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If it be weakenedthrough cold, it breaks the stone, stays vomiting, provokes urine, andis very profitable in the venereal, used in diet drinks tamaris is profitable for the rickets, and burnings xylobalsamum wood of the balsam tree, it is hot and dry in thesecond degree, according to galen i never read any great virtues of it herbs and their leaves a brotanum, mas, fœmina southernwood, male and female it is hotand dry in the third degree, resists poison, kills worms. Outwardlyin plaisters, it dissolves cold swellings, and helps the bitings ofvenomous beasts, makes hair grow. Take not above half a dram at a timein powder absinthium, &c wormwood its several sorts, are all hot and dryin the second or third degrees, the common wormwood is thought to behottest, they all help weakness of the stomach, cleanse choler, killworms, open stoppings, help surfeits, clear the sight, resist poison, cleanse the blood, and secure cloaths from moths abugilissa, &c alkanet the leaves are essaything drying and binding, but inferior in virtue to the roots, to which i refer you acetosa sorrel is moderately cold dry and binding, cuts toughhumours, cools the brain, liver and stomach, cools the blood in fevers, and provokes appetite acanthus bears-breech, or branks ursine, is temperate, essaythingmoist see the root adiantum, album, nigrum maiden hair, white and black they aretemperate, yet drying white maiden hair is that we usually callwall-rue.

And yet they say a goat liver conducesmuch to make one see in the night, and they give this reason, becausegoats see as well in the night as in the day yet is there no affinityin temperature nor substance between the liver and the business school essay writing service eyes. Howeverastrologers know well enough that all herbs, plants, &c that are underthe dominion of either sun or moon, and appropriated to the head, bethey hot or cold they strengthen the visive virtue, as eyebright, whichis hot, lunaria, or moonwort which is cold as for what appertains to the constitution of the eyes themselves, seeing they are exact in sense, they will not endure the leastinconvenience, therefore such medicines as are outwardly applied tothem for such medicines as strengthen the visive virtues are alwaysgiven inwardly let them neither hurt by their hardness nor gnawingquality, nor be so tough that they should stick to them thereforelet ocular medicines be neither in powders nor ointments, because oilitself is offensive to the eyes, and how pleasing powders are to them, you may perceive yourself by just going into the dust medicines appropriated to the mouth and nose apply no stinking medicine to a disease in the nose, for such offendnot only the nose, but also the brain. Neither administer medicinesof any ill taste to a disease in the mouth, for that subverts thestomach, because the tunicle of the mouth and of the stomach is thesame. And because both mouth and nostrils are ways by which the brainis cleansed, therefore are they infected with such vices as need almostcontinual cleansing, and let the medicines you apply to them be eitherpleasant, or at least, not ingrateful medicines appropriated to the ears the ears are easily afflicted by cold, because they are always open, therefore they require hot medicines and because they are ofthemselves very dry, therefore they require medicines which dry much medicines appropriated to the teeth vehement heat, and vehement cold, are inimical to the teeth, but theyare most of all offended by sharp and sour things, and the reason is, because they have neither skin nor flesh to cover them, they delight insuch medicines as are cleansing and binding, because they are troubledwith defluxions and rheums upon every light occasion. And that thereason the common use of fat and sweet things, soon rots the teeth chapter ii of medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs the medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs, you shall findcalled all along by the name of pectorals that the termphysicians give them, when you heat them talk of pectoral syrups, pectoral rows, or pectoral ointments they are divers, essay of which regard the writing afflicted, others thematter afflicting but although essaytimes in ulcers of the lungs, we are forced touse binding medicines, to join the ulcer, yet are not these calledpectorals, because binding medicines are extreme hurtful to the breastand lungs, both because they hinder one fetching his breath, and alsobecause they hinder the avoiding that flegm by which the breast isoppressed such medicines are called pectorals, which are of a lenifying nature besides, those which make thin matter thicker are of two sorts, viz essay are mild and gentle, which may safely be administered, be thematter hot or cold which offendeth. Others are very cold, which areused only when the matter offending is sharp but because such medicines as conduce to the cure of the phthisics which is an ulceration of the lungs, and the disease usually called, the consumption of the lungs, are also reckoned in amongst pectorals, it is not amiss to speak a word or two of them in the cure of this disease are three things to be regarded 1 to cut and bring away the concreted blood 2 to cherish and strengthen the lungs 3 to conglutinate the ulcer and indeed essay writingicular simples will perform all these, andphysicians confess it. Which shews the wonderful mystery the all-wisegod hath made in the creation, that one and the same simple shouldperform two contrary operations on the same writing of the body. For themore a medicine cleanses, the more it conglutinates to conclude then, pectoral medicines are such as either cut and cleanseout the compacted humours from the arteries of the lungs, or make thindefluxions thick, or temper those that are sharp, help the roughness ofthe wind-pipe, or are generally lenitive and softening, being outwardlyapplied to the breast chapter iii of medicines appropriated to the heart these are they which are generally given under the notion of cordials;take them under that name here the heart is the seat of the vital spirit, the fountain of life, theoriginal of infused heat, and of the natural affections of man so then these two things are proper to the heart 1 by its heat to cherish life throughout the body 2 to add vigour to the affections and if these be proper to the heart, you will easily grant me, thatit is the property of cordials to administer to the heart in thesewritingiculars of cordials, essay cheer the mind, essay strengthen the heart, andrefresh the spirits thereof, being decayed those which cheer the mind, are not one and the same. For as the heartis variously disturbed, either by anger, love, fear, hatred, sadness, &c so such things as flatter lovers or appease the angry, or comfortthe fearful, or please the hateful, may well be called cordials. Forthe heart, seeing it is placed in the middle between the brain and theliver, is wrought upon by reason, as well as by digestion, yet these, because they are not medicines, are beside my present scope and although it is true, that mirth, love, &c are actions, or motionsof the mind, not of the body. Yet thesis have been induced to think suchaffections may be wrought in the body by medicines the heart is chiefly afflicted by too much heat, by poison, andby stinking vapours, and these are remedied by the second sort ofcordials, and indeed chiefly belong to our present scope according to these three afflictions, viz 1 excessive heat 2 poison 3 melancholy vapours are three kinds of remedies which succour the afflicted heart such as 1 by their cooling nature mitigate the heat of fevers 2 resist poison 3 cherish the vital spirits when they languish all these are called cordials 1 such as cool the heart in fevers, yet is not every thing thatcooleth cordial, for lead is colder than gold, yet is not lead cordialas gold is, essay hold it cordial by a hidden quality, others by reason 2 such as resist poison. There is a two-fold resisting of poison 1 by an antipathy between the medicine and poison 2 by a sympathy between the medicine and the heart of the first we shall speak anon, in a chapter by itself the latterbelongs to this chapter, and they are such medicines, whose nature isto strengthen the heart, and fortify it against the poison, as rue, angelica, &c for as the operation of the former is upon the poison, which afflicteth the heart, so the operation of the latter is upon theheart afflicted by the poison to this class may be referred all such medicines as strengthen theheart either by astral influence, or by likeness of substance, if therebe such a likeness in medicines, for a bullock heart is of likesubstance to man, yet i question whether it be cordial or not 3 and lastly, such as refresh the spirits, and make them lively andactive, both because they are appropriated to the office, and alsobecause they drive stinking and melancholy vapours from the heart, foras the animal spirit be refreshed by fragrant smells, and the naturalspirits by spices, so are the vital spirits refreshed by all suchmedicines as keep back melancholy vapours from the heart, as borrage, bugloss, rosemary, citron pills, the compositions of them, and thesisothers, which this treatise will amply furnish you with chapter iv of medicines appropriated to the stomach by stomach, i mean that ventricle which contains the food till it beconcocted into chyle medicines appropriated to the stomach are usually called stomachicals the infirmities usually incident to the stomach are three 1 appetite lost 2 digestion weakened 3 the retentive faculty corrupted when the appetite is lost, the man feels no hunger when his body needsnourishment when digestion is weakened it is not able to concoct the meat receivedinto the stomach, but it putrifies there when the retentive faculty is spoiled the stomach is not able to retainthe food till it be digested, but either vomits it up again, or causesfluxes such medicines then as remedy all these, are called stomachicals andof them in order 1 such as provoke appetite are usually of a sharp or sourish taste, and yet withal of a grateful taste to the palate, for although loss ofappetite may proceed from divers causes, as from choler in the stomach, or putrefied humours or the like, yet such things as purge this choleror humours, are properly called orecticks, not stomachicals. Theformer strengthen appetite after these are expelled 2 such medicines help digestion as strengthen the stomach, either byconvenient heat, or aromatic viz spicy faculty, by hidden property, or congruity of nature 3 the retentive faculty of the stomach is corrected by bindingmedicines, yet not by all binding medicines neither, for essay of themare adverse to the stomach, but by such binding medicines as areappropriated to the stomach for the use of these use 1 use not such medicines as provoke appetite before you havecleansed the stomach of what hinders it use 2 such medicines as help digestion, give them a good time beforemeat that so they may pass to the bottom of the stomach, for thedigestive faculty lies there, before the food come into it use 3 such as strengthen the retentive faculty, give them a littlebefore meat, if to stay fluxes, a little after meat, if to stayvomiting chapter v of medicines appropriated to the liver be pleased to take these under the name of hepatics, for that is theusual name physicians give them, and these also are of three sorts 1 essay the liver is delighted in 2 others strengthen it 3 others help its vices the palate is the seat of taste, and its office is to judge what foodis agreeable to the stomach, and what not, by that is both the qualityand quantity of food for the stomach discerned. The very same officethe meseraik veins perform to the liver essaytimes such food pleases the palate which the liver likes not butnot often and therefore the meseraik veins refuse it, and that isthe reason essay few men fancy such food as makes them sick after theeating thereof 1 the liver is delighted exceedingly with sweet things, draws themgreedily, and digests them as swiftly, and that is the reason honey isso soon turned into choler 2 such medicines strengthen the liver, as being appropriated to itvery gently bind, for seeing the office of the liver is to concoct, it needs essay adstriction, that so both the heat and the humour to beconcocted may be stayed, that so the one slip not away, nor the otherbe scattered yet do not hepatical medicines require so great a binding faculty asstomachicals do, because the passages of the stomach are more openthan those of the liver by which it either takes in chyle, or sendsout blood to the rest of the body, therefore medicines that are verybinding are hurtful to the liver, and either cause obstructions, orhinder the distribution of the blood, or both and thus much for the liver, the office of which is to concoct chyle, which is a white substance the stomach digests the food into intoblood, and distributes it, by the veins, to every writing of the body, whereby the body is nourished, and decaying flesh restored chapter vi of medicines appropriated to the spleen in the breeding of blood, are three excrements most conspicuous, viz urine, choler, and melancholy the proper seat of choler is in the gall the urine passeth down to the reins or kidneys, which is all one the spleen takes the thickest or melancholy blood to itself this excrement of blood is twofold. For either by excessive heat, itis addust, and this is that the latins call atra bilis. Or else itis thick and earthly of itself, and this properly is called melancholyhumour hence then is the nature of splenical medicines to be found out, andby these two is the spleen usually afflicted for atra bilis, i knownot what distinct english name to give it thesis times causes madness, and pure melancholy causeth obstructions of the bowels, and tumours, whereby the concoction of the blood is vitiated, and dropsies thesistimes follow medicines then peculiar to the spleen must needs be twofold also, essayappropriated to atra bilis, others to pure melancholy.

Therefore he can testify as to his opinion onhypothetical facts which might be deemed to relate to another person aswell as the patient. And where the physician testified that he couldso form an opinion, his opinion of such assumptions was held to beadmissible in evidence as expert testimony 438but it is not all information which will be presumed to have beennecessary to enable the physician to act. It seems that where theknowledge is such that it is evidently immaterial to the physiciandecision, it will be admitted such a case is that of hoyt v hoyt, 439 where the testimony of physicians was admitted to showthe attitude of their patient toward his daughter and their adviceto him concerning her, the evidence being for the purpose of showingthe testator opinion and not the physicians’ it has also been heldthat a statement made by a patient on the physician last visit asto what occurred at the time the patient was injured, tending to showcontributory negligence, was not necessary information 440 and aphysician evidence of the declaration of his patient as to making awill and the doctor advice on that subject have been admitted 441the province of the court in dealing with the privilege all questions of the competency of evidence are solved by the courtand not by the jury 442 the facts establishing the privilege arepresented to the court for its consideration in iowa it has been heldthat a fair trial demands that it should not be made to appear to thejury in an action that the patient is reluctant to waive his privilege, and that therefore the subject-matter of waiver has no place in thetaking of testimony except when introduced by the writingy permitted tomake it, and the court should not allow the patient to be asked toanswer under oath whether he is willing to waive his privilege 443whether it is the duty of the court to enforce the privilege where itis apparent and the patient is not present to object, is a questionthat seems to be variously regarded in indiana a court has refuseda new trial for newly discovered evidence of the privileged sort, onthe ground that if objection were madeon the new trial it would berejected 444 but where the evidence of a physician to contradictanother physician, who was witness to a will, was received withoutobjection, it was said that it should not be withdrawn by the courtfrom the consideration of the jury or its value commented on as matterof law 445in michigan, it has been said that a commissioner, whose ordinary dutyis to take all evidence offered, should refuse to take this privilegedevidence. And that it should be stricken out without motion by thejudge when returned by the commissioner, and that the physician shouldnot be allowed to violate the privilege 446 it has also been heldthat an order for the compulsory physical examination of a person bya physician for the purpose of testifying should not be granted, andthat evidence so obtained should be stricken out, but on the groundthat it was a violation of personal liberty, rather than of statutoryprivilege 447but in new york it has been held that where a person voluntarily inan action exhibits an injured writing as evidence, the adverse writingy isentitled to follow it up by a personal or professional inspection ofthe injured writing 448in missouri, it has been said that the physician should be told that heis not at liberty to testify as to privileged information 449in new york, in an early case in chancery, the chancellor said thata master was wrong in supposing there was legal evidence before him, where a physician had given evidence privileged under the statute;450but this decision was reversed on appeal, the court of errors sayingthat as no objection was made before the master by a writingy, theevidence was competent and legal 451 this question seems to have beensettled in new york by the decision in hoyt v hoyt, 452 that thelaw does not prohibit the examination of a physician but it prohibitsthe evidence being received in the face of objection, so that if noobjection is made by a writingy it is not the province of the court toreject the evidence where it appears that privileged information was improperly admitted, it is not ground for reversal on appeal if it is apparent that theappellant was not injured by its reception 453where the court is not empowered to reject the evidence of its ownmotion, the objection upon which it can reject is the objection ofa writingy to the suit, and doubtless of the patient, but not of thephysician 454 but because of the privilege, it has been held that aphysician will not be ordered to turn over his books of account to areceiver appointed in proceedings supplementary to an execution on ajudgment against him 455 nor will examination of his books of accountbefore trial be compelled 456it is the province of the courts, however, to enforce the law and notto legislate by grafting exceptions upon it 457 they have refusedtherefore to except, by judicial decision, from the operation of thelaw, criminal proceedings, testamentary causes, evidence of crime incivil actions, paper of lunacy and habitual drunkenness and fraud, 458in all of which it was urged in argument without effect that theadministration of justice was impeded by the privilege. But where thespirit of the law was violated by an enforcement of its letter andthe privilege made a cloak to shield the murderer of the patient, it was held to be inapplicable 459 the courts have also refusedby mere judicial decision to limit the privilege to the life of thepatient 460the effect of enforcing the privilege the courts are not warranted in admitting incompetent evidence in orderto prevent the failure of justice by the exclusion of the privilegedtestimony a letter written by a physician is inadmissible as evidenceof the privileged facts which it states;461 and a certificate ofthe cause of death, required by law to be signed by the physician andfiled, is not admissible to prove the cause of death in an action inwhich the physician cannot testify 462the making of the objection does not raise a presumption against theperson making it 463 in iowa it has been held that the patient shouldnot be interrogated under oath as to whether or not he will waive hisprivilege, for the jury ought not to be prejudiced against him by anyshow of reluctance 464 in michigan, however, it has been held that apatient failure to produce his physician as a witness is a legitimatefact for the jury to consider 465the character and weight of the evidence to sustain the objection where the objection is made, the burden of proof to establish thegrounds of privilege is upon the person objecting 466 in missouriit has been said that the statement of the physician, that he cannotseparate his impressions received in his relation of physician fromthose received at other times, is not in itself sufficient to justifythe exclusion of his evidence. That the facts themselves must appear tothe court, and it might be developed on proper cross-examination thatdiscrimination could be made 467but it would seem that because of the necessarily delicate nature ofthe inquiry, to avoid disclosing what the statute forbids, the burdenis overcome with slight evidence, and inferences and presumptionsare freely indulged in aid of the privilege. For instance, where thephysician was not permitted to answer whether he did converse withhis patient about an injury, or whether he made an examination withreference to it, it was urged that the objection was prematurely made, but it was held that the fact that the patient consulted a physicianon the occasion to which the inquiry related, when considered with thenature of the questions, justified the exclusion in the absence ofother proof 468 but the physician may testify that he did attendhis patient as physician;469 and he may answer the question whetherthe information was necessary to enable him to act in his professionalcapacity;470 for while his testimony on that point is not conclusive, and the court uses its own judgment in reaching a determination, histestimony is competent evidence 471 he may also testify that a personwas ill and was his patient, that he attended as physician, and he canstate when he attended and how thesis times 472it has been said that where the evidence justifies the conclusion thatinformation regarding the patient is acquired while attending in aprofessional capacity, it is not essential to show by formal proof thatthe information was necessary 473the rights and duties of the physician with reference to the privilege the privilege established by law is a rule of evidence, and not aregulation of a physician general conduct outside of a proceeding inwhich rules of evidence are applicable 474 the courts have, however, not hesitated to intimate that it is a physician duty to observe thesame secrecy in his general walk and conversation 475the physician may testify as an expert on hypothetical questionssubmitted to him regarding facts which might be equally true of anyother person than his patient, and excluding from his considerationprivileged knowledge 476 and he may also testify as to matterswhich came to his knowledge before or after or independent of hisemployment as physician, 477 or which were immaterial to his acting ina professional capacity, and as to which his patient could have had noreasonable ground for believing that they were necessarily disclosedin order that the physician might so act 478 it is the patientprivilege and not the physician. And, therefore, the physician isnot absolutely incompetent as a witness, and has no right to refuse totestify 479 but where he is a writingy he may object and then he willnot be forced to disclose his patient confidence 480in indiana it has been held that where the patient testifies in anaction against his physician for malpractice the physician is thenat liberty to testify or to introduce any other witness to testifyconcerning the matters in controversy 481in michigan, a physician who was plaintiff in a libel suit was notpermitted to insist upon the privilege to prevent the disclosure of hismaltreatment of his patient or what other physicians had discoveredwith regard to it by visits to his patients 482the measure of the physician exemption and liability in testifyingis the language of the statute, and not his idea of his duty to hispatient or the patient injunctions of confidence or secrecy 483in essay of the states there are statutory provisions entitlingphysicians to sue for compensation for their professionalservices 484 the statutes regarding privileged communications areto be construed together with these there seems to be no reason whya physician right of action for his services and medicines shouldnot survive the prohibition of his evidence. But it would seem thathe cannot as a witness in such an action testify regarding privilegedmatter but he can prove it by other witnesses 485the result of the legislation it is doubtless due to considerations of public policy that thestatutes changing the common-law rule have been enacted;486 butthey have not proved an unalloyed benefit, and essay of their featureshave brought about conditions which in essay paper have embarrassedthe administration of justice the law in new york may be taken forillustration. It formerly cut off the safest means of ascertaining themental condition and competency of a testator;487 it now precludes aphysician from disclosing the condition of his patient who is a lunaticor habitual drunkard, 488 though it be the most satisfactory evidence;it shuts out much testimony tending to show fraud in insurancepaper;489 it precludes a physician from stating the cause of hispatient death, 490 though there is no longer any secrecy connectedwith it, for the law makes it the duty of the physician to make, forfiling with the local board of health, a certificate of the probablecause of the death of a patient 491 it has been the subject of muchadverse criticism, 492 but all such considerations are properly to beaddressed to the legislature and not to the courts it seems to be themost far-reaching in its exclusion, and though it has been the longestin existence, was modified at the legislative sessions of 1891, 1892, and 1893, a fact which tends to show that there was sound reason in thecriticisms a synopsis of the laws of the several states and territories of the united states of america, and of great britain and ireland, and of the north american provinces of great britain, regulating the practice of medicine and surgery, prepared from the latest statutes by william a poste, late first deputy attorney-general of the state of new york, and charles a boston, esq , of the new york city bar synopsis of the existing statuteswhich regulate the acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery in the united states, great britain and ireland, and the canadian provinces note - this synopsis is designed to contain especially thoseprovisions of the statutes which regulate the right to practisemedicine and surgery it is not intended to include provisionsregulating apothecaries, druggists, chemists, and dentists, or the saleof drugs, medicines, and poisons. Nor provisions for the organizationand procedure of boards of medical examiners, except so far as theyregulate the requirements demanded from applicants for permission topractise. Nor provisions with reference to the duties of clerks orregistrars in the preparation and safe-keeping of records in theircare. Nor those defining the duties of members of boards, and punishingthe misconduct of such members.

Wharton on business school essay writing service evidence, sec 436. Greenleaf on evidence, sec 441 qualifications of this general rule - the extent to which an expertwitness can go in giving his opinion is limited to matters of scienceand skill, and does not extend to the expression of views on mattersof legal or moral observation, or the manner in which others wouldprobably be influenced if the writingies had acted in one way rather thanin another campbell v richards, 5 b & ad , 345 so it has been held that the question whether a physician has honorablyand faithfully discharged his duty in a given case, either to hismedical profession or to his patient, is not a question of science butof pure ethics, upon which the jury is as competent to decide as anyone else, and in such a case an opinion would not be allowed to begiven either by another medical practitioner or by a professor in thescience of morals rogers on expert testimony, sec 11, citing ramadgev ryan, 9 bing , 333 there are also essay matters of fact which apparently transcend thedividing line between common experience and judgment and scientificexperience and judgment, as to which expert testimony is notreceivable, but the jury and court must weigh the facts and draw theinferences for themselves an interesting example of this is found inthe case of manke v the people, 78 n y , 611 17 hun, 410, citedin stephens’ “digest of the law of evidence, ” p 107, note h, decidedin the new york court of appeals a few years ago in that case oneadolf was killed by a gunshot, and pieces of paper were found near thescene of the homicide bearing certain marks an expert was called uponto say whether they were powder-marks, and whether the condition of thepaper was such that in his opinion it was wadding which had been firedfrom a gun this evidence was held to be inadmissible by the generalterm of the supreme court, and this decision was affirmed by the courtof appeals these courts held that the question as to whether this wasa wad fired from a gun was a matter which the jury was as competent tojudge of as the witness in delivering the opinion at general term, presiding justice talcott said that this case was very close to theborder line, but in his judgment it was beyond the province of expertsand within the province of jurors nevertheless, in that case the evidence of chemists who had examinedthe wadding, and had discovered the marks on it which were said tobe powder-marks, and upon analysis had determined that they werepowder-marks, or that they were marks of powder which had exploded, would have been clearly admissible the subjects concerning which medical men may be called upon totestify as experts are as numerous as the diseases, injuries, mentaland physical conditions of the human race which fall within the rangeof the practice of medicine and surgery it is therefore practicallyimpossible to give them in detail 185practical suggestions and admonitions embodied in rules - itis deemed advisable that the following practical suggestions andadmonitions to physicians, concerning their duties as expert witnesses, shall here be given first. A physician should refuse to testify as an expert unless he isconscious that he is really qualified as an expert second. After accepting the responsibility, his first duty should beto make a diligent examination and preparation for his testimony, unless it is upon a subject with which he is familiar and which heis satisfied that he has already exhausted, by reading the bestauthorities that he can find, and by careful reflection upon writingicularquestions as to which his opinion will be asked third. Where he is to make an examination of facts, such as thepost-mortem examination of a body, a chemical analysis or anexamination of an alleged insane person, he should insist upon havingplenty of time and full opportunity for doing his work thoroughly heshould take writingicular pains to make his examination open and fair, and, if possible, should invite opposing experts to co-operate with himin it fourth. He should be honest with his client before the trial inadvising him and giving him opinions, and upon the trial shouldpreserve an absolutely imwritingial attitude, concealing nothing, perverting nothing, exaggerating nothing fifth. On the preliminary examination as to his qualifications as awitness he should be frank and open in answering questions he shouldstate fully the extent and the limits of his personal experience and ofhis reading upon the subject, without shrinking from responsibility, yet without self-glorification sixth. He should be simple, plain, and clear in his statement ofscientific facts and principles, avoiding the use of technicallanguage, and trying to put his ideas in such form that they will begrasped and comprehended by men of ordinary education and intelligence seventh. He should avoid stating any conclusions or principles of whichhe is not certain, but having an assurance that he is right he shouldbe firm and positive he should admit the limitations of his knowledgeand ability where a question is asked which he cannot answer, heshould not hesitate to say so. But he should refuse to be led outsidethe subject of inquiry, and should confine his testimony to thosescientific questions which are really involved in the case, or in hisexamination of the case eighth. And finally, he should always bear in mind that at the closeof his testimony an opportunity is usually given to him to explainanything which he may be conscious of having said, which requiresexplanation. And writingial statements which need a qualification to makethem a truth this is the physician opportunity to set himself rightwith the court and with the jury if the course of the examination hasbeen unsatisfactory to him, he can then, by a brief and plain statementof the general points which he has intended to convey by his testimony, sweep away all the confusion and uncertainty arising from the longexamination and cross-examination, and can often succeed in producingfor the first time the impression which he desires to produce, and canpresent the scientific aspects of the case briefly and correctly probably no man was ever so gifted as to be able in practice to carryout all of these principles in giving medical testimony if he could, he would be the ideal expert witness but the principles are, afterall, simple and easily followed in the main any physician who knowshis subject and who has a clear head and the ordinary faculty ofexpression, by observing these principles can make himself invaluableas an expert witness there is no branch of the profession which bringsa broader fame, greater influence, or larger emoluments than this there is no branch, on the other hand, in which men of real abilitymake more lamentable failures chapter vi malpractice definition - malpractice may be defined to be 1st wilful acts on the writing of a physician or surgeon toward a personunder his care, by which such person suffers death or injury;2d acts forbidden by express statute, on the writing of a physician orsurgeon, toward a person under his care, by which such person suffersdeath or injury;3d negligent acts on the writing of a physician or surgeon in treating apatient, by means of which such patient suffers death or unnecessaryinjury these various divisions will be considered in the order in which theyare above set forth wilful malpractice - the paper which fall within the first twodivisions of this definition are such acts as render the medicalman liable to punishment in a criminal prosecution, and may notnecessarily, although in essay instances they may, constitute grounds ofliability in a civil suit against him as examples of the first class of paper may be cited those instances, happily not numerous in the annals of the profession, where a physicianor surgeon when treating a female patient has had carnal connectionwith her, representing that he was using that method of treating her tocure her disease such a case was reg v case, 1 eng law & eq , 544 s c , 1 den c c , 580 186honest intent no defence in such paper - in reg v reed, 1 den c c , 377 s c , 2 car & k , 967, it was contended as a defencethat the defendant really believed that he was curing his patient bytreating her in this extraordinary way the court, per wildes, c j , brushed aside this contention with scorn, saying.

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Bull du lab de biol appliq 2, no 2-no 8, business school essay writing service 1904 76 wentworth, a h. The cause of infantile atrophy, j a m a , july 20, 1907, p 204 77 sweet, j e , and pemberton, ralph. Experimental observations onsecretin, arch int med , february, 1908, p 231 beveridge78 suggests the use of secretin in a pyloric stenosis, b pancreatic insufficiency, c hepatic stimulation and cirrhosisof the liver d to stimulate peristalsis in colonic stasis, e ingastro-enterostomy and short-circuiting of the intestines he claimsto have used it in over a hundred paper with “brilliant results, ”and cites four typical histories the g w carnrick company, whichmanufactures “secretogen, ” an alleged secretin preparation, cites anumber of authorities79 as also recommending secretin for digestivedisorders harrower, who is or was connected with the carnrick company, in clinical journals80 has ardently advocated the use of secretin fora large number of maladies 78 beveridge. Am med 20:255, 1914 79 lockwood, g r. Diseases of stomach, 1913, chapter on achylia bassler, anthony. Am jour gastro-enter , 1914. Kemp, r c.