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Masses of tissue of each lung, chiefly towardbase, were solidified by effused blood all the heart cavities empty stomach normal, empty no congestion of abdominal viscera 2 taylor. “med jur , ” am ed , 1892, p 412 - man and woman strangled by cord, tied so tightly that there was hemorrhage from mouthand nose 3 harvey. Indian med gaz , december 1st, 1875, p 312 - hindoowoman, age 45 strangled with the right hand necroscopy. Twocontusions and abrasions on temple neck discolored from right to leftjugulars. Marks of thumb on right side and three fingers on left, extending from jugulars to windpipe eyes half protruded tonguediscolored blood-vessels full of clots brain congested ?. and showedexternal hemorrhages ?. lungs normal heart empty liver ruptured tothe extent of four inches, with adherent blood-clot spleen, stomach, and intestines normal muscles of chest, both sides, congested, discolored, and there were clots of blood over and under them firstsix ribs of left side and first three of right fractured 4 harris.

Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical business writing services company barnumsdoes the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!. essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!. ”-- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 1, 1921 the pharmacopeia the ninth decennial revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia became officialthis week, sept 1, 1916 it is more fully reviewed elsewhere;303here we desire merely to call attention to two points. What the bookis and what it is not it is a book of standards for drugs. It isnot a book of standard remedies the committee of revision of thepharmacopeia included physicians and pharmacists retail, wholesaleand manufacturing, but the pharmacists were in the majority andin control the majority of the representatives of the medicalprofession on this committee would have preferred to see the bulkof the pharmacopeia reduced and its value as a work of referenceenhanced by the rejection of therapeutically worthless drugs therepresentatives of commercial interests, on the other hand, argued thatit was necessary for the pharmacopeia to provide standards for drugsin more or less general use, whether worthless or otherwise the forceof this argument is essaywhat impaired by the fact that the nationalformulary, which has also been made a book of legal standards, nowincludes individual drugs as well as combinations. The new edition ofthe formulary, in fact, contains a large number of drugs which had beendropped from the u s pharmacopeia viii the principle of making usethe sole criterion for admission to the pharmacopeia, however, on thewhole carried the day it has not been strictly observed. Good resultsfrom the efforts of the medical contingent are to be observed here andthere, as in the deletion of elixir of the phosphates of iron, quininand strychnin and of emulsion of cod liver oil with hypophosphites that these instances were not expressions of policy on the writing of thecommittee on revision, but merely deviations from policy, may be seenby a glance at the contents of the new pharmacopeia these includesubstances which have been shown to be inert, like the hypophosphites calcium, potassium and sodium hypophosphites, complex and obsoletemixtures, like the compound syrup of sarsaparilla, and drugs whichhave been tried and found wanting, like saw palmetto berries evensubstances seldom used by the medical profession, but chiefly oraltogether by the public, like sassafras, hops and peppermint theherb, are standardized and made official it seems difficult todiscover any principle by which the sphere of the pharmacopeia may bedefinitely marked off from that of the national formulary there isone great advantage in specifying u s p drugs and preparations:physicians who do so invoke legal standards of purity and identity theonly way to be sure of obtaining substances of therapeutic efficiency, however, is to exercise discrimination the pharmacopeia is no guide being prepared mainly by pharmacists to meet the needs of pharmacists, the pharmacopeia of course contains much matter of little interest tophysicians and entirely foreign to scientific medicine -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , sept 2, 1916 303 j a m a 67:764 sept 2 1916 review of ninth revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia, which has beenin the hands of the committee of revision for more than six years, hasjust appeared as was to be expected, the desire of medical men on thecommittee of revision to have therapeutic value made a requirement foradmission to the pharmacopeia has not been fully realized. It remainsa book of standards for therapeutically good, bad and indifferentremedies among the drugs of little or no therapeutic importanceor value are musk, arnica, eriodictyon, quassia, pumpkin seed, sawpalmetto berries, sarsaparilla and couch grass thesis superfluousdrugs and preparations are included for instance, of the nine formsof quinin described quinin alkaloid, bisulphate, dihydrochlorid, hydrobromid, hydrochlorid, salicylate, sulphate and tannate, and quininand urea hydrochlorid, at least four might well have been eliminated two insoluble forms the alkaloid and the tannate, two soluble forms the hydrochlorid and quinin and urea hydrochlorid, and a moderatelysoluble form the sulphate are all that could reasonably be demandedby even the most extreme writingisans of the doctrine of “pharmaceuticnecessity ” further, the use of quinin salicylate for its salicylicacid content and of quinin hydrobromid for its bromid content isunscientific the inclusion of these salts in the pharmacopeia isregrettable those interested in the promotion of rational therapy will also regretthe inclusion of a number of fluidextracts of violently toxic drugs, such as aconite and gelsemium dose 1/2 minim each, belladonna root, digitalis, nux vomica and ipecac dose 1 minim each, and lobelia dose2-1/2 minims the more diluted forms, the tinctures, of these drugsare preferable the inclusion of such fluidextracts in the pharmacopeiais playing into the hands of certain pharmaceutical manufacturers, whorecommend the tincture be prepared from fluidextracts-- an unscientificprocedure the efforts of the medical members of the committee, however, havenot been entirely fruitless of the articles described in the u s pharmacopeia viii, 243 have been deleted. Sixty-seven new articles havebeen added the loss of 167 titles may be set down as a gain moreover, most of the new substances give promise of therapeutic usefulness thirty-six are taken over from new and nonofficial remedies. Nineteenare substances which are in the edition of useful drugs now in thepress it cannot be said, however.

Finally hung himself in a half-kneeling position 21 müller-beninga. Berlin klin woch , 1877, xiv , p 481 - man, age 40. Hung himself there was no swelling of genitals and no soilingof clothing necroscopy showed death from asphyxia, and in urethra nearmeatus quite a quantity of seminal fluid, as shown by microscopicalexamination 22 tardieu. Op cit , p 18 - the prince of condé was found hangingin his room, august 27th, 1830 he was suspended by two handkerchiefsto a window fastening, his feet, however, touching the floor the knotwas at the back of the neck as shown by the illustration, the faceturned slightly to the left, the tongue protruding. Face discolored;mucus at the mouth and nose. Arms hanging and stiff. Fists shut. Heelsraised. Knees half bent the text says that the knot was nearly underthe right ear, but the illustration shows a different position seefig 22, p 743 23 allison. Lancet, 1869, i , p 636 - three paper of suicide byhanging, in which there was no mark.

Instead it appears to bea solution of zinc sulphate in witch hazel water containing less than0 03 per cent of combined iodin and not more than a trace of freeiodin “national iodine solution” is one more to be added to thatalready long list of proprietaries which makes capital of the highesteem in which physicians hold iodin the claimsan advertising circular sent to physicians begins. “dear doctor. We beg to suggest a line of treatment while using national iodine solution which our thesis years of experience has proven to us to give the best and quickest results in the treatment of inflammation of the urethral tract ”in it are given directions for the treatment of “acute gonorrhea, male, ” “anterior urethritis, ” “anterior-posterior urethritis, ” “ardorurinæ and chordee, ” etc , by means of national iodine solution andother proprietaries of the national drug company make in fact thesolution is claimed to be “indicated in all conditions of urethraaccompanied by a discharge ” comment and conclusionsthe therapeutic claims made for “national iodine solution” areunwarranted such a solution is not indicated in all conditions of theurethra accompanied by discharge the advice contained in the circularis equivalent to mail-order treatment of gonorrhea it is of interest to note that the claims for an identical or asimilar solution prepared by the national drug company as a treatmentfor gonorrhea and intended for use by the laity, has been adjudgedmisbranded by the federal authorities notice of judgment no 8150, issued jan 25, 1921 in that it misled and deceived the purchaseror purchasers thereof in the statements regarding the therapeuticor curative effects of the article, which falsely and fraudulentlyrepresent it to be indicated in all conditions of the urethraaccompanied with a discharge, “whereas in truth and in fact it was not ”the council would emphasize that if physicians give heed to advertisingsuch as that sent out by the national drug company for this preparationthe medical profession cannot with good grace protest against theroutine treatment of venereal diseases by quacks and “patent medicine”venders -- from the journal a m a , june 4, 1921 mon-arsone not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary mon-arsone is offered by the harmer laboratories company as “a newand non-toxic arsenical for the treatment of syphilis ” in theadvertisements for mon-arsone it has been claimed that with thisdrug “the toxic, corrosive and uncertain reactions attending the useof arsphenamine have been entirely eliminated” and that “it has atherapeutic value equal to arsphenamine, but extensive case reportsfail to record the slightest toxic reaction following its use ”according to the manufacturers, mons-arsone is disodiumethylarsonate, the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid, derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of one hydroxyl group by the ethyl group-- aso ch₂ch₃ oh₂ mons-arsone is related to sodium cacodylate, which is the sodium saltof dimethyl-arsenic acid-- aso ch₃₂oh-- derived from arsenic acid byreplacement of two hydroxyl groups by two methyl groups ethylarsonicacid and its potassium salt were described by la coste139 more thanthirty-five years ago, and the use of the sodium salt of methylarsonicacid was proposed in france essay years ago the harmer laboratoriescompany claims originality for mons-arsone in that it was the firstto prepare the sodium salt of ethylarsonic acid and to propose itstherapeutic use 139 la coste. Annalen der chemie liebig 208. 34 it was reported several years ago by castelli140 that sodiumcacodylate and the sodium salt of methyl arsenic acid were devoid ofeffect on experimental trypanosomiasis and spirochete infections careful clinical observations in this country by h j nichols141 andh n cole142 have demonstrated the inefficacy of sodium cacodylatein the treatment of human syphilis 140 castelli, g. Arch f schiffs- u tropen-hyg 16. 605, 1912 141 nichols, h j. Salvarsan and sodium cacodylate, j a m a 56:492 feb 18 1911 142 cole, h n. A study of sodium cacodylate in the treatment ofsyphilis, j a m a 67. 2012 dec 30 1916 animal experiments carried out in the u s hygienic laboratory byvoegtlin and smith143 show that mon-arsone is devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action thus the “therapeutic ratio” the ratio of theminimal effective dose to the lethal dose was about 1, that is, itwas effective therapeutically only in approximately fatal doses. Thetherapeutic ratio for arsphenamine in similar conditions was 17, andthat of neoarsphenamine, 28 143 voegtlin, carl, and smith, h w. J pharmacol and exper therap 16. 449, 1921 the findings that sodium dimethylarsenate sodium cacodylate, sodiummethylarsenate, and sodium ethylarsenate are devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action and the conclusion that sodium cacodylate isinefficient in the treatment of human syphilis does not provethat mon-arsone is without effect on the disease these findings, however, certainly demand convincing therapeutic evidence to warrantthe recommendation for the use of the drug in the treatment ofsyphilis-- writingicularly because the drug is proposed as a substitute forarsphenamine, the value of which is established when the council first took up the consideration of mon-arsone, theonly evidence for the claim that it “has a therapeutic value at leastequal to that of arsphenamine” consisted, with one exception, ofreports from those who had experimented with the drug for the harmerlaboratories company, including a report by b l wright, l a kennell, and l m hussey, 144 the latter of the harmer laboratoriescompany these reports appeared to show that the administration ofmon-arsone caused less reaction than arsphenamine, and that theimmediate effects, judged by clinical symptoms and the response to thewassermann test, appeared to be good these trials extended over tooshort a period of time to permit judgment as to the permanence of theresults a report by an independent observer seemed to indicate thatmon-arsone does not have the sterilizing action on syphilitic lesionswhich it is usually believed arsphenamine exercises 144 wright, b l.

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If you have notthe distilled water, make use of the decoction 4 diseases that lie in the business writing services company writings of the body remote from the stomachand bowels, it is in vain to think to carry away the cause at once, andtherefore you had best do it by degrees. Pills, and such like medicineswhich are hard in the body, are fittest for such a business, becausethey are longest before they digest 5 use no strong medicines, if weak will serve the turn, you had bettertake one too weak by half, than too strong in the least 6 consider the natural temper of the writing of the body afflicted, andmaintain it in that, else you extinguish nature, as the heart is hot, the brain cold, or at least the coldest writing of the body 7 observe this general rule. That such medicines as are hot in thefirst degree are most habitual to our bodies, because they are just ofthe heat of our blood 8 all opening medicines, and such as provoke urine or the menses, orbreak the stone, may most conveniently be given in white wine, becausewhite wine of itself is of an opening nature, and cleanses the veins 9 let all such medicines as are taken to stop fluxes or looseness, betaken before meat, about an hour before, more or less, that so they maystrengthen the digestion and retentive faculty, before the food comeinto the stomach, but such as are subject to vomit up their meat, letthem take such medicines as stay vomiting presently after meat, at theconclusion of their meals, that so they may close up the mouth of thestomach. And that is the reason why usually men eat a bit of cheeseafter meat, because by its sourness and binding it closes the mouth ofthe stomach, thereby staying belching and vomiting 10 in taking purges be very careful, and that you may be so, observethese rules 1 consider what the humour offending is, and let the medicine besuch as purges that humour, else you will weaken nature, not thedisease 2 take notice, if the humour you would purge out be thin, thengentle medicines will serve the turn, but if it be tough and viscous, then such medicines as are cutting and opening, the night before youwould take the purge 3 in purging tough humours, forbear as much as may be such medicinesas leave a binding quality behind them 4 have a care of taking purges when your body is astringent. Yourbest way, is first to open it by a clyster 5 in taking opening medicines, you may safely take them at night, eating but a little supper three or four hours before, and the nextmorning drinking a draught of warm posset-drink, and you need notfear to go about your business in this manner you may take lenitiveelectuary, diacatholicon, pulp of cassia, and the like gentleelectuaries, as also all pills that have neither diagrydium norcolocynthus, in them but all violent purges require a due orderingof the body. Such ought to be taken in the morning after you are up, and not to sleep after them before they are done working, at leastbefore night.