History

Black History Month Essay


Such revocation being after due notice and trial by thesaid board, with right of appeal to the circuit court of the county inwhich such individual resides. But no such refusal or revocation shallbe made by reason of his belonging to or practising in any writingicularschool or system of medicine 10 the examination fee is not retained if a certificate is refused, butthe applicant may again, at any time within a year after refusal, beexamined without an additional fee, and if a certificate be againrefused he may, as often as he sees fit, on payment of the fee, beexamined until he obtains a certificate 11 examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing, and shall be of anelementary and practical character, embracing the general subjects ofanatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, pathology, pathologicalanatomy, surgery, and obstetrics, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics the chapter does not apply to females practisingmidwifery 12 definition, exceptions - any person is regarded as practising medicinewho professes publicly to be a physician, and to prescribe for thesick, or who appends to his name “m d ” this act also applies toapothecaries and pharmacists who prescribe for the sick it does notapply to commissioned officers of the united states army and navy andmarine hospital service 13 itinerant physician or vender - any itinerant physician or itinerantvender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance of any kindintended for the treatment of disease or injury, or who shall bywriting or printing or in any other method publicly profess to cureor treat diseases, injuries, or deformities by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, shall before doing so pay to thesheriff of every county in which he desires to practise a special taxof $50 for each month or fraction of a month he shall so practise insuch county, and take his receipt in duplicate therefor he shallpresent said receipts to the clerk of the county court of such county, who shall file and preserve one of them in his office and indorse onthe other, “a duplicate of this receipt has been filed in my office, ”and sign the same for such a person to practise or attempt to practisein any county without having paid such tax and filed such receipt andobtained such indorsement, or to practise or attempt to practise fora longer time than that for which he has paid a tax, is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $100 to $500 any person who shalltravel from place to place and by writing, printing, or otherwisepublicly profess to cure or treat diseases, injuries, or deformitiesis deemed an itinerant physician subject to the taxes, fines, andpenalties of this section 14 penalty - to practise or attempt to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics without complying with sec 9 is a misdemeanor punishable, for every offence, with a fine of from $50 to $500 or imprisonment ina county jail from one month to twelve months, or both to file orattempt to file as his own a diploma or certificate of another, ora false or forged affidavit of identity, or wilfully swear falselyto any question propounded to him on examination or to any affidavitrequired to be made and filed, is punishable with confinement in thepenitentiary from one to three years or imprisonment in a county jailfrom six to twelve months, and a fine of from $100 to $500 s 15 fee - to the state board of health, or its examining members, forexamination, $10 11 wisconsin prohibition - no person practising physic or surgery, or both, shall have the right to collect in any action in any court fees orcompensation for the performance of any medical or surgical service, or to testify in a professional capacity as a physician or surgeon, unless he shall have received a diploma from essay incorporated medicalsociety or college or shall be a member of the state or essay countymedical society legally organized in this state. Provided that in allcriminal actions the court may in its discretion and in the furtheranceof justice receive the testimony of any physician or surgeon withoutrequiring proof of the incorporation of the medical society or collegefrom which he graduated r s , 1878, s 1, 436, as amended c 131, 1887 no person practising physic or surgery, or both, prohibited by theabove section from testifying in a professional capacity as a physicianor surgeon, shall assume the title of doctor, physician, or surgeon bymeans of any abbreviation or by the use of any other word or words, letters of the alphabet of the english or any other language, or anydevice of whatsoever kind, printed, written, or painted, or exhibitedin any advertisement, circular, handbill, letter, or other instrument, nor on any card, sign, door, or place whatsoever penalty, exceptions - a violation of this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $25 to $100, or imprisonment in a countyjail from ten days to sixty days for each offence s 1, c 256, 1881, as amended c 40, 1882 on complaint in writing under oath before any magistrate or justice ofthe peace charging the commission of an offence against the provisionsof this act in his county, it is the duty of the district attorney toprosecute the offender, and in all such prosecutions the burden ofproof shall be upon the defendant to establish his right to use suchtitle under the provisions of this act 2 any person prohibited by sec 1 from assuming the title of doctor, physician, or surgeon who shall practise or pretend to practisephysic or surgery, or both, is not exempted from any, but is liableto all, of the legal penalties and liabilities of malpractice, andignorance shall be no excuse for a failure to perform or for neglector unskilfully performing or attempting to perform any of the dutiesrequired by law of practising physicians or surgeons the act does notprevent students from practising under the direction of a qualifiedpreceptor, nor women from practising midwifery, nor veterinarians frompractising in their special dewritingment 3 wyoming qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics who has not received a medical education and diploma fromessay regularly chartered medical school having a bona fide existencewhen the diploma was granted r s , 1887, s 1, 925 every physician, surgeon, or obstetrician must file for record withthe register of deeds of the county in which he is about to practiseor where he practises, a copy of his diploma, exhibiting the original, or a certificate from the dean of the medical school of which he is agraduate certifying to his graduation 1, 926 when filing a copy of his diploma or certificate of graduation, he mustbe identified as the person named in the paper about to be filed by theaffidavit of two citizens of the county, or his affidavit taken beforea notary public or commissioner of deeds for the state, which affidavitmust be filed in the office of the register of deeds 1, 927 penalty - to practise without complying with this chapter is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 or imprisonmentin a county jail from thirty days to six months, or both, for eachoffence to file or attempt to file as his own a diploma or certificateof another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is a felonysubject to a fine and imprisonment in the penitentiary s 1, 928 it is the duty of the police, sheriff, or constable to arrest allpersons practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without complyingwith these provisions 1, 929 exceptions - this chapter does not apply to persons in emergencyprescribing or giving advice in medicine, surgery, or obstetrics ina section of country where no physician, surgeon, or obstetricianresides, or where no physician, surgeon, or obstetrician resideswithin a convenient distance, nor to persons prescribing in their ownfamilies, nor to persons claiming to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics in any section of the state where no physician or surgeonhaving a diploma or a certificate resides 1, 930 evidence - on the trial of persons charged with the violation ofthis chapter it shall be sufficient for the prosecution to show thatdefendant has practised medicine, surgery, or obstetrics within thecounty where the indictment is found at any time since the passage ofthe act 1876, and the defendant shall not after proof be entitled toacquittal until he shows by the testimony of essay competent witnessupon oath that the defendant has received a medical education, and agenuine diploma from essay regularly chartered medical school. Providedthat the defendant may show such facts by depositions taken in the samemanner as depositions in civil paper 1, 931 the united kingdom of great britain and ireland medical acts - the act 21 and 22 victoria, c 90, and the amendmentsthereof and additions thereto, are generally spoken of as the medicalacts medical councils - there is a general council of medical education andregistration of the united kingdom, with branch councils for england, scotland, and ireland 21 and 22 vict , 1858, c 90, s 3, 6 members of the general council are chosen as provided in 49 and 50vict , c 48, s 7.

He should avoid stating any conclusions or principles of whichhe is not certain, but having an assurance that he is right he shouldbe firm and positive he should admit the limitations of his knowledgeand ability where a question is asked which he cannot answer, heshould not hesitate to say so. But he should refuse to be led outsidethe subject of inquiry, and should confine his testimony to thosescientific questions which are really involved in the case, or in hisexamination of the case eighth. And finally, he should always bear in mind that at the closeof his testimony an opportunity is usually given to him to explainanything which he may be conscious of having said, which requiresexplanation. And writingial statements which need a qualification to makethem a truth this is the physician opportunity to set himself rightwith the court and with the jury if the course of the examination hasbeen unsatisfactory to him, he can then, by a brief and plain statementof the general points which he has intended to convey by his testimony, sweep away all the confusion and uncertainty arising from the longexamination and cross-examination, and can often succeed in producingfor the first time the impression which he desires to produce, and canpresent the scientific aspects of the case briefly and correctly probably no man was ever so gifted as to be able in practice to carryout all of these principles in giving medical testimony if he could, he would be the ideal expert witness but the principles are, afterall, simple and easily followed in the main any physician who knowshis subject and who has a clear head and the ordinary faculty ofexpression, by observing these principles can make himself invaluableas an expert witness there is no branch of the profession which bringsa broader fame, greater influence, or larger emoluments than this there is no branch, on the other hand, in which men of real abilitymake more lamentable failures chapter vi malpractice definition - malpractice may be defined to be 1st wilful acts on the writing of a physician or surgeon toward a personunder his care, by which such person suffers death or injury;2d acts forbidden by express statute, on the writing of a physician orsurgeon, toward a person under his care, by which such person suffersdeath or injury;3d negligent acts on the writing of a physician or surgeon in treating apatient, by means of which such patient suffers death or unnecessaryinjury these various divisions will be considered in the order in which theyare above set forth wilful malpractice - the paper which fall within the first twodivisions of this definition are such acts as render the medicalman liable to punishment in a criminal prosecution, and may notnecessarily, although in essay instances they may, constitute grounds ofliability in a civil suit against him as examples of the first class of paper may be cited those instances, happily not numerous in the annals of the profession, where a physicianor surgeon when treating a female patient has had carnal connectionwith her, representing that he was using that method of treating her tocure her disease such a case was reg v case, 1 eng law & eq , 544 s c , 1 den c c , 580 186honest intent no defence in such paper - in reg v reed, 1 den c c , 377 s c , 2 car & k , 967, it was contended as a defencethat the defendant really believed that he was curing his patient bytreating her in this extraordinary way the court, per wildes, c j , brushed aside this contention with scorn, saying. “the notion that amedical man may lawfully adopt such a method of treatment is not tobe tolerated in a court of justice;” and in this case and in others, convictions have been sustained for the crime of rape or of attemptingto commit rape 187another example of wilful malpractice would be wilful neglect of apatient by his medical attendant, who became intoxicated voluntarily, though this will generally come under the second subdivision, as moststates and countries have enacted statutes making it a criminal offenceto practise medicine or surgery when intoxicated acts forbidden by statute - within the second subdivision of thedefinition, or acts declared unlawful by statute, fall the paperof committing or attempting to commit an abortion, and paper ofprescribing for or treating a patient by one voluntarily intoxicated if the abortion is attempted without the knowledge or consent of thewoman, and under the pretence of performing a necessary operation uponher to cure disease, undoubtedly the physician would be liable to acriminal prosecution by the state for the offence of committing anabortion and to civil action by her to recover damages if the abortionwas committed with her consent, while she would have no right of actionagainst him for damages, he would be liable to criminal prosecutionunder the statute abortion not a crime by the common law - at common law it was nota crime to commit an abortion with the mother consent if the childhad not quickened in mitchell v com , 78 ky , 204 s c , 39am reports, 227, the court, per hines, j , says. “after a patientinvestigation we are forced to the conclusion that it was never calleda punishable offence at common law to produce, with the consent of themother, an abortion prior to the time when the mother became quick withchild it was not even murder at common law to take the life of thechild at any period of gestation, even in the very act of delivery ”see also evans v people, 49 n y , 86 the inhumanity and danger to society of this rule became manifest at avery early period, and both in england and in this country statuteswere adopted, varying essaywhat in the degree and kind of punishment andin the nomenclature of the crime, but all of them making the offenceof committing an abortion, no matter at what stage of gestation, acrime 188the common-law doctrine criticised - professor elwell in his valuablework on “malpractice, medical evidence and insanity, ” pp 250, 251, makes the following remarks upon this subject. “the idea once existedquite generally, and it still exists to essay extent, that there is nooffence in destroying the embryo or fœtus before there is a manifestknowledge of life by the mother, derived from motion of the childcalled ‘quickening ’ how absurd to suppose that there is no lifeuntil the mother can feel the muscular motions of the child!. as wellmight we deny the vitality of the blood because it cannot be felt the muscular tissues, and even the bones to which they are attached, must have essay degree of substance before there can be motion, and ofcourse this development depends upon life though this foolish notionis now fully exploded in medicine, it still lingers in the popularmind, and doubtless leads to much crime the life of the fœtus orembryo immediately after conception is just as positive physiologicallyas at any subsequent period quickening being an incident or signin the course of development of the fœtus, it indicates not thecommencement of a new state of existence, but only a new manifestationof pre-existing life it is uncertain in its appearance, essaytimescoming on at three months, essaytimes at six months, and essaytimes notat all ”legal definitions of terms, “quick with child, ” etc - in evans v people, 49 n y , 86, following r v wycherly, 8 c & p , 262, it was held that a woman is “quick with child” from the period ofconception after the commencement of gestation, but is “pregnant withquick child” only when the child has become “quickened in the womb ”this distinction has been discussed in state v cooper, 2 zab , n j , 52, and since the evans case, the same court in new york state hasheld that the expression, “woman with child, ” means “pregnant woman ”eckhardt v people, 83 n y , 42 s c , 38 am rep , 462 death of child by abortion - if, in attempting to produce anabortion, the child is caused to be born alive but before the end ofthe period of gestation, and when it is not capable of sustaining life, and it dies, the person producing the abortion and bringing the childinto the world at this time and in this manner is guilty of murder wharton crim law, sec 942. Rex v west, 2 cox crim paper, 500;com v brown, 14 gray, mass , 419 death of mother by abortion - so also where in consequence ofproducing an abortion the death of the mother occurs, the personproducing the abortion is guilty of murder at common law 4blackstone com , 201. 1 bishop crim law, 328 in essay of thestates, however, these offences are declared to be only manslaughter further consideration of the subject of abortion will be had under thattitle in another writing of this work statutes generally except abortions necessary to save life - itshould be noted here, however, that nearly all the statutes whichdefine and punish the crime of abortion, or the crime of manslaughteror murder committed in consequence of abortion, declare that when it isnecessary to produce a miscarriage in order to save life, the act ofdoing so is excepted from the effect of the statute negligent malpractice - under the third subdivision of thedefinition, viz , when by reason of the negligent acts on the writingof the physician or surgeon the patient suffers death or unnecessaryinjury, may be placed the most numerous paper of malpractice, accordingto the generally accepted meaning of the term criminal liability for negligent malpractice - it is manifest thatnot every degree of negligence which causes death or injury ought torender the physician or surgeon liable to indictment and punishmentfor a crime the general theory of the criminal law is based upon thedoctrine that in order to constitute a crime there must be eitheran intent to do the wrong, or such a degree of negligence in theperformance of a given act as to supply the place of the intent to dowrong, and require punishment for the protection of society, upon theground that the carelessness of the defendant is so great as to makeit necessary and proper to punish him, in order to deter others fromfollowing his example doctrine of leading case of com v thompson - in com v thompson 6 mass , 134, parsons, c j , observes.

The root is long and stringy, with divers fibres thereat, and abides thesis years place it grows in woods, and by black history month essay wood-sides. As also in diversfields and bye-lanes in the land time it flowers in june, july, and august government and virtues the herb is under venus the decoction ofthe wood sage provokes urine and women courses. It also provokessweat, digests humours, and discusses swellings and nodes in theflesh, and is therefore thought to be good against the french pox the decoction of the green herb, made with wine, is a safe and sureremedy for those who by falls, bruises, or blows, suspect essay veinto be inwardly broken, to disperse and void the congealed blood, andto consolidate the veins the drink used inwardly, and the herb usedoutwardly, is good for such as are inwardly or outwardly bursten, andis found to be a sure remedy for the palsy the juice of the herb, or the powder thereof dried, is good for moist ulcers and sores inthe legs, and other writings, to dry them, and cause them to heal morespeedily it is no less effectual also in green wounds, to be used uponany occasion solomon seal descript the common solomon seal rises up with a round stalk halfa yard high, bowing or bending down to the ground, set with singleleaves one above another, essaywhat large, and like the leaves of thelily-convally, or may-lily, with an eye of bluish upon the green, with essay ribs therein, and more yellowish underneath at the foot ofevery leaf, almost from the bottom up to the top of the stalk, comeforth small, long, white and hollow pendulous flowers, essaywhat likethe flowers of may-lily, but ending in five long points, for the mostwriting two together, at the end of a long foot-stalk, and essaytimes butone, and essaytimes also two stalks, and flowers at the foot of a leaf, which are without any scent at all, and stand on the top of the stalk after they are past, come in their places small round berries great atthe first, and blackish green, tending to blueness when they are ripe, wherein lie small, white, hard, and stony seeds the root is of thethickness of one finger or thumb, white and knotted in essay places, aflat round circle representing a seal, whereof it took the name, lyingalong under the upper crust of the earth, and not growing downward, butwith thesis fibres underneath place it is frequent in divers places of this land. As, namelyin a wood two miles from canterbury, by fish-pool hill, as also inbushy close belonging to the parsonage of alderbury, near clarendon, two miles from salisbury. In cheffon wood, on chesson hill, betweennewington and sittingbourn in kent, and divers other places in essex, and other counties time it flowers about may. The root abides and shoots a-new everyyear government and virtues saturn owns the plant, for he loves hisbones well the root of solomon seal is found by experience to beavailable in wounds, hurts, and outward sores, to heal and close up thelips of those that are green, and to dry up and restrain the flux ofhumours to those that are old it is singularly good to stay vomitingsand bleeding wheresoever, as also all fluxes in man or woman. Also, to knit any joint, which by weakness uses to be often out of place, or will not stay in long when it is set.

“strontium salicylate from natural oil 5 gr hexamethylenamin 2 gr colchicine 1/200 gr ”the advertising matter contains several statements regarding theindividual ingredients to which objection must be made it is claimed quoting from hare that black history month essay strontium salicylate “ is not so disagreeable to the taste as the corresponding sodium salts, and more important still, it is far less apt to disorder the stomach ”“taste” is a difficult subject to dispute. But in the experience of thereferee, patients object more to the strontium than to the sodium salt no evidence is submitted to prove that the strontium salt is less aptto disorder the stomach in observations made under the direction ofthe referee, the nauseant and emetic doses are about the same as, oreven less than, those of sodium salicylate under hexamethylenamin, the recommendations are not confined toits recognized use as a urinary antiseptic. It is also said to be“unexcelled” as a “germicide, ” and to prevent the formation of urateand phosphate deposits these statements are contrary to facts “rheumalgine may be used in all paper where the salicylates are indicated it is superior to preparations containing sodium salicylate, in that it does not cause nausea or disturb the digestion ”both the preceding statements are misleading the necessity of giving1/200 grain of colchicin for each 5 grains of salicylate wouldcertainly interfere with the use of adequate doses of the latter thecolchicin would produce digestive disturbance quite awriting from thesalicylate the mixture is described as. “ antirheumatic, antipyretic, urinary antiseptic, and uric acid eliminant useful in acute articular and chronic rheumatism, muscular pains, lumbago, sciatica, migraine of the rheumatic, gout, and in nervous irritability of the gouty or lithemic ”the facts are. Salicylates are useful in essay of these conditions, colchicin occasionally in a few, hexamethylenamin in none the combination is conducive to uncritical prescribing forinstance, salicylates are effective in acute articular rheumatism;hexamethylenamin and colchicin are useless. Salicylates are of verylittle use in chronic rheumatism, sciatica and nervous irritability, while hexamethylenamin and colchicin are useless in these conditions;colchicin is essaytimes effective in gout, salicylates perhaps also;hexamethylenamin is not attention should also be called to the high dosage of colchicin, namely, 1/100 to 1/50 of a grain of the alkaloid, every three orfour hours, the dose then to be “slightly reduced, ” but continuedfor several days.

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But the use of lettuce is chiefly forbidden to those that areshort-winded, or have any imperfection in the lungs, or spit blood water lily of these there are two principally noted kinds, viz the white andthe yellow descript the white lily has very large and thick dark greenleaves lying on the water, sustained by long and thick foot-stalks, that arise from a great, thick, round, and long tuberous black rootspongy or loose, with thesis knobs thereon, green on the outside, but aswhite as snow within, consisting of divers rows of long and essaywhatthick and narrow leaves, smaller and thinner the more inward they be, encompassing a head with thesis yellow threads or thrums in the middle;where, after they are past, stand round poppy-like heads, full of broadoily and bitter seed the yellow kind is little different from the former, save only that ithas fewer leaves on the flowers, greater and more shining seed, and awhitish root, both within and without the root of both is essaywhatsweet in taste place they are found growing in great pools, and standing waters, and essaytimes in slow running rivers, and lesser ditches of water, insundry places of this land time they black history month essay flower most commonly about the end of may, and their seedis ripe in august government and virtues the herb is under the dominion of the moon, and therefore cools and moistens like the former the leaves andflowers of the water lilies are cold and moist, but the roots and seedsare cold and dry. The leaves do cool all inflammations, both outwardand inward heat of agues. And so doth the flowers also, either by thesyrup or conserve. The syrup helps much to procure rest, and to settlethe brain of frantic persons, by cooling the hot distemperature of thehead the seed as well as the root is effectual to stay fluxes of bloodor humours, either of wounds or of the belly. But the roots are mostused, and more effectual to cool, bind, and restrain all fluxes in manor woman the root is likewise very good for those whose urine is hotand sharp, to be boiled in wine and water, and the decoction drank thedistilled water of the flowers is very effectual for all the diseasesaforesaid, both inwardly taken, and outwardly applied. And is muchcommended to take away freckles, spots, sunburn, and morphew from theface, or other writings of the body the oil made of the flowers, as oilof roses is made, is profitably used to cool hot tumours, and to easethe pains, and help the sores lily of the valley called also conval lily, male lily, and lily confancy descript the root is small, and creeps far in the ground, as grassroots do the leaves are thesis, against which rises up a stalk halfa foot high, with thesis white flowers, like little bells with turnededges of a strong, though pleasing smell. The berries are red, notmuch unlike those of asparagus place they grow plentifully upon hampstead-heath, and thesis otherplaces in this nation time they flower in may, and the seed is ripe in september government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury, andtherefore it strengthens the brain, recruits a weak memory, and makesit strong again. The distilled water dropped into the eyes, helpsinflammations there. As also that infirmity which they call a pin andweb the spirit of the flowers distilled in wine, restores lost speech, helps the palsy, and is excellently good in the apoplexy, comfortsthe heart and vital spirits gerrard saith, that the flowers beingclose stopped up in a glass, put into an ant-hill, and taken awayagain a month after, ye shall find a liquor in the glass, which, beingoutwardly applied, helps the gout white lilies it were in vain to describe a plant so commonly known in every onegarden.