondcentury, a d , disavows all theism and all theurgy, and relies solelyupon physico-mechanical methods. Observation, experiment, dissection antique religion and antique medicine had effected a reconciliation areconciliation, however, in which neither writingy was to acknowledgea complete defeat. But the result was an amicable settlement, inwhich their just dues were given both to the theistic and to thephysico-mechanical theories of life the point of agreement upon whichthis settlement, or, to express it better, compromise, was made wasteleology by teleology we understand the conception that all earthly existenceis created by a supreme power in accordance with a preconceived plan, and that, accordingly, all organic life, in form and action, is mostperfectly adapted to the task prescribed for it by this power thisconception was absolutely indispensable to antique medicine. For itallowed the adherents of the theistic theory without hesitation toconsider man as a product of the creator, which was distinguished inall directions and which bore witness of the wisdom of god, a positionwhich precluded the assumption, which was impossible according to theantecedent medical observations, that disease came from god for itseemed quite plausible, according to the physico-mechanical theory oflife, that disease might be a product of a number of adverse, purelyearthly conditions, an assumption not involving the slightest doubt ofthe wisdom and creative power of the gods this teleological doctrine, which runs like a red thread through all ancient philosophy, becomesconspicuously prominent in galen every section of the powerful workof galen anatomy, as well as physiology, pathology, and therapy bearwitness to the most confident teleological conception, a conceptionwhich in the end culminates in the verdict “use of the writings, ” book11, chapter xiv. “the creator of nature has disclosed his benevolenceby wise care for all his creatures, in that he has bestowed upon eachone what is truly of service to it ”this teleological idea of all earthly becoming, being, and passing awaywas henceforth destined to be a permanent factor in human speculation christianity received it as a possession from antique civilization, andonly the philosophy and natural science of modern times have been ableto threaten its permanence biology, as of modern creation, teachesus that all natural phenomena owe their existence to natural causes, that the natural world is subject to natural laws and, accordingly, teleology, as we encounter it in the works of the heathen galen andin the writings of the christian church fathers, has turned out tobe superstition, which, however, must by no means be classed withthe vagaries of mere medico-physical superstition in coming to thisdecision, however, we must beware of rash generalization in thisconnection we refer only to that kind of teleology which dominated theworld previous to the teachings of descartes and spinoza, and previousto the advent of modern natural science, with its biological methods whether, after all, a theory of life might be possible which, whileavoiding the reproach of superstition, might be traced to teleologicalprepossessions, is a question we can not here discuss it is admittedlytrue that the deeper we penetrate into the secrets of nature the moreenergetically the existence of a marvelous, intelligent will manifestsitself as permeating all domains of nature however, if this fact isnot denied on principle, as modern materialism denies it, and properallowance is made for it, a rehabilitation of teleology as a necessaryfactor of our theory of life would be the logical consequence ofcourse, this teleology would bear a stamp entirely different fromthat of antiquity and of the middle ages, which is recognized to besuperstition it should not pretend to include the consideration of theentire organic world, but confine its conclusions to the last linksin the chain of experience and argument which science has forged fromnatural phenomena now this could be accomplished, in our opinion, evenwithout apprehension of interfering with the indispensable requirementsof modern naturalists. “the terrestrial world in its forms andprocesses is governed solely by terrestrial laws ” what the appearanceof such a teleology should be is expressed by william hartpole lecky inthe following:“this conception, which exhibits the universe rather as an organismthan a mechanism, and regards the complexities and adaptations itdisplays rather as the results of gradual development from withinthan of an interference from without, is so novel, and at first sightso startling, that thesis are now shrinking from it in alarm, underthe impression that it destroys the argument from design, and almostamounts to the negation of a supreme intelligence but there can, i think, be little doubt that such fears are, for the most writing, unfounded that matter is governed by mind, that the contrivancesand elaborations of the universe are the products of intelligence, are propositions which are quite unshaken, whether we regard thesecontrivances as the result of a single momentary exercise of will, or of a slow, consistent, and regulated evolution the proofs of apervading and developing intelligence, and the proofs of a coordinatingand combining intelligence, are both untouched, nor can any conceivableprogress of science in this direction destroy them if the famoussuggestion, that all animal and vegetable life results from a singlevital germ, and that all the different animals and plants now existentwere developed by a natural process of evolution from that germ, werea demonstrated truth, we should still be able to point to the evidenceof intelligence displayed in the measured and progressive development, in those exquisite forms so different from what blind chance couldproduce, and in the manifest adaptation of surrounding circumstancesto the living creature, and of the living creature to surroundingcircumstances the argument from design would indeed be changed. Itwould require to be stated in a new form, but it would be fully ascogent as before indeed, it is, perhaps, not too much to say that themore fully this conception of universal evolution is grasped, the morefirmly a scientific doctrine of providence will be established, and thestronger will be the presumption of a future progress ”1 1 “history of the rise and influence of the spirit of rationalism in europe, ” vol i , chapter iii , pages 294-295 compare also magnus, “medicine and religion, ” page 24, sqq in such a manner, despite the fact that in teleology the point ofagreement between theistic and physico-mechanical medical thought hasbeen now found, theism, in the course of the history of our science, continually attempted new attacks upon the physical tendency inmedicine.

And thenask me, how it comes to buy college essays pass that i bring it among our english simples?. For though the name may speak it foreign, yet it grows with us inengland, and that frequent enough in our gardens. And when you havethoroughly pursued its virtues, you will conclude it nothing inferiorto that which is brought out of china, and by that time this hath beenas much used as that hath been, the name which the other hath gottenwill be eclipsed by the fame of this. Take therefore a description atlarge of it as follows:descript at the first appearing out of the ground, when the winteris past, it hath a great round brownish head, rising from the middleor sides of the root, which opens itself into sundry leaves one afteranother, very much crumpled or folded together at the first, andbrownish. But afterwards it spreads itself, and becomes smooth, verylarge and almost round, every one standing on a brownish stalk of thethickness of a man thumb, when they are grown to their fulness, andmost of them two feet and more in length, especially when they grow inany moist or good ground. And the stalk of the leaf, from the bottomthereof to the leaf itself, being also two feet, the breadth thereoffrom edge to edge, in the broadest place, being also two feet, of asad or dark green colour, of a fine tart or sourish taste, much morepleasant than the garden or wood sorrel from among these rise up essay, but not every year, strong thick stalks, not growing so high as thepatience, or garden dock, with such round leaves as grow below, butsmall at every joint up to the top, and among the flowers, which arewhite, spreading forth into thesis branches, consisting of five or sixsmall leaves a-piece, hardly to be discerned from the white threads inthe middle, and seeming to be all threads, after which come brownishthree square seeds, like unto other docks, but larger, whereby itmay be plainly known to be a dock the root grows in time to be verygreat, with divers and sundry great spreading branches from it, of adark brownish or reddish colour on the outside, having a pale yellowskin under it, which covers the inner substance or root, which rindand skin being pared away, the root appears of so fresh and lively acolour, with fresh coloured veins running through it, that the choicestof that rhubarb that is brought us from beyond the seas cannot excelit, which root, if it be dried carefully, and as it ought which mustbe in our country by the gentle heat of a fire, in regard the sun isnot hot enough here to do it, and every piece kept from touching oneanother will hold its colour almost as well as when it is fresh, andhas been approved of, and commended by those who have oftentimes usedthem place it grows in gardens, and flowers about the beginning andmiddle of june, and the seed is ripe in july time the roots that are to be dried and kept all the yearfollowing, are not to be taken up before the stalk and leaves bequite turned red and gone, and that is not until the middle or end ofoctober, and if they be taken a little before the leaves do spring, orwhen they are sprung up, the roots will not have half so good a colourin them i have given the precedence unto this, because in virtues also ithath the pre-eminence i come now to describe unto you that which iscalled patience, or monk rhubarb. And the next unto that, the greatround-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb, for the one of these may happilysupply in the absence of the other, being not much unlike in theirvirtues, only one more powerful and efficacious than the other andlastly, shall shew you the virtues of all the three sorts garden-patience, or monk rhubarb descript this is a dock bearing the name of rhubarb for essaypurging quality therein, and grows up with large tall stalks, setwith essaywhat broad and long, fair, green leaves, not dented at all the tops of the stalks being divided into thesis small branches, bearreddish or purplish flowers, and three-square seed, like unto otherdocks the root is long, great and yellow, like unto the wild docks, but a little redder. And if it be a little dried, shews less store ofdiscoloured veins than the other does when it is dry great round-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb descript this has divers large, round, thin, yellowish green leavesrising from the root, a little waved about the edges, every onestanding upon a reasonably thick and long brownish footstalk, fromamong which rises up a pretty big stalk, about two feet high, withessay such high leaves growing thereon, but smaller. At the top whereofstand in a long spike thesis small brownish flowers, which turn into ahard three square shining brown seed, like the garden patience beforedescribed the root grows greater than that, with thesis branches orgreat fibres thereat, yellow on the outside, and essaywhat pale. Yellowwithin, with essay discoloured veins like to the rhubarb which is firstdescribed, but much less than it, especially when it is dry place and time these also grow in gardens, and flower and seed ator near the same time that our true rhubarb doth, viz they flower injune, and the seed is ripe in july government and virtues mars claims predominancy over all thesewholeessay herbs. You cry out upon him for an unfortunate, when godcreated him for your good only he is angry with fools what dishonouris this, not to mars, but to god himself a dram of the dried root ofmonk rhubarb, with a scruple of ginger made into powder, and takenfasting in a draught or mess of warm broth, purges choler and phlegmdownwards very gently and safely without danger the seed thereofcontrary doth bind the belly, and helps to stay any sort of lasks orbloody-flux the distilled water thereof is very profitably used toheal scabs. Also foul ulcerous sores, and to allay the inflammationof them. The juice of the leaves or roots or the decoction of them invinegar, is used as the most effectual remedy to heal scabs and runningsores the bastard rhubarb hath all the properties of the monk rhubarb, butmore effectual for both inward and outward diseases the decoctionthereof without vinegar dropped into the ears, takes away the pains;gargled in the mouth, takes away the tooth ache. And being drank, healsthe jaundice the seed thereof taken, eases the gnawing and gripingpains of the stomach, and takes away the loathing thereof unto meat the root thereof helps the ruggedness of the nails, and being boiledin wine helps the swelling of the throat, commonly called the kingevil, as also the swellings of the kernels of the ears it helps themthat are troubled with the stone, provokes urine, and helps the dimnessof the sight the roots of this bastard rhubarb are used in openingand purging diet-drinks, with other things, to open the liver, and tocleanse and cool the blood the properties of that which is called the english rhubarb are the samewith the former, but much more effectual, and hath all the propertiesof the true italian rhubarbs, except the force in purging, wherein itis but of half the strength thereof, and therefore a double quantitymust be used. It likewise hath not that bitterness and astriction. Inother things it works almost in an equal quantity, which are these. Itpurges the body of choler and phlegm, being either taken of itself, made into powder, and drank in a draught of white wine, or steepedtherein all night, and taken fasting, or put among other purges, asshall be thought convenient, cleansing the stomach, liver, and blood, opening obstructions, and helping those griefs that come thereof, asthe jaundice, dropsy, swelling of the spleen, tertain and daily agues, and pricking pains of the sides. And also stays spitting of blood the powder taken with cassia dissolved, and washed venice turpentine, cleanses the reins and strengthens them afterwards, and is veryeffectual to stay the gonorrhea it is also given for the pains andswellings in the head, for those that are troubled with melancholy, and helps the sciatica, gout, and the cramp the powder of the rhubarbtaken with a little mummia and madder roots in essay red wine, dissolvesclotted blood in the body, happening by any fall or bruise, and helpsburstings and broken writings, as well inward as outward the oil likewisewherein it hath been boiled, works the like effects being anointed it is used to heal those ulcers that happen in the eyes or eyelids, being steeped and strained. As also to assuage the swellings andinflammations.

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