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But calculating on the lowest limit, 14 3 per cent of magnesium oxid is equivalent to at least 35 5 percent of magnesium carbonate this figure agreed closely with thatobtained from the u s p , method of assay the acetylsalicylic acidwas not combined with the magnesium from the above, it may be buy cheap essay papers statedthat each tablet consisted essentially of a mixture of 3 2 grains ofacetylsalicylic acid aspirin, 2 2 grains of magnesium carbonate andessay starch although labeled 5 grains, each tablet did not contain 5grains of the most active ingredient, acetylsalicylic acid ”the same old story an ordinary mixture of well known drugs put on themarket as a new discovery and foisted on the public under false andmisleading claims -- correspondence in the journal a m a , feb 5, 1921 so-called secretin preparationsin china the administration of powdered tiger-bone is-- or was-- afavorite form of treatment in paper of supposed cardiac weakness thetheory is, presumably, that the cardiac strength of the tiger wouldbe a good thing for the patient to acquire since thesis patients haverecovered after taking tiger-bone, and no one has proved that theymight not have died had they failed to take it, “clinical experience”stands back of the treatment. And where is the skeptic so rash asto challenge that?. the chinese physician believes in his tiger-bonetherapy, and, with the best interests of his patient at heart, insistson obtaining absolutely true and authentic tiger-bone not satisfiedwith the assertions of the dealers, the conscientious chinese physiciansubjects his tiger-bone to a kind of physiologic standardization heoffers the bone in question to a dog!. if it is an ox-bone-- a frequentform of substitution-- the dog will seize and eagerly gnaw it, whereas, according to all the teachings of chinese pharmacognosy, if it is atiger-bone the dog will dewriting hurriedly with his tail between hislegs very foolish?. yes!. but before we smile superciliously at thechinese medical man, let us turn to the report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry on “so-called secretin preparations ”257 afterreading this report let us put to ourselves, squarely and honestly, the question.

If any wish to buy cheap essay papers make them, let themlook to the simples, and there they have them. If the simples be not tobe found in this book, there are other plentiful medicines conducing tothe cure of all usual diseases. Which are oil of bays college take of bay-berries, fresh and ripe, so thesis as you please, bruise them sufficiently, then boil them in a sufficient quantity ofwater till the oil swim at top, which separate from the water, and keepfor your use culpeper it helps the cholic, and is a sovereign remedy for anydiseases in any writing of the body coming either of wind or cold college common oil of olives, is pressed out of ripe olives, notout of the stones oil of olives omphacine, is pressed out of unripeolives oil of yolks of eggs college boil the yolks till they be hard, and bruise them withyour hand or with a pestle and mortar. Beat them in an earthen vesselglazed until they begin to froth, stirring them diligently that theyburn not, being hot, put them in a linen bag, and sprinkle them witharomatic wine, and press out the oil according to art culpeper it is profitable in fistulas, and malignant ulcers, itcauses the hair to grow, it clears the skin, and takes away deformitiesthereof, viz tetters, ringworms, morphew, scabs simple oils by infusion and decoction oil of roses omphacine college take of red roses before they be ripe, bruised in a stonemortar, four ounces, oil omphacine one pound, set them in a hot sun, in a glass close stopped, a whole week, shaking them every day, thenboil them gently in a bath, press them out, and put in others, use themin like manner, do so a third time. Then keep the oil upon a pound ofjuice of roses oil of roses complete, is made in the same manner, with sweet and ripe oil, often washed, andred roses fully open, bruised, set in the sun, and boiled gently in adouble vessel, only let the third infusion stand in the sun forty days, then keep the roses and oil together in the same manner is made oil of wormwood, of the tops of commonwormwood thrice repeated, four ounces, and three pounds of ripe oil;only, the last time put in four ounces of the juice of wormwood, whichevaporate away by gentle boiling oil of dill. Of the flowers and leaves of dill four ounces, completeoil, one pound, thrice repeated oil of castoreum. Of one ounce of castoreum oil one pound, wine fourounces, which must be consumed with the heat of a bath oil of chamomel which more than one call holy of complete oil, and fresh chamomel flowers, the little white leaves taken away, cut, bruised, and the vessel covered with a thin linen cloth, set in thesun, pressed out, and three times repeated oil of wall-flowers, as oil of dill oil of quinces. Of six writings of oil omphacine, the meat and juiceof quinces one writing, set them in the sun fifteen days in a glass, andafterwards boil them four hours in a double vessel, press them out, andrenew them three times oil of elecampane. Of ripe oil, and the roots of elecampane bruised, and their juice, of each one writing, and of generous wine half a writing, which is to be evaporated away oil of euphorbium.

Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement. ‘careful examination failed to showthe presence of either diastase or pancreatin ’ in this connectioni will cite to you the following experiment carried out by myself:a package containing a 1-ounce bottle of lactopeptine powder withseal unbroken was purchased in the open market and opened in thislaboratory the label bore the special number 6 2382 two hundredmilligrams of this product was dissolved in 50 c c of a 0 25 per cent solution of sodium carbonate in water this solution was divided intotwo portions of 25 c c each one of these portions was boiled at once, and after cooling was added to 1 gm of moist fibrin contained in aflask the other portion unboiled was also added to 1 gm of moistfibrin contained in a flask both flasks after addition of 5 c c of toluene to each were stoppered and placed in an incubator at 37degrees, and left there for twelve hours examination of the two flasksat the end of this period showed that the one to which the unboiledsolution of lactopeptine powder had been added contained much lesssolid protein than did the other although this fact was obvious tothe naked eye, the exact extent of digestion in the two flasks wasdetermined by heating both to boiling, acidifying with acetic acid, diluting to definite volume, filtering and determining the nitrogen inthe filtrate by kjeldahl method subtracting the trace of nitrogencontained in the filtrate of the control flask, the results showedthat 42 per cent of the original fibrin present had been dissolvedby the unboiled lactopeptine solution this can be ascribed only totryptic activity under the conditions of this experiment furthermore, this is not simply a ‘trace’ of activity, but is at least sufficientlymarked to warrant a statement that this sample showed a distincttryptic activity inasmuch as i have obtained exactly similar resultswith two other samples of lactopeptine powder these being the onlyones i have examined, i am inclined to question the correctness ofthe council statement regarding the absence of trypsin from thispreparation as noted above, a fresh preparation was used -- ed “may i again add that i am making no statement regarding therapeuticvalue of preparation, and that i have no opinion upon that matter oneway or the other?. my work was undertaken solely out of interest tosee whether trypsin could exist in the powder which gives a markedlyacid solution when dissolved in water the elixir lactopeptine couldtheoretically show no tryptic activity, nor have i found any trace ofsuch activity in one sample of the elixir examined “in making use of any of the contents of my letters kindly include thestatement that my work upon lactopeptine was done without remunerationof any kind, and was done only for the scientific interest attached tothe question ” conclusionsthe new york pharmacal association demanded that the referee reexaminelactopeptine, making use of fresh specimens the council held that thiswas unnecessary, for the following reasons:1 the previous finding of the council, that specimens of lactopeptinefound on the open market are essentially weak saccharated pepsins, isnot to be refuted by examination of fresh specimens even if it beassumed that all old specimens of lactopeptine have been withdrawnfrom the market since the last purchase of specimens for the use ofthe council referee, there can be no assurance that the stock willbe constantly kept fresh unless the manufacturers date their product, physicians cannot know that their prescriptions are filled with freshmaterial nor is it reasonable to ask that the council examine themarket supply of any given proprietary at a time selected by themanufacturers 2 without entering into all questions of detail in the analyses, the council is willing to accept the reports of drs benedict andhawk as representative of fresh lactopeptine powder it is thereforeunnecessary for the council to make further experiments along thisline the results of these two chemists in no wise contradict theconclusions of the council referees, being comparable with thoseobtained by the referee on the fresher specimens used by them theexperiments of drs hawk and benedict show a degree of trypticactivity which, though chemically not negligible, is quite withoutsignificance practically, even if it could be assumed that the trypsinin the fresh lactopeptine escaped destruction in the stomach thefigures for tryptic activity given by dr benedict do not differmaterially from those of the first referee those of professorhawk show a tryptic activity of from 18 to 20 per cent of that ofcommercial pancreatin-- and commercial pancreatins ordinarily are oflow tryptic activity, if not inert see long and muhleman. Arch int med , february, 1914, p 314 the reports of these chemistspresent no reason for changing the conclusion that “it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity ”the results which dr balch obtained in a test for tryptic activityshow a marked discrepancy with those obtained by drs hawk andbenedict, not to mention the council referees, and also with thefact that only about 11 per cent of “pancreatin” is claimed in thepublished formula of lactopeptine the council is unable to accept dr balch result for trypsin or rennin as reliable his other results arewithout significance and call for no special comment 3 even if tryptic activity were conceded to lactopeptine, thepreparation, like all preparations containing pepsin and pancreatin, would still be, as previously stated, therapeutically irrational the council approved the report report of referee ain view of the manufacturer reiteration of the claims forlactopeptine powder, i have carried out further experiments todetermine its proteolytic and amylolytic power for the proteolytic test i used fresh, well washed fibrin and examinedsamples of lactopeptine powder numbered as follows:no 1 a writing of the english product examined and reported on lastspring no 2 -- a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail drug store indecember, 1913 no 3 a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail store in december, 1913 portions of 1 gm each of these samples were mixed with 5 gm fibrin, 100 mg of sodium carbonate and 50 c c of water in flasks a littletoluene was added to each flask, which was then closed with a tuftof cotton and the mixtures were incubated at 40 degrees throughtwenty-four hours at the end of that time there was no marked changein the quantity of the fibrin remaining in each flask, the larger writingby far being undigested as a control i used the sample of an active commercial trypsin, ofwhich i added 500 mg to the same quantity of water, fibrin and sodiumcarbonate this was digested in the same bath at the same time thedigestion was practically completed in less than ten minutes, onlyminute flakes of the fibrin remaining it is evident that the digestive power of the lactopeptine must beextremely low, and only a small fraction of that exhibited by acommercially good trypsin in an experiment with the english sample carried out through nineteenhours as above, using 2 gm of fibrin and 100 mg of ferment, it wasfound by nitrogen tests on the filtrate that about 12 2 per cent of the protein had been brought into solution, an amount which ispractically without importance in a digestion of such duration to test the starch digestive power i have made a large number ofexperiments in a series just completed i mixed 1 gm portions ofsamples 1 and 2 with water to make 100 c c volumes before makingup to the final volumes 0 5 c c of normal sodium hydroxid wasadded to neutralize the slight acidity of the ferment as shown byphenolphthalein of these mixtures 4, 6, 8 and 10 c c portions were mixed with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste and incubated at 40 degrees to find thecolorless end-point in the starch digestion, by the iodin test at the end of twenty-two hours the iodin reaction was as strong as atthe beginning, indicating no appreciable starch digestion to the flasks in which no digestion had taken place under theseconditions, 5 mg of a pancreas ferment was added this gave an almostimmediate conversion to the colorless end-point this ferment was asample of holadin which had been in the laboratory about a year the5 mg completed the reaction to the colorless end-point in less thanten minutes in a similar test i used 2 gm of lactopeptine no 3, made up to100 c c with 1 2 c c of normal alkali ten and 15 c c portions wereincubated with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste through twenty hoursat 40 degrees with no apparent result the holadin then added, 5 mg being used, completed the conversion in less than ten minutes this shows that the medium was a proper one for the test and that thelactopeptine must be extremely weak no sugar tests were made becausethe lactopeptine contains milk sugar to the extent of about 60 per cent similar results for both protein and starch digestives have beenobtained in a large number of experiments these here quoted showthat the ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition practically the digestion of a few milligrams of fibrin orstarch after thesis hours of contact, while being perhaps scientificallypossible, is of no value when we come to a consideration of the use ofsuch bodies as digestive ferments in medicine the amount of lactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” present inlactopeptine is very small, since the total acid which may be titratedby sodium hydroxid and phenolphthalein is measured by 0 5 c c ofthe normal hydroxid for 1 gm of the lactopeptine powder, in themean in different samples examined the range was found to be from0 41 c c to 0 6 c c tests with methyl orange, methyl red and otherindicators showed that the free acidity is but trifling. If the wholeof this acid, as measured by phenolphthalein, were calculated to hcl, the amount would be too small to have any appreciable physiologicactivity, in view of the daily dose recommended, 10 to 20 grains of thepowder report of referee bthe following table gives a summary of the results of my investigationson lactopeptine the numbers in the extreme left-hand column are themanufacturer identifying marks these, it is assumed, run serially, the higher numbers indicating fresher specimens table showing enzymic power of lactopeptine preparations amylase pepsin rennin trypsin lipase 2275 - - - 2301 - - - 2312 - - - 2348 - - - 2352 - - - 2364 - ?. - 2374 - - ?. 2383 - ?. 1638 tablets - - - pancreatin old - -the conclusions in the foregoing summary depend on the followingcriteria:amylase. Removal of starch paste, small in proportion to beginwith pepsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in acid media rennin.

here springs up a question uponwhich essay very buy cheap essay papers interesting evidence has been adduced in differenttrials to discuss this matter completely the question should bedivided into two, the first being:does a bullet suffer loss of weight during its course through the pieceand the air before it comes in contact with the body?. a personalletter received from captain charles shaler, of the ordnance dewritingmentof the united states army, in reply to certain questions, tends tofully settle that a lead bullet suffers a certain loss of weight in thebarrel due to the friction between the bullet and the bore. This isknown as “leading” and varies according to circumstances “patching”the bullet is often resorted to in order to reduce the leading;lubrication is also practised the fusing of a bullet takes placeespecially with lead bullets a ball which has been writingly fused inthe bore will lose the fused portions in the bore or in flight, andwill move irregularly on account of the resulting irregularity of form a 45-calibre, 500-grain service bullet, lead alloyed with tin, wasweighed without lubricant and was found to weigh 500 5 grains it wasthen lubricated in the cannelures and was fired into a butt composed ofthree barrels placed end to end and filled with sawdust tho bullet wasrecovered, no lubricant being found in the cannelures, and re-weighed, the weight obtained being 485 5 the loss of weight was, therefore, 15 grains or three per cent, essay of which may have been due to thebullet penetrating the sawdust a german-silver “jacketed” 30-calibrebullet, weighing before firing 231 grains, fired without lubrication, when recovered and re-weighed was found to have suffered a loss ofweight of one-half grain or one-quarter of one per cent the other writingof the main question is:does the bullet lose in weight in its course through the body?. thisis, of course, intended to pertain only to those instances in whichthere is no evidence of splitting or division of the bullet, andrefers only to the effect of friction or attrition june 5th, 1878, in saratoga county, mrs jesse billings was accidentally killed by abullet her husband was arrested and tried for murder on the firsttrial he was acquitted a second trial, however, was held, and essayvery interesting expert testimony was brought out on matters pertainingto these questions the medical evidence is published in full by dr lewis balch, of albany, in the transactions of the medical societyof the state of new york for 1881 the rifle from which the bulletwas supposed to have been fired was found in a well, and was sworn tohave belonged to jesse billings in it was found a cartridge of thetype known as the commercial long no 44 this gun became an importantfactor in the case, and most of the evidence as to whether it was theweapon with which the murder had been committed was referred to themedical experts the defence in the first trial claimed that all thelead fired was found in mrs billings’ head on the second trial thesame claim was not made, but that it was a smaller bullet than a 44and its weight less than 220 grains. That in consequence this riflecould not have been that from which the shot was fired, for it onlycalled for a 44 ball, and that it would have thrown a bullet withsuch force that it must have gone entirely through the head theyfurther claimed that powder-marks and grains of powder were found inthe window-sash, showing that the weapon was fired near the window, andthat the hole in the glass was not large enough to admit a full-sized 44 ball the verdict was mainly won upon these statements a questionfor the medical experts to answer was, what would be the effect uponthe skull of a 44-calibre ball fired from a ballard rifle, the ballweighing 220 grains and the charge of powder being 28 grains?. also whatwould be the effect upon the ball?. experts from the ordnance corps andfrom the rifle factories were able to testify that the bullet foundin mrs billings’ head was originally a 44-calibre ball. Also thatits markings showed the peculiar left-handed twist used in riflingthis writingicular arm the defence maintained that it could not havebeen a 44, claiming that the hole in the window-pane showed that theoriginal window produced in court was no criterion, since from repeatedhandling the hole made by the bullet had become enlarged and changedin shape both of the experts for the defence believed that the ballcould not make a hole smaller than itself when passing through glass this necessarily supposes that the ball after being fired is the samecalibre as before, which, as shown above, is not always the case sodr balch fired forty-five rounds from the billings rifle with 220grains of lead and 28 grains of powder the shots were fired throughglass set in sashes, the glass being 28×13¼, double thick and americanmake the rifle was discharged at varying angles and at distancesvarying from two to seventy feet, and he obtained one shot where thehole made would not admit a full-sized ball his summary was as follows. Balls unable to pass through 1 balls writingly passed 3 balls passed 18 cartridge passed 21 glass broken out 2 total 45other rounds were fired from a colt navy revolver, old style, 36calibre, at distances varying from ten to twenty feet the holes madewere so large that the barrels and ramrods could be passed withouttouching the examination of the one instance noted above where theaperture in the glass was smaller than the ball is explained by balchas follows. “a ball conoidal in form, passing with great velocity, strikes glass, penetrates, but does not break the glass at the point ofentrance the point struck is instantly disintegrated, and so rapid isthe stroke that it has not time to call upon the surrounding writingiclesfor support. Hence the smallness of the hole as glass is made itvaries in elasticity.

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there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect. It has not been demonstrated that they influence any pathologic process. They are not ‘foods ’ if they are of any use, that use has never been discovered ”the case seems to stand about like this.