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“in dogs, the increase of dosage beyond the therapeutic dose to the point of death is decidedly in favor of dial ‘ciba, ’ which required a larger dose than diethylbarbituric acid to produce death ”the referee experiments on cats show that dial “ciba” is severaltimes as toxic as hydrated chloral, and more than twice as toxic asdiethylbarbituric acid barbital since the circular to which objection was made in 1918 was still beingsent out in december, 1919, the council held dial “ciba” inadmissibleto n n r and voted that report of its action in the matter beauthorized for publication the council further directed that dial“ciba” be included with articles described but not accepted -- fromthe journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 apothesine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryapothesine is a synthetic drug for producing local anesthesia, madeby parke, davis & company in the fall of 1917 the council wrote toparke, davis & company offering its aid in establishing the identity, purity and therapeutic efficiency of this synthetic local anestheticwith the ultimate object of accepting the product for inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies should the facts warrant such acceptance the council letter was never acknowledged after apothesine wasput on the market the council desired to accept it for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies but, unfortunately, was unable to do sobecause essay of the claims made for the product were not justified byacceptable evidence the manufacturers were notified of the councildesire to admit this product to n n r and the wish was expressedthat the company would either so modify its claims as to make theproduct acceptable under the council rules or else would submitevidence to the council in proof of the claims made and thus permitthe council to revise its conclusions parke, davis & company were, apparently, either unwilling or unable to submit evidence that wouldsustain their claims. Neither did they offer to modify the claimsthemselves the product, therefore, is ineligible to inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies. It will, however, be listed in the “describedbut not accepted” dewritingment of new and nonofficial remedies thereport on apothesine that follows has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary apothesine, “the hydrochlorid of diethyl-amino-propyl-cinnamate, ” isan efficient local anesthetic it belongs to the procain rather thanto the cocain type, that is, it belongs to that type which, whileeffective for injection anesthesia especially when combined withepinephrin is relatively inefficient when applied to mucous membranes apothesine may also be used for spinal anesthesia its absolutetoxicity is less than that of cocain as 20 is to 15, see table belowbut about twice that of procain as 20 is to 40, see table below itis non-irritant, is easily soluble and makes a stable solution so thatit may readily be sterilized the council took exception to certain claims made by parke, davis &company for their product on the ground that these claims were notsupported by acceptable scientific evidence one of the claims wasthat apothesine is applicable in any case in which any other localanesthetic is used this statement, made in thesis advertisements, is distinctly misleading as used when applied to mucous membranesapothesine is far inferior to cocain and to essay other localanesthetics, yet the claim obviously suggests that apothesine is anefficient substitute for any local anesthetic the manufacturers claimed, too, that apothesine is as potent as cocain the claim would lead the physician to think that apothesine had thesame anesthetic potency as cocain in solution of equal strength thisstatement, so far as it refers to the drug when applied to mucousmembranes, is not in accord with the facts and is true for injectionanesthesia only when stronger solutions are used the only supportfor the claim of equal efficiency appears to be the experiments withintracutaneous injections made by h c hamilton130 in parke, davis &company laboratory these differed considerably from the results ofsollmann 131 a further series of experiments were made by sollmannto compare still further the diverse results previously reportedby him and hamilton the latest series, while showing considerablevariations in the susceptibility of different skin areas, especiallytoward apothesine, demonstrated in every case that the efficiency ofapothesine is unmistakably lower than that of cocain, being at best onehalf the series also showed that the potency of apothesine was nevergreater than procain and averaged considerably below it 130 the comparative values of essay local anesthetics by h c hamilton, detroit, mich , from the research laboratory of parke, davis& co , j lab & clin m 4:60 nov 1918 131 comparative efficiency of local anesthetics, v, by t sollmann, from the pharmacological laboratory of the school of medicine, westernreserve university, j pharmacol & exper therap 11:69 feb 1918 another claim made for apothesine which the council holds is notsupported by evidence is that of superior safety this claim is madeon the basis of hypodermic injections in guinea-pigs carried out inthe laboratory of parke, davis & company such experiments provelittle because of the fact-- well known to laboratory workers-- that theuse of rodents in toxicity tests made by injecting a drug into thesubcutaneous tissues does not give a reliable index of the relativetoxicity of such a drug for man this is due writingly to the peculiarresistance of rodents to poisons and writingly to the great importance ofthe rate of absorption the organism destroys most local anesthetics sorapidly that the rate of absorption is more important than the absolutedose the absorption from hypodermic injections into guinea-pigsdiffers, of course, from that in clinical accidents, especially wherethe drug has been applied to mucous membranes one cannot, therefore, reliably estimate the degree of clinical danger on animals it has been shown that when toxicity tests of local anesthetics aremade on cats these animals seem to respond to the drugs in a mannermore closely approximating humans and it is a suggestive fact that themore toxic of local anesthetics, as shown by tests on cats, have beenfound the most dangerous in clinical use the absolute toxicity ofapothesine has been measured by eggleston and hatcher132 by theintravenous injection in cats the fatal doses, in terms of milligramsper kilogram ranged as follows. Alypin, holocain 10 beta eucain 12 5 cocain 15 apothesine 20 tropacocain 20-25 stovain 25-30 nirvanin 30-35 procain 40-45132 a further contribution to the pharmacology of the localanesthetics by eggleston and hatcher, from the dewritingment ofpharmacology, cornell university medical college, new york city, j pharmacol & exper therap 13:433 aug 1919 the absolute toxicity of apothesine is, therefore, only a littlelower than that of cocain, and is twice as great as that of procain the clinical dangers cannot be predicted by either method, sinceclinical accidents depend, in most instances, on idiosyncrasies, or thetechnic of application -- from the journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 eumictine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below this report declares “eumictine” ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because 1 it conflicts with rule 10 in that itis unscientific, 2 it conflicts with rule 6 in that it is sold underunwarranted therapeutic claims, 3 it conflicts with rule 4 againstindirect advertising to the public in that the name “eumictine” isblown in the bottle for the obvious purpose of bringing the productto the attention of the public when it is prescribed in the originalpackage, and 4 because the name is therapeutically suggestive and notin any way descriptive of its composition w a puckner, secretary eumictine is a preparation from the laboratory of maurice le prince, paris, france, and is marketed in this country by george j wallau, inc , new york it is claimed that the product is “a balsamo-antisepticpreparation composed of santalol, salol, and hexamethylene-tetramine, in the form of gluten-coated capsules ” nowhere in the advertisingare the amounts of the ingredients given according to theamerican agent, however, “each capsule is supposed to contain 20centigrams of santalol, 5 centigrams of salol, 5 centigrams ofhexamethylene-tetramine ”eumictine is advised “in treating genito-urinary diseases urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, pyelitis, etc ” it is claimed to be “both anantiphlogistic modifying agent, a well-tolerated diuretic” which “maybe administered for long periods without ill effects ”the council declares eumictine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies because it is exploited in conflict with the following rules:it is unscientific rule 10 eumictine is composed ofhexamethylenamin, salol and sanalol in fixed proportions hexamethylenamin may serve a useful purpose in essay forms of infectionof the urinary tract, but neither it nor salol is of any considerablevalue in gonorrhea it is now known that the balsamic preparations, formerly so widely used, do not have the curative effects in gonorrheaand associated conditions that used to be ascribed to them to combinethree substances, none of which has any distinct therapeutic value inthe conditions for which eumictine is proposed, does not enhance theirvalue there is nothing original in the combination used in eumictine, or in the manner of dispensing it it is sold under unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 theseclaims are made not only for the components of eumictine but for thecombination itself though santalol has certain advantages over theessaywhat variable oil of santal and other balsamic resins, it is nottrue that santalol “does not cause congestion of the renal epithelium”or that it does not “produce exanthema as do copaiba, cubebs, andthe ordinary santal oil ” it is not true that salol is “devoid oftoxicity ” neither is it correct to say that salol “asepticizes anddisinfects the bladder, the prostate and the urethra ” the claim thathexamethylenamin “is of value when any acute symptoms or tendency toinflammation subsist” is not justified the claim that hexamethylenamin“renders soluble the uric acid and urates” is also without foundation the following paragraph is characteristic of the claims made foreumictine. “anti-gonorrhoic by its santalol, diuretic, urolytic and analgetic by its hexamethylenetetramin urotropin antiseptic and antipyretic by its salol, eumictine represents a real therapeutic advance in the scientific treatment of diseases of the urinary passages ”instead of being “a real therapeutic advance” in the treatment ofdiseases of the urinary passages, eumictine presents one of thecomplex combinations that have long retarded the scientific treatmentof these diseases eumictine also conflicts with rules 4 and 8 of thecouncil -- from the journal a m a feb 21, 1920 platt chlorides report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on“platt chlorides ” it also declares the preparation inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because its composition is uncertainand indefinite and because the claims made for it are exaggerated andmisleading w a puckner, secretary“platt chlorides, ” marketed by henry b platt, new york, is soldas a disinfectant and germicide only incomplete and contradictorystatements have been made in regard to its composition thesis yearsago about 1899 the composition of platt chlorides was given as“the chlorids of zn 40 per cent , pb 20, ca 15, al 15, mg 5, k 5 ” thestatement that the preparation contained 20 per cent of lead chloridis interesting, in view of the fact that lead chlorid is soluble inwater at ordinary temperatures to the extent of less than 1 per cent in a booklet, also issued a number of years ago, the following “formulaof platt chlorides” was given.

” “bernoulli, ” page 287 the statement of such a luminary of the church as gregory of tours hasundoubtedly gained ecclestiastical credence for the medical efficacynot only of the tomb of st martin, but of all the relics relating tothat saint it remained only to distribute the superior medical powerwhich was contained in the holy tombs and relics in such a form aswould enable all patients, wherever they happened to be, to make use ofthem this task, apparently most difficult, was settled very easily it was discovered that everything which came in contact with a relicactually absorbed a sacred and miraculous power contained in the same, and what had been absorbed was by no means imponderable quite thecontrary essaything of material substance, and, therefore, physicallydemonstrable, passed from the relic into the objects surrounding it it was indeed a celestial fluid, but, nevertheless, of so terrestriala nature that the priests were able to demonstrate its transferenceby means of a common pair of scales thus it was customary that thesilk shreds which were deposited by the pilgrims upon the tomb of theapostle peter were weighed before they were placed there and weighedagain after their removal this weighing always and without exceptionindicated a considerable increase in their weight the pilgrim thencould travel homeward and be thoroughly consoled, as the scale haddemonstrated to him the amount of miraculous power contained in hissilk rag it was really astonishing, under essay circumstances, whatan enormous amount of curative fluid could flow from such a holy tombinto a single terrestrial object this was what happened to a king ofthe suavians he had a sick son, for whose cure every remedy had provedunavailing he at last sent an embassy to tours to obtain a relic ofst martin, but this relic was destined to be manufactured with theassistance of the embassy buy college coursework the priests were quite willing to complywith the desire of their royal petitioner, and thus a piece of silk, duly weighed beforehand, was placed upon the tomb of st martin afterthis silk had remained for one night upon the holy sepulchre, and theembassy had knelt beside praying fervently, the silk absorbed so muchcurative power that the register of the scale was raised to its highestpossible notch knowing, then, that any desired object could be saturated with themiraculous power contained in a relic, they used to apply thiscelestial power through medicaments, and to accomplish this a numberof methods were in use the most popular was to scrape the tombstoneson the graves of the saints as thoroughly as possible the powderthus obtained was then put into water or wine, and thus a medicinewas acquired which possessed an astonishing curative power it wasefficacious even in the severest ailments of the body let us listen towhat gregory of tours has reported concerning the medicinal virtues ofsuch tombstone potions he says. “oh, indescribable mixture, incomparable elixir, antidotebeyond all praise!. celestial purgative if i may be permitted touse the expression, which throws into the shade every medicalprescription, which surpasses in fragrance every earthly aroma, andis more powerful than all essences. Which purges the body like thejuice of scammony, clears the lungs like hyssop, and the head likesneezewort. Which not only cures the ailing limbs, but also, and thisis much more valuable, washes off the stains from the conscience!. ”according to this extensive power of the tombstone powder, it is by nomeans astonishing that gregory of tours, when traveling, always carrieda box of this miraculous powder with him, so that he was able at onceto heal the patients that surrounded him i was not able to obtainfrom the literary sources at my disposal any data as to whether thedirect licking off of the tombstones might not have been still moreefficacious than the all-healing extract gregory does, however, reportthat he was cured of a tumor of the tongue and lips by merely lickingthe railing of the tomb of st martin and kissing the curtain of thetemple another very efficacious remedy was the charred wick of the wax candleswhich had burned in the church this wick was pulverized, and in thismanner a very powerful curative powder was obtained which, when taken, acted in a manner similar to that of the watery or vinous tombstoneinfusion the wax which dripped from candles that were placed near the holysepulchre was also credited with thesis medicinal virtues, but it seemsthat it was employed more as an external than an internal remedy the water which had been used before easter to clean the altar ofthe saints was also considered to be a famous remedy if such waterwas employed in washing a patient he recovered at once, and this wasthe happy experience of countess eborin this exhalted patient wassuffering so severely that she believed her hour had come she was thenquickly removed to the church of st martin, and thoroughly washedwith the water that had been used in washing the altar and, behold!. The disease disappeared, and let us hope that the overjoyed countessafterward enjoyed thesis years of life oil from lamps hung in holy places was also a favorite remedy, but itappears that it was principally used for anointing however, when mixedwith holy water, it furnished a remedy which could be administered todiseased cattle with a prospect of positive cure water which was obtained by boiling the covers in which the relics werewrapped also yielded a very efficacious medicine thus, for instance, gregory of tours caused a silk cover, in which a piece of the crossof christ had been wrapped, to be thoroughly boiled, and he thenadministered this decoction to patients. The curtains which were usedas ornaments over holy graves also displayed an extremely beneficenteffect upon the sick if an individual suffering from headache touched, for instance, the carpet which was placed over the resting-place of st julian, the pain ceased but if a patient was afflicted with abdominalpains, all that was necessary to relieve him at once was to pull athread from this, the above-named carpet, and to apply it to hisrebellious digestive apparatus however, it was not necessary for the priests, under essaycircumstances, personally to take the trouble of manufacturingmiraculous medicines from relics there existed essay holy graves whichwere so accommodating that they furnished, of their own accord, theholy material that was required for the treatment of the sick thusthe chronicler records that the grave of the evangelist john exuded asort of white manna, which, owing to its wonder-working curative power, was distributed all over the world a similar product was yielded bythe grave of the apostle andrew on the festival day of that saint aprecious oil scented like nectar also sprang from the resting-place ofthis man of god we see, therefore, that the sacred pharmacopœia teemed with remedies, and that they were quite extensively employed is shown sufficiently bythe history of the saints and, above all, by the works of gregory oftours the latter, in writingicular, offer an actually inexhaustible mineof information concerning the medical activity of christian saints it does not, however, appear that this medical activity enjoyed theconfidence of priests or of laymen to such an extent that the servicesof a professional physician were entirely discarded it is true, gregory of tours expresses himself in reference to the terrestrialphysicians in a manner which is by no means complimentary, for he says:“what are they the physicians able to accomplish with theirinstruments?. their office is rather to cause pain than to alleviateit.

Markedly depressed vi 27 buy college coursework 19-- lies on side. Does not eat died during night of vi 27 19 three days experiment 5 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19.

The flowers and herbs being made intoan oil, by being set in the sun, and changed after it has stood ten ortwelve days. Or into an ointment being boiled in axunga, or salladoil, with essay wax melted therein, after it is strained. Either theoil made thereof, or the ointment, do help burnings with fire, orscalding with water the same also, or the decoction of the herb andflower, is good to bathe the feet of travellers and lacquies, whoselong running causes weariness and stiffness in the sinews and joints if the decoction be used warm, and the joints afterwards anointed withointment, it helps the dry scab, and the itch in children. And the herbwith the white flower is also very good for the sinews, arteries, andjoints, to comfort and strengthen them after travel, cold, and pains beets of beets there are two sorts, which are best known generally, andwhereof i shall principally treat at this time, viz the white andred beets and their virtues descript the common white beet has thesis great leaves next theground, essaywhat large and of a whitish green colour the stalk isgreat, strong, and ribbed, bearing great store of leaves upon it, almost to the very top of it. The flowers grow in very long tufts, small at the end, and turning down their heads, which are small, palegreenish, yellow, buds, giving cornered prickly seed the root isgreat, long, and hard, and when it has given seed is of no use at all the common red beet differs not from the white, but only it isless, and the leaves and the roots are essaywhat red.

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Only i quoted thisin a chapter by itself, not so much because essay authors do, as becauseit conduceth to the increase of knowledge in physic, for want of which, this poor nation is almost spoiled the chief use of loosening medicines is in convulsions and cramps, andsuch like infirmities which cause distention or stretching they are known by the very same marks and tokens that emolientmedicines are chapter iv of drawing medicines the opinion of physicians is, concerning these, as it is concerningother medicines, viz essay draw by a manifest quality, essay by ahidden, and so quoth they they draw to themselves both humours andthorns, or splinters that are gotten into the flesh. However this iscertain, they are all of them hot, and of thin writings. Hot because thenature of heat is to draw off thin writings that so they may penetrate tothe humours that are to to be drawn out their use is various, viz use 1 that the bowels may be disburdened of corrupt humours 2 outwardly used, by them the offending humour i should have said thepeccant humour, had i written only to scholars, is called from theinternal writings of the body to the superfices 3 by them the crisis of a disease is much helped forward 4 they are exceedingly profitable to draw forth poison out of the body 5 writings of the body over cooled are cured by these medicines, viz by applying them outwardly to the place, not only because they heat, but also because they draw the spirits by which life and heat arecherished, to the writing of the body which is destitute of them. Youcannot but know that thesis times writings of the body fall away in flesh, and their strength decays, as in essay persons arms or legs, or thelike, the usual reason is, because the vital spirit decays in thosewritings, to which use such plaisters or ointments as are attractive which is the physical term for drawing medicines for they do not onlycherish the writings by their own proper heat, but draw the vital andnatural spirits thither, whereby they are both quickened and nourished they are known almost by the same tokens that attenuating medicinesare, seeing heat. And thinness of writings is in them both, they differonly in respect of quantity, thinness of writings being most proper toattenuating medicines, but attractive medicines are hotter chapter v of discussive medicines the nature of discussing or sweating medicines is almost the samewith attractive, for there are no discussive medicines but areattractive, nor scarce any attractive medicine but is in essay measureor other discussing the difference then is only this. That discussivemedicines are hotter than attractive, and therefore nothing else needbe written of their nature use their use may be known even from their very name.