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Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid. They often do not show themselves until about the twelfthday, and then as discolorations appearing generally first about theears and temples, then on the face, from which they spread to the neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, and finally to the legs this is almost theinverse order of the putrefactive changes in bodies exposed to the air as a result of the formation of gases, the body in a short time becomesbuoyant. After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change. Rigor mortis may persist, writingicularly if the water is cold fourth or fifth day - skin of the ball of the thumb and littlefinger, also the lateral surface of the fingers, begins to whiten thiswhitening gradually extends to the palms of the hands and soles of thefeet the skin of the face will appear softened and of a more fadedwhite than the rest of the body fifteenth day - face slightly swollen and red. A greenish spotbegins to form on the neck and skin of the mid-sternum the skin of thehands and feet is quite white and wrinkled the subcutaneous cellulartissue of the thorax is reddish and the upper writing of the corticalsubstance of the brain of a greenish tint at one month - the face is reddish-brown, the eyelids and lips greenand swollen, and the neck slightly green a greenish discoloration isalso seen over the upper and middle writing of the sternum the skin iswrinkled the hair and nails still remain intact the scrotum and penisare distended by gas the lungs become very emphysematous and overlapthe heart saponification when the bodies were removed from the cimetière des innocents in paris, in 1786, fourcray observed that thesis of them had been converted intoa substance which he termed adipocere he gave it this name becauseit resembles both fat adeps and wax cera under certaincircumstances which will be considered later, it is known to be alate product of the putrefactive processes adipocere is a substanceof a cheese-like consistency, yellow or yellowish-brown in color, and composed chiefly of a mixture of the fatty acids chevreul hasshown by analysis that it is a true ammoniacal soap, but that whenformed in water impregnated with lime a calcareous may be substitutedfor an ammoniacal base this may take place either in a body exposedto river-water or buried in a grave wet by water containing calciumcarbonate or sulphate saponification can only take place when animalfat is in contact with nitrogenous matter neither fat nor fibrin whenkept separate will saponify skin deprived of all its fat will not betransformed into adipocere saponification commences in the fat of the female breast, of the cheeksand other writings of the body where large accumulations of fat are found, such as around the kidneys and in the omentum as fat is distributedextensively throughout the body, nearly all writings may undergo thistransformation taylor gives the following conditions as favorable tothe change:1 bodies of young persons, because the fat is abundant and chieflyexternal 2 bodies of corpulent adults 3 exposure of bodies to the soil of water-closets 4 the immersion of bodies in water, the change taking place morerapidly in running than in stagnant water 5 humid soil, especially when bodies are placed in it one upon theother in this case the lowest of them is first changed when a body has been completely saponified it may remain in this statefor years in one instance, after seventeen years’ burial thesis of theorgans could still be recognized the time required for saponification to take place is essaytimes ofmedico-legal importance three years are usually necessary for bodiesburied in the earth the change occurs more rapidly in water paper arerecorded where the body of a new-born child was completely saponifiedin six weeks, and again, the change had commenced in a body which hadbeen in the water about four months. But these are unusual paper data upon which opinion as to time of death is formed the changes which take place in a body before putrefaction sets in mayenable a medical jurist to form an opinion as to the probable timewhich has elapsed since death. Yet it must be remembered, to pronouncethe time which has elapsed can only be done approximately, for verythesis conditions will have to be considered, which will vary in eachindividual case the importance of considering the minutest detail iswell illustrated by the death of prince de condé, duke of bourbon, who was found dead in his bedroom in the chateau of st cyr whendiscovered at 8 o’clock in the morning, the deceased was found writinglyundressed, hanging by his cravat to one of the window shutters thebody was cold and the lower extremities rigid as in asphyxia fromhanging the warmth of the body is usually preserved longer than undercommon circumstances, viz , from twelve to fifteen hours, before whichperiod rigidity is seldom complete, the medical examiner inferred thatthe deceased must have died very soon after he retired to his bedroomon the previous night as this was proven to have been 10 p m , itfollowed that only ten hours had elapsed a short time for cooling andrigidity to have taken place it was thus rendered probable that thehanging took place soon after deceased reached his bedroom it wasalleged that the duke had been murdered, and that his body had beenafterward suspended to create a suspicion of suicide the condition ofthe body was, among other things, adverse to this opinion from 10 to12 o’clock it was proved there were numerous attendants moving aboutnear the duke awritingments they would have heard any unusual noise theduke must have made in resisting his assailant but no noise was heardin the room at that or any other time, and the presumption of thisbeing a homicide was thus strongly rebutted cadaveric rigidity, while often it will aid to, is not a reliableguide when once it is established it may remain two, three, or fourdays, according to the season of the year and other circumstances, andwhen it exists there is no rule by which it can be determined whether abody has been in this state three hours or three days putrefaction, while appearing on an average, under a meantemperature, in from three to six days, is yet influenced by thesiscircumstances the heat and moisture of the surroundings, the age, sex, amount of flesh on the body, mode of death, position and coverings ofbody, all must be considered the temperature of the body aids us, yet the retention of warmth bythe abdominal viscera may be met with in a marked degree twenty hoursafter death.

Snyder v snyder, 60 how buy a professional business plan prac , 368. Weld v walker, 130 mass , 422. Guthrie v weaver, 1 mo apps , 136. Johnsonv marinus, 18 abb n c , 72, and note 493the law casts the duty of burial of the wife upon the husband, andof the husband upon the wife in secord v secord cited in note 1above, the court said. “there are cogent reasons connected with publicpolicy and the peace of families, where in the absence of testamentarydisposition the possession of a corpse and the right to determine itsburial should follow the administration of the estate ” inasmuch asthe husband has the first right to administer upon the estate of thewife, and the wife upon the estate of the husband, the law imposes thecorrelative duty of burial upon the person having such right. And soit has been held that the husband is liable for the necessary expenseof the decent interment of his wife from whom he has been separated, whether the writingy incurring the expense is an undertaker or merevolunteer 494where the deceased leaves a will appointing executors, the executorshave a right to the possession of the body, and the duty of burialis imposed upon them, but it has been doubted whether at common lawa direction by will concerning the disposal of the body could beenforced, and therefore the right to make such direction has beenconferred by statute in several states 495and where a widow ordered a funeral of her husband, it was held thatshe was liable for the expense, although she was an infant at the time, the court holding that the expense fell under the head of necessaries, for which infants’ estates are liable 496if there be no husband or wife of the deceased, the nearest of kinin the order of right to administration is charged with the duty ofburial 497such acts as casting a dead human body into a river without the ritesof sepulture kanavans case, 1 me , 226. Stealing a corpse 2 east, pc , 652 or stealing for dissection a dead body of one executed whenthe death sentence did not direct dissection rex v cundick, d &r , n p , 13, were indictable offences at common law 498in the works of the early dramatists, and by essay writers of fiction, it has been stated, or implied, that the body of a deceased personcould be seized and detained to compel the payment of his debts thiswas never the law in jones v ashburnham, 4 east, 460, it was heldthat to seize a dead body on pretence of arresting for debt would becontra bonos mores, and an extortion on the relatives, and that casedistinctly overrules any authority to be derived from the case of quickv coppleton, 1 vent , 161, to the effect that forbearance to seizeor hold a body upon such a pretence would afford any consideration fora promise to pay a debt so, also, where a jailer refused to give upa body of a person who had died while a prisoner in execution in hiscustody, to the executors of the deceased, unless they would satisfycertain claims against the deceased due the jailer, the court issueda peremptory mandamus in the first instance, commanding that the bodyshould be delivered up to the executors rex v fox, 2 q b , 247 and in r v scott, 2 q b , 248, it was said, that a jailer whoshould attempt to do so would be guilty of misconduct in his publiccharacter, for which he would be liable to prosecution 499how and by whom the dead human body may be removed or exhumed - wherethe right of burial has been exercised, and the body interred inits final resting-place, no person has any right to interferewith it without the consent of the owner of the grave, or of theproperly constituted public authorities in foster v dodd, 8 d & e , 842-854, it was held, that a dead body belongs to no one, andis, therefore, under the protection of the public if it lies inconsecrated ground, ecclesiastical authorities will interpose forits protection. But whether in ground consecrated or unconsecrated, indignities offered to the remains or the act of indecentlydisinterring them, are the ground of an indictment 500even the purchaser of land upon which is located a burial-ground maybe enjoined from removing bodies therefrom, if he attempts to do soagainst the wishes of the relatives or next of kin of the deceased every interment is a concession of the privilege which cannot afterwardbe repudiated, and the purchaser title to the ground is fettered withthe right of burial 501on the other hand, the right of the municipal or state authorities, with the consent of the owner of the burial lot or in the execution ofthe right of eminent domain, to remove dead bodies from cemeteries iswell settled 502after the right of burial has once been exercised by the person chargedwith the duty of burial, or where such person has consented to theburial by another person, no right to the corpse remains except toprotect it from unlawful interference 503on the other hand, where a husband did not freely consent to the burialof his wife in a lot owned by another person, it was held that a courtof equity might permit him, after such burial, to remove her body, coffin, and tombstones to his own lot, and restrain any person frominterfering with such removal 504in rhodes v brandt, 21 hun, n y , 1, the defendant brought anaction against one beelard to recover for services rendered by him, asa physician, in treating a child of beelard for a fracture of thethigh-bone, in which action beelard set up malpractice on the writing ofthe defendant as a defence during the pendency of the action the childdied and was buried subsequently beelard, the father, acting under theadvice of his counsel, directed and allowed the plaintiff, a physician, to cause the body of the child to be exhumed, and a portion of thethigh-bone to be removed, in order that it might be used in evidence onthe trial of the question of malpractice after the bone was removed, the body was returned to the grave the defendant thereupon caused theplaintiff to be arrested for unlawfully removing the body from thegrave contrary to the provisions of the statute, and the plaintiffsued the defendant for malicious prosecution the court held that theplaintiff had not removed the body from the grave “for the purpose ofdissection or from mere wantonness, ” as these terms were used in thestatute 3 r s , 6th ed , 965, for violation of which he had beenarrested, nor had he committed any offence against public decency orthe spirit of the statute 505autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accusedpersons - as shown in a previous article in this volume, on the powersand duties of coroners and medical examiners, in paper of sudden orsuspicious death, it has been the law for nearly a thousand yearsthat an inquisition or inquest super visum corporis must be held byan officer known as a coroner, and that this office and its powers andduties were inherited by this country as writing of the english common-lawsystem in force at the time of the formation of the republic of theunited states when a body has been buried, and the coroner believesthat an inquest is necessary, he has power to disinter the body andhold an inquest, and he may direct a post-mortem examination to bemade, but after having done so he must cause the body to be reinterred it is now well settled that in holding such an inquest, and making suchan autopsy or post-mortem examination required by his official duty, the coroner has authority to employ, and it is his duty to employ, professional skill and aid, and his contract will bind the county topay a reasonable compensation for the same 506as will be seen below from a synopsis of the statutes relating tothis matter, thesis of the states have enacted statutes defining andprescribing the duties of the coroner and other public officers in suchpaper at an early period in england see 2 and 3 will iv , chap 75, sec 7 it was enacted by the english parliament that any executoror other person having lawful possession of the body of a deceasedperson, and not being an undertaker or other writingy entrusted with thebody for the purpose only of interment, might lawfully permit the bodyof such deceased person to undergo an anatomical examination, unlessto the knowledge of such executor or other writingy such person shouldhave expressed his desire during his life in writing, or verbally inthe presence of two or more witnesses during his illness whereof hedied, that his body after death might not undergo such examination, orunless the surviving husband or wife or known relative of the deceasedshall require the body to be interred without such examination byanother section of this statute sec 10, professors of anatomy andother persons duly licensed were declared not liable to punishment forhaving in their possession human bodies when having such possessionaccording to the provisions of the act section 308 of the new york penal code, subdivision 3, as amendedby chapter 500, laws 1889, enacts that whenever and so far as thehusband, wife, or next of kin of the deceased, being charged by lawwith the duty of burial, may authorize dissection for the purposeof ascertaining the cause of death and no further, the right existsto dissect the dead human body the same statute also provides thatwhenever any district attorney of that state, in the discharge ofhis official duties, shall deem it necessary, he may exhume, takepossession of, and remove the body of a deceased person, or anyportion thereof, and submit the same to a proper physical or chemicalexamination or analysis, to ascertain the cause of death, whichexamination or analysis will be made on the order of a justice of thesupreme court of the state, or the county judge of the county in whichthe dead bodies shall be, granted on the application of the districtattorney, with or without notice to the relatives of the deceasedperson, or to any person or corporation having the legal charge ofsuch body, as the court may direct the district attorney shall alsohave power to direct the sheriff, constable, or other peace officer, and employ such person or persons as he may deem necessary to assisthim, in exhuming, removing, obtaining possession of, and examiningphysically or chemically such dead body, or any portion thereof. Theexpense thereof to be a county charge paid by the county treasurer onthe certificate of the district attorney the matter of ordering autopsies and dissections of dead bodies, orexhuming the same for that purpose or other purposes, is a matter of somuch public importance that it has been regulated in nearly all of theunited states by statutory enactments, which together with the otherstatutes relating to the subject-matter of this article are hereuntoappended the author of this article is greatly indebted for assistance inpreparing the same, and in compiling these statutes, to mr amasa j parker, jr , of the albany, n y , bar appendix statutory regulations concerning dead bodies the coroner has power to hold inquest and direct autopsy, ala , code, sec 4, 801 et seq ariz , pen code, sec 2, 309 et seq ark , r s , sec 692 cal , pen code. Sec 1, 510 col , mill stat , sec 870 conn , gen stat , secs 2, 005, 2, 008 del , r s , ch 33 fla , r s , secs 3, 011, 3, 019 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 4, 101 et seq idaho, r s , sec 8, 377 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 ind , r s , secs 5, 878, 5, 879 iowa, mccl am code, sec 487 kan , gen stat , secs 1, 780, 1, 784 ky , gen stat , ch 25, secs 3, 11 la , voorh rev l , sec 653 me , r s , ch 139, sec 1 md , code, art 22, secs 3, 4 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 011 et seq miss , am code, sec 816 mo , r l , sec 2, 438 et seq mont , crim l , secs 869, 883 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 1 et seq n j , rev stat , p 170 et seq n c , code, sec 657 n dak , comp laws, sec 664 et seq ohio, r l , sec 1, 221 et seq oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 745 et seq ore , crim code, sec 453 et seq pa , bright pen digest, 1536, sec 37 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 17 s c , r s , secs 711, 2, 664 et seq tenn , code, sec 6, 139 et seq va , code, sec 2, 928 et seq wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 245 et seq w va , code, ch 154 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 879 et seq medical examiner shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mass , pub stat , ch 26, secs 10, 11 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420 justice of the peace shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mich , how am stat , v 2, sec 9, 583 et seq nev , gen stat , sec 225 et seq n m , comp l , sec 443 et seq texas, code crim p , art 988 et seq vt , rev l , sec 3, 934 et seq wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 and may order a body to be disinterred for the purpose of holding suchinquisition ark , r l , sec 718 cal , pen code, sec 1, 510 del , r l , ch 33 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 410 et seq idaho, r l , sec 8, 377 s c , r s , sec 2, 687 texas, code crim p , art 989 and when not claimed by friends and relatives, to bury the bodydecently, and when the property of deceased is not sufficient to defrayexpenses, this may be done at public expense cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , sec 882 conn , gen stat , sec 2, 015 idaho, r l , sec 2, 081 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 iowa, mccl am code, sec 501 kan , gen stat , sec 1, 792 ky , gen stat , ch 25, sec 6 la , voorh rev l , sec 660 me , r s , ch 139, sec 11 md , code, art 22, sec 7 mass , laws, 1887, ch 310 mich , how am stat , v 3, sec 9, 593 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 021 miss , am code, secs 3, 145, 3, 146 mo , r l , sec 2, 456 mont , gen laws, sec 881 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 nev , gen stat , sec 2, 269 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 16 n j , rev stat , p 170, sec 5 n m , comp laws, sec 447 n dak , comp laws, sec 676 ohio, r l , sec 1, 227 oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 759 ore , crim code, sec 462 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 24 tenn , code, sec 6, 150 va , code, sec 3, 946 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 257 w va , code, ch 154, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 886 removal or disinterment of a dead body without authority of law orconsent of relatives, for the purpose of selling such body or fordissection or for mere wantonness, is a a felony cal , pen code, sec 290 ga , laws, 1882, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, p 794 ind , r s , sec 2, 166 mo , r s , secs 3, 842, 3, 845 mont , laws, 1889, p 114 n c , laws, 1885, ch 90 b a misdemeanor ark , r s , secs 1, 902, 1, 903 del , laws, 1883, ch 234 kan , gen stat , sec 2, 372 et seq md , code, art 27, secs 133, 134 pa , bright pen digest, 229, sec 11 tenn , code, secs 5, 659, 5, 660 c is punishable by various sentences ala , code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 ariz , pen code, sec 491 col , mill stat , sec 1, 367 conn , gen stat , sec 1, 880 fla , r l , sec 2, 625 iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 328 ky , gen stat , ch 29, art 17, sec 16 me , r s , ch 124, sec 27 mass , pub stat , ch 207, secs 47, 48 mich , how stat , v 2, sec 9, 297 miss , am code, secs 1, 023, 1, 024 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 847 n h , pub stat , ch 266, sec 7 n dak , comp laws, sec 6, 559 ohio, r l , sec 7, 034 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 198 ore , crim code, sec 656 texas, pen code, art 345 vt , rev l , secs 4, 194, 4, 196 va , code, sec 208 w va , code, ch 149, sec 13 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 592 wyo , r l , sec 1, 029 d a high misdemeanor n j , rev stat , p 249, sec 122 bodies of criminals executed under sentence, and those dying in jail, poor-house, etc , when to be delivered over for dissection ark , r s , sec 2, 552 cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , secs 1, 547, 1, 548, 1, 204 conn , gen stat , secs 1, 729, 1, 732 ga , laws, 1887, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 869 ill , crim code, sec 503 ill , s & c am stat , v 3, p 867 ind , r l , sec 4, 258 et seq iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 329 kan , gen stat , sec 3, 758 me , r s , ch 13, sec 2 me , laws, 1893, ch 254 mass , laws, 1891, ch 185 mass , pub stat , ch 202, sec 8 mich , how stat , v 3, sec 2, 284 minn , gen stat , sec 678 mo , r s , sec 6, 883 neb , consol stat , secs 3, 299, 3, 301, 5, 848 n h , pub stat , ch 136 n j , rev stat , p 239, sec 69 n c , laws, 1891, ch 129 n dak , laws, 1890, ch 92 ohio, r s , sec 3, 763 ore , hill am laws, sec 3, 730 et seq pa , bright pen dig , p 94, sec 1 et seq vt , laws, 1884, ch 85 va , code, ch 80 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 2, 428 et seq wash , s & b am stat , sec 1, 437 duty of burial, etc ariz , pen code, sec 493 cal , pen code, sec 292 minn , gen stat , sec 6, 221 n dak , comp laws, secs 6, 550, 6, 556 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 189 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable col , mill stat , sec 1, 195 fla , r l , sec 2, 393 mass , pub stat , ch 207, sec 11 mich , how am stat , sec 9, 284 mont , crim l , sec 41 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 582 nev , gen stat , sec 4, 597 n h , pub stat , ch 278, sec 14 n dak , comp l , sec 6, 947 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 179 ore , crim code, sec 649 pa , bright pen digest, 431, sec 158 r i , pub stat , ch 244, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 585 is a misdemeanor minn , gen stat , sec 6, 210 n j , rev stat , p 241, sec 83 is a felony mo , r s , sec 3, 479 whether born dead or alivealabama removal of body wantonly for dissection or sale, purchase of abody unlawfully disinterred, violating grave with intent to stealbody, etc , or wantonly mutilating body, is punishable by fine orimprisonment code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 coroner, or in his absence justice of the peace, to hold inquest anddirect examination of body by surgeon, etc code, sec 4, 801 etseq arizona mutilation, etc , of dead body is a felony pen code, sec 491 removal of a writing of body unlawfully is punishable pen code, sec 492 duty of burying body is, if a married woman, on husband. If nota married woman, on nearest of kin who is an adult possessed ofsufficient means if deceased has no relatives, on coroner holdinginquest or overseers, etc , of poor pen code, sec 493 refusal of one on whom duty of burial is imposed by law, is punishable pen code, sec 494 arrest or attachment of a dead body is a misdemeanor pen code, sec 496 et seq coroner to hold inquest and direct autopsy pen code, sec 2, 309 etseq person whose duty it is to bury is entitled to custody except wherecoroner holds it until inquest is completed pen code, sec 495 arkansas bodies of persons dying in alms-house, prison, house of correction, orjail shall be surrendered to a physician for dissection, etc , unlessthe deceased request to be buried or the body is claimed by relatives, or unless deceased died suddenly and unknown. And after such use fordissection it shall be decently buried r s , sec 2, 552 removal of dead body for the purpose of dissection, or stealing, orfrom wantonness, or receiving same knowing it to have been unlawfullydisinterred, is a misdemeanor r s , secs 1, 902, 1, 903 dead body can be transported out of county in which death occurred onpermit of state board of health r s , sec 480 coroner to hold inquest and direct autopsy, etc r s , sec 692 and may order a body to be disinterred for inquisition r s , sec 718 california removal, mutilation, or disinterment of dead body without authority oflaw is a felony pen code, sec 290 removal of writing of body for sale, dissection maliciously or wantonly ispunishable pen code, sec 291 duty of burial - of married woman, on husband.

“catarrh, acute and chronic. Colds, influenza -- the micro-organisms capable of producing catarrhal conditions of the nose and pharynx and most commonly isolated are b friedländer, m catarrhalis, staphylococcus, pneumococcus in infections beginning in the larynx, b influenza and streptococcus these organisms are found normally in the respiratory passages and acquire virulence only when resistance has been lowered through overwork, exposure to cold, etc “the results following the use of catarrhal vaccine combined in the non-epidemic forms and influenza mixed vaccine in the epidemic types have been very satisfactory, due to the great vascularity of the tissues acute attacks are aborted altogether or shortened in duration and the danger of complications greatly minimized ”no evidence was submitted which warrants the preceding claims noris the council aware of any reliable testimony to indicate that theadministration of the mixture here discussed is warranted or desirable on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that “catarrhal vaccine combined-lilly” and “influenzamixed vaccine-lilly” be not included in new and nonofficial remediesbecause satisfactory evidence of their value is wanting influenza serobacterin mixed-mulfordbecause of inquiry received, the council took up the considerationof “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford, ” and requested the mulfordcompany to present evidence to establish the admissibility of thepreparation to new and nonofficial remedies the mulford company sentspecimens of the serobacterin in question, an advertising circular anda letter by the director of its biologic laboratories according to the label on the package, the preparation is made fromthe following organisms. Bacillus influenzae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, pneumococcus and micrococcuscatarrhalis group this mixture is recommended by the manufacturer. “for the prophylaxis and treatment of common colds, mixed infections of the respiratory mucous membranes, acute and chronic catarrhal conditions of the nose, throat and respiratory passages ”no evidence is submitted for this recommendation except that in “coldsand bronchitis and the other common infections of the upper respiratorypassages five or six bacteria are very commonly present-- two ormore of them are nearly always present ” and the letter by thedirector of the mulford biologic laboratories expressing the beliefthat in his own case the use of the mixed vaccine has aborted orprevented colds as regards the use of this complex biologic preparation:first, the cause of common colds is, at the present time, quiteunknown one of the most striking things is that at the beginning ofa cold the organisms to be cultivated from the nasal mucous membraneare very few in number and there is no uniformity in the type oforganism found if essayone of the well-known organisms streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, influenzabacillus, etc were responsible, we should expect to find one of thempreponderating and in overwhelming numbers this is far from the case after the duration of the cold for a day or two with the increasedproduction of mucus and apparently with the infection of a mucousmembrane whose powers of resistance have been greatly lowered, bacteriaof all kinds are to be found in immense numbers there is considerablereason for believing that an ultramicroscopic organism is responsiblefor this condition see foster, journal of infectious diseases21:451 nov 1917 second, there is no acceptable clinical evidence that vaccination withthe influenza bacillus, the streptococcus, the pneumococcus or themicrococcus catarrhalis will influence the course of an infection dueto one or the other of these organisms it has been repeatedly foundthat a staphylococcus vaccine is of a certain degree of value when theinfection with the staphylococcus is localized, but it is well knownthat general systemic infections with the staphylococcus are not at allbenefited third, the letter submitted as evidence by the mulford company is notconvincing the council is not prepared to accept evidence of this sortunless it is in volume large enough to justify a definite conclusion holding that there is no evidence for the value of this mixture, thecouncil declared “influenza serobacterin mixed-mulford” inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because its use is illogical sherman mixed vaccine no 40because of inquiry received the council decided to consider thispreparation and requested the manufacturer, g h sherman, detroit, mich , to submit evidence in support of the claims made for it this vaccine is said to be made from killed cultures of streptococcus, pneumococcus, micrococcus catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, andstaphylococcus albus in the printed matter sent out by g h shermanthis vaccine is recommended for hay-fever, in which it is stated thatessay of the symptoms are due to bacterial invasion of the respiratorymucosa. For tonsillitis, both as a remedy and as a prophylactic againstrheumatic and other sequelae. For “throat infections”. For rhinitiswith the claims that acute coryza can be aborted within twenty-fourhours. For pneumonia in which it is advised for all stages. Forlaryngitis, for bronchitis, and for asthma no acceptable evidence was submitted as to the value of the product inthe treatment of any of the foregoing conditions in view of what isknown about non-specific reactions, it seems likely that any influencewhich this vaccine may have on the diverse conditions enumerated bythe manufacturer, is due to this, rather than to the combination oforganisms used in its preparation on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines, thecouncil declared “sherman mixed vaccine no 40” ineligible to newand nonofficial remedies because the therapeutic claims made for itare unwarranted rule 6 and because the combination, in view ofits complexity, is irrational and detrimental to sound therapy rule10 -- from the journal a m a , june 23, 1918 ophthalmol-lindemann report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryophthalmol-lindemann was taken up for consideration by the councilbecause of inquiries received the following report, declaringophthalmol inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, was adopted bythe council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary ophthalmol-lindemann innis, speiden and co , new york is advertisedas a treatment for eye diseases by “hyperemia ” the circularadvertising the product is written essaywhat in the style of “patentmedicine” advertisements it contains testimonials of dubious value the principle underlying the use of ophthalmol is that employedto a considerable extent by ophthalmologists, through the use ofethylmorphine “dionin”, etc , viz , the production of conjunctivalirritation in inflammatory eye diseases ophthalmol is, therefore, merely a special agent for the production of such ophthalmic irritation the advertising circular contains no evidence that ophthalmol is in anyrespect superior to the established agents for producing conjunctivalhyperemia on the other hand, there are obvious objections to theuse in the eye of a substance of unknown and apparently indefinitecomposition and uncertain activity ophthalmol is said to be an oilysolution of “glandular extract of the fish cobitis fossilis ” cobitisfossilis is a small fish said to be common in gerthesis according tokochs, who analyzed ophthalmol arb a d pharm inst d univ berl , 4:140, 1907, this fish is popularly believed to predictweather, but medical virtues are not ascribed to it this “fishy”extract is indefinite, to say the least the activity of the preparation is described by the manufacturer thus:“it seems probable that the typical action of ophthalmol is due tocertain organic acids which may have formed during manufacture throughthe decomposition of protein bodies contained in the crude material ”the profession is not told whether this important decomposition is, or, in fact, can be controlled so as to produce a material of uniformactivity kochs concluded from his analysis that ophthalmol had the propertiesof rancid olive oil containing about 6 to 7 per cent mineral oil theoil contained no nitrogen, left no ash on ignition and though traces ofiodin were claimed to be present, no iodin could be found it is recommended that ophthalmol be rejected first, because the usein the eye of an irritant of secret composition and uncertain activityis unscientific and against the interest of public health. Second, because ophthalmol is of secret composition the composition claimedbeing practically meaningless, and, third, because no evidence hasbeen submitted to substantiate its claimed superiority over establishedmethods of treatment the council declared ophthalmol inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , july 6, 1918 silvol ineligible for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on silvol parke, davis & company was adopted bythe council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary the council took up the consideration of silvol parke, davis &company because of inquiries received the following report wassubmitted by the referee in charge of silver preparations:silvol parke, davis & company is a silver-protein preparation of theargyrol type like argyrol, it is said to contain about 20 per cent of silver the referee finds that, like argyrol, it is nonirritant tothe nasal mucosa in a 10 per cent solution. Does not precipitate withchlorid. Dissolves in water readily. A 25 per cent solution has a highspecific gravity silvol, 1 137 at 20 c. Argyrol, 1 147 at 20 c , andis not very viscid viscosity, 1 25 a 1:1, 000 solution of silvol isclear and about 50 per cent deeper in color than a solution of argyrolof the same strength silvol differs from argyrol mainly in that its solutions yield a fineprecipitate with egg albumin under suitable conditions, while argyrolis nonprecipitant. And in that silvol solutions are not so effectivelydecolorized by lloyd reagent the manufacturers did not reply to an inquiry with regard to thebasis for the claims made for silvol see appendix the referee wastherefore obliged to deduce these claims from the firm advertisingmatter about the same claims are made for the local use of silvol asare generally made for argyrol these may be accepted without detailedevidence in view of the similarity of the two preparations its usefulness, as suggested in the advertising, when given by mouth“in the treatment of acute or chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, orgastro-enteritis, ” or the efficacy of very dilute solutions 0 2 percent against dysentery, etc , is doubtful and requires substantiationby evidence the claims that silvol is astringent, though nonirritantand noncoagulant, that it is a “powerful germicide” or even that itis a “powerful antiseptic, ” and that it may be used with advantagewherever “a silver salt is indicated, ” need substantiation there is noproof of the assertions that silvol is “the most efficacious of silversalts”. “the most efficient antiseptic, ” and “the most remarkableorganic silver compound ”as the manufacturers have not presented any evidence for their highlyimprobable claims, and as they have not signified any intention ofmaking their claims agree with substantiated facts, it is recommendedthat silvol be declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies the council adopted the report of its referee and authorized itspublication appendixthe following letter from the secretary of the council was sent toparke, davis & company, march 20, 1917 no reply to it has beenreceived.

When they are fully openedthey consist of seven leaves, most commonly of a sad buy a professional business plan green colour, dented about the edges, set on both sides the middle rib one againstanother, as the leaves of the ash tree. The stalk bears no leaves onthe lower half of it. The upper half bears essaytimes three or four, each consisting of five leaves, essaytimes of three. On the top standfour or five flowers upon short foot-stalks, with long husks. Theflowers are very like the flowers of stockgilliflowers, of a palepurplish colour, consisting of four leaves a-piece, after which comesmall pods, which contain the seed. The root is very smooth, white andshining. It does not grow downwards, but creeps along under the uppercrust of the ground, and consists of divers small round knobs settogether. Towards the top of the stalk there grows essay single leaves, by each of which comes a small cloven bulb, which when it is ripe, ifit be set in the ground, it will grow to be a root as for the other coralwort, which grows in this nation, it is morescarce than this, being a very small plant, much like crowfoot, therefore essay think it to be one of the sorts of crowfoot i know notwhere to direct you to it, therefore i shall forbear the description place the first grows in mayfield in sussex, in a wood calledhighread, and in another wood there also, called fox-holes time they flower from the latter end of april to the middle of may, and before the middle of july they are gone, and not to be found government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon itcleanses the bladder, and provokes urine, expels gravel, and the stone;it eases pains in the sides and bowels, is excellently good for inwardwounds, especially such as are made in the breast or lungs, by takinga dram of the powder of the root every morning in wine. The same isexcellently good for ruptures, as also to stop fluxes. An ointment madeof it is exceedingly good for wounds and ulcers, for it soon dries upthe watery humours which hinder the cure costmary, or alcost, or balsam herb this is so frequently known to be an inhabitant in almost every garden, that i suppose it needless to write a description thereof time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter theordinary costmary, as well as maudlin, provokes urine abundantly, and moistens the hardness of the mother. It gently purges cholerand phlegm, extenuating that which is gross, and cutting that whichis tough and glutinous, cleanses that which is foul, and hindersputrefaction and corruption.

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Legsstretched out buy a professional business plan. Clothing not disordered. The writing of the cord whichwas around the neck was applied to the neck of the waistcoat andshirt. On his head a woollen cap the ground had been recently swept necroscopy twenty-four hours afterward face pale. Right eye open andprominent, left closed. Mouth closed, contained food apparently fromthe stomach. Tongue retracted. Slight mark on neck under which thetissue was normal. Atlas dislocated on axis, but tissues around werenormal. No lesion in spinal canal. Penis not erect.