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Book Essay


“venosal eliminates unpleasant digestive disturbances which frequently forbid the use of salicylates by mouth and, in addition, insures their full therapeutic value ”the statement is misleading, as the paper in which the oraladministration of the salicylates is contraindicated are not “frequent”but exceptional and there is no evidence to justify the implicationthat the “full therapeutic value” of salicylates cannot readily beattained by their oral use still more astonishing is the followingclaim. “venosal is a combination carrying the true salicylates sodii in doses much larger than given by mouth with this preparation given intravenously, there is no nausea or disagreeable digestive after-effects, tinnitus aurium, or the accumulating effects of the drug. Yet the specific action of the salicylates seems to be increased thesis-fold, according to reports received ”what are the facts?. by mouth sodium salicylate is given in doses offrom 3 to 15 gm in a day. Whereas venosal is advised as 1 gm , infrom one to three day intervals. As a matter of elementary arithmeticit is plain that these doses of venosal are smaller instead of being“much larger ” the absence of digestive ill effects, tinnitus, etc , is explained by the small dosage that the specific action of thesalicylates should be increased by intravenous administration issurprising when it is remembered that the drug is absorbed rapidlyand completely from the intestines.

Eyes followed movements of persons around the room died nine hours later, fifteen hours after drop the experiments were repeatedly interrupted by the sheriff 830 taylor831 reports a case of recovery woman, age 44 book essay. Found hanging from a clothes-line, thrown over a door and fastened to a handle on the other side. Her knees on the floor. White froth around the mouth.

No discharge ofsemen or fæces book essay. Ecchymosis under cord, left side. Dislocation of atlasfrom axis. Odontoid ligaments ruptured. Transverse ligament uninjured brain and membranes much congested. Clear fluid in lateral ventricles lungs collapsed, anæmic. One ounce straw-colored serum measured inpericardium. Dark fluid blood in both ventricles of heart. Liver muchcongested 77 second man, age 16. Pupils widely dilated. Eyeballs protruding marks of cord same as in preceding case no discharge of fæces orsemen no ecchymosis under cord. Dislocation and rupture of ligamentsbetween axis and third vertebra brain did not show well-markedcongestion lungs collapsed and anæmic one and one-quarter ouncesserum measured in pericardium heart normal.

Fig 2 circle of petosiris after bouché-leclercq, p 540when it was sought, by means of the above-described figures, todetermine the medical future or the life and death of an individual, this could be accomplished with the aid of the diagram represented infig 1 in such a manner that the duration of the disease in days, thenumerical value of book essay the name of the patient, and the phases of the moonwere added, and the sum divided by 29 the result thus obtained wasinterpreted by referring to the diagram if this figure happened to be, for instance, in the right upper quadrant, the patient, altho he wouldrecover from his illness, would live only for a very short period;if this number was found in the vertical line, below the horizontaldiameter, the patient was destined to die after a short struggle much more intricate was the use of the astrological apparatusillustrated in fig 2 here the number of the moon day, and thenumerical values of the name of the patient were not added, but eachof these figures was separately looked for in the diagram if the moonfigure was found in the lower, the figure for the name in the upper, ends of the verticals i e , where δυσις ὑπόγειος, setting, andἀνατολὴ ὑπέργειος, rising, stand the individual concerned, altho indanger, finally recovered if, on the other hand, the moon figure wasdiscovered in the upper, and the figure for the name in the lower, endsof the verticals, nothing but evil was in store for the questioner, butthe misfortune appeared under the guise of fortune if both numbers, however, were at the upper ends of the verticals, the prospects werefavorable, but bad if both figures occurred below the horizontal line a method which is similar to the simple apparatus of petosiris isrevealed to us in the so-called οφαῖρα δημοκρίτου it is contained inthe papyrus magica musei lugdunensis batavia, published by dietrich fig 3 shows the illustration belonging to this method, and alsothe greek directions for use, as given in the papyrus it will benoticed that in the method of democritus recourse is made to a tableof numerals divided by a cross-line into the upper and larger, and alower and smaller, section the upper writing contains in three verticalcolumns 18, in the lower, 12 figures to use the table, the day whenthe disease began, the numerical value of the name, and the days of themoon were added, and the sum thus obtained divided by 30 this quotientwas then looked for in the table of numbers if it was found above thecross-line, the patient recovered. If below, he succumbed illustration. Fig 3 the table of democritusthere existed a great thesis other methods besides those described above;for instance, the system of the 12 places, the circle of manilius, themethod of the mysterious hermes trismegistus, the circle of ptolemy, etc however, we can not here enter into a more detailed description ofthese forms, and refer those that wish more exhaustive information toberthelot, and, above all, to bouché-leclercq astrology, and, with it, sidereal medicine, subsequently traveled from its oriental home intoall civilized countries of the then known world as regards greek and roman antiquity, astrology in all its forms won ahigh reputation both in greece and italy even the most eminent ancientphysicians, altho they did not unreservedly adopt sidereal medicine, refrained from disavowing it thus we find in the corpus hippocraticum, the chief work of early greek medicine, passages which betray morethan a friendly feeling toward the astral art of healing it is true, expressions are not wanting which sound like a direct disowning ofastrology let us consider for a few moments the attitude of hippocratic medicinetoward astrology as to the rejection of astrologic medicine by the followers ofhippocrates, we read “ancient medicine, ” chapter i. In thetranslation of fuchs, vol i , page 19. “for this reason i believethat it medical art requires no basis of vain presumption, such asthe existence of invisible and doubtful factors, the discussion ofwhich, if it should be attempted, necessitates a hypothetic scienceof supernatural or of subterrestrial nature. For, if any one shouldcontend that he knew anything about such a matter, neither he, thelecturer, nor his hearers would clearly understand whether hisstatements were true or not, because nothing exists to which referencecould be had for purposes of verification ”this surely is a refutation as definite as can be desired of a medicinewhich depends upon witchcraft or astrologic vagaries however, variousother passages of the corpus hippocraticum take an exactly contraryposition for example, we find the following statement on “air, water, and locality, ” chapter xvii , in the translation of fuchs, vol i , page 390. “attention must be paid to the rise of the stars, especially to that of sirius, 4 as well as to the rise of arcturus, and, further, to the setting of the pleiades, for most diseases reach acrisis during such periods, essay of them abating in these days, othersceasing entirely, or developing into other symptoms and differentconditions ” these words indicate a distinct intention of bringingprognosis and course of diseases into the closest relations with themotions of the celestial bodies in the second chapter of the same booksimilar expressions occur. “he who knows how the change of seasons andthe rising and setting of stars take place will also be able to foreseehow the year is going to be therefore, any one who investigates thesesubjects and predicts coming events will be thoroughly informed as toeach detail of the future. He will enjoy the best of health, and takeas much as possible the right road in art however, if any one shouldbe of the opinion that these questions belong solely in the realm ofastronomy, he will soon change his opinion as he learns that astronomyis not of slight, but of a very essential, importance in medical art ”stars and diseases are also brought into mutual relations in the letterto king ptolemy emerins, page 293 4 this star, in writingicular, played a rôle in the astrologic prognosis of the egyptians. In fact, in various systems it was made the starting-point of medical predictions. For instance, in the method of hermes trismegistus the above quotations refer exclusively to the course of diseases inrelation to the stars, but we find in other passages also distinctreferences are made to therapeutic methods.

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Ethyl alcohol, 0 10 book essay per cent. Water to 100 writings ”it will be noticed that the composition claimed for number “3” isessentially similar to that claimed for chloron it differs fromchloron in that the amounts of essay of the constituents are essaywhatgreater, and in that, like chlorax, it contains essay tincture of opium the a m a chemical laboratory reports that the free chlorin in aspecimen of number “3” was 0 024 gm in 100 c c and the total active “available” chlorin 0 173 gm per hundred c c , or about 50 per cent of the claimed amount the examination indicates that number “3” is ofunreliable composition the chlorine products company, inc , submittedno clinical evidence for number “3” to which it refers as “our syphilisremedy ” it stated that two physicians had used the preparation “withgood results, ” and admitted that “the company requires further evidencebefore pushing it ”the council declared “chloron, ” “chlorax” and “number ‘3’” in conflictwith the rules governing admission to new and nonofficial remedies allare of unreliable composition conflict with rule 1 the therapeuticclaims made for the preparations are not substantiated by acceptableevidence and are unwarranted and misleading chloron is inferior as anantiseptic to the well-known surgical solution of chlorinated soda onaccount of its low chlorin content and uncontrolled reaction thereis no warrant for the claim that chlorax is useful in the treatmentof “kidney conditions, ” “diabetes, ” “acute infections, ” “blooddicrasias, ” “lithemias and rheumatism, ” and “nervous conditions, ” noris there warrant for the claim that “number ‘3’” is a remedy for thepurification of the blood or a “syphilis remedy” conflict with rule 6 the names of these pharmaceutical mixtures are not descriptive of theircomposition conflict with rule 8 all three preparations are irrational no evidence has been furnishedthat the lithium salt is of value in the mixtures it is not rationalto combine an active chlorin preparation and a mercury salt in onemixture, nor is there evidence that the addition of opium to thepreparations proposed for internal use is of value or rational experimentation with number “3” as a “syphilis remedy” is to beseverely condemned in that those on whom it is used will in themeantime be deprived of efficient medication conflict with rule10 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 70 elarson omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportannouncing the omission of elarson from new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary elarson, now sold by the winthrop chemical company, inc , was formerlysold in the united states by the bayer co , inc it was admitted to newand nonofficial remedies in 1914 the circular issued by the winthrop chemical co contains severalstatements markedly at variance with the results of an investigationmade, at the request of fischer, by joachimoglu arch f exper path u pharmakol 78:1914 the circular states that elarson containsabout 13 per cent arsenic joachimoglu found from 10 8 to 11 1 percent to be present the circular states further. “the fact that elarson represents a lipoid-like chemical combination of arsenic has an important bearing upon its absorption and utilization in the system there is good reason to believe that when arsenic is administered in a stable, lipoid-like combination, as in elarson, it is more readily taken up by the cells and more completely utilized than when given in the customary manner ” “as regards the behavior of elarson in the system, it has been shown that its active constituent, chlorarseno-behenol, is almost completely absorbed in this form, probably as a chlor-behenolate of sodium or potassium ”as a matter of fact, joachimoglu found that very little arsenic wasabsorbed when elarson was given to dogs and rabbits. Most of it wasrecovered from the feces. Only traces were found in the liver andkidneys and none in the blood and brain the absence from the latterorgans shows that the lipoid solubility does not obtain in the body itis claimed in the circular that elarson has the advantage over fowlersolution “in that it is free from any irritating action upon thegastro-intestinal tract”. It is stated that as thesis as sixty tabletshave been given to dogs daily without any toxic effects joachimoglu, on the other hand, found powdered elarson to be very irritating tothe gastro-intestinal tract. Also that the dog could not stand sixtytablets at all gar nicht vertragen, such doses causing vomiting, diarrhea and intestinal hemorrhages.