History

Biology Essay


In fact, it is inconsistent with the statementthat the preparation contains all the constituents found in the freshplant even if instances of cumulative action have not been reportedthis does not prove that such cumulative action does not occur thetincture of digitalis has the systemic side-effects of digitalis in nogreater degree than the various proprietary preparations attempts tocreate the impression that digitalysatum possesses all the virtues ofdigitalis without its chief disadvantage are to be condemned as likelyto lead to incautious use of the preparation these exaggerated claims are in the main made indirectly, but they arenone the less inimical to sound therapy the council therefore declareddigitalysatum ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies and votedthat this report be published -- from the journal a m a , jan 8, 1916 so-called secretin preparations report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council authorized the following report for publication, and votedto endorse the work of professor carlson discussed therein w a puckner, secretary the council has not accepted for inclusion in new and nonofficialremedies any preparations said to contain secretin or prosecretin astheir active ingredient a report giving the reasons for the rejectionof one the first of the so-called secretin preparations marketed waspublished early last biology essay year;29 an article on secretin, based on workundertaken at the request of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, isnow published 3029 secretogen, j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 30 carlson, a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlmann, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a 66:178 jan 15 1916 lest the appearance of this detailed study of secretin, after therejection of so-called secretin preparations, should be interpreted as manufacturers whose products have been rejected have endeavored tointerpret such action as a case of first condemning a preparation andthen getting the facts, the council methods, and their applicationin this case, may be briefly stated the council maintains that, when a manufacturer places a product on the market, the burden ofproof is on that manufacturer to show that the properties of hisproduct are in accordance with his claims for it as stated in theintroduction to n n r , “it is manifestly impossible for thecouncil to investigate the composition of every complex pharmaceuticalmixture, or to check thoroughly every therapeutic claim. It can giveonly an unbiased judgment on the available evidence ” acting on thisprinciple, the council examined the claims made for secretogen, analleged secretin product manufactured by the g w carnrick company the conclusion was that these claims were in absolute conflict with theavailable evidence as to the action of secretin it is not necessary to review this subject again it will suffice tostate that the claims made for secretogen rest on two fundamentalpropositions. 1 that deficiency of secretin or, rather, ofprosecretin in the intestinal mucosa is a factor in gastro-intestinaldiseases. 2 that secretin given by the mouth is absorbed and producesincreased secretion of the pancreatic and intestinal juices and of thebile from an examination of the evidence available, including thatsubmitted by the manufacturers, the council concluded. “1 no evidencehas been presented that the absence of secretin is a cause ofgastro-intestinal disease 2 there is no evidence that secretin inany form is physiologically active when administered by mouth ” thatthese conclusions were justified is shown again by the review givenby carlson of the literature, much of which was also reviewed in thecouncil previous report since the claims of the carnrick company were not supported by anysatisfactory evidence, no further investigation on the council writingwas necessary to warrant rejection of the product the council didnot undertake to determine, for instance, whether or not secretogenand similar products actually contain secretin. The determination ofthis point was immaterial here, in view of the conclusiveness of theevidence that secretin given by mouth has no physiologic action since firms other than the g w carnrick company are manufacturingalleged secretin preparations, and since recommendations for the useof secretin preparations in gastro-intestinal diseases have even creptinto textbooks, it seemed desirable to obtain further information oncertain points the council therefore requested prof a j carlsonof the university of chicago to check the results of previousinvestigators with regard to the action of secretin administered bymouth or directly into the intestine, and, in addition, to investigatethe secretin content of certain alleged secretin preparations carlson and his co-workers, like all previous investigators, found thatsecretin given by mouth, or introduced even in enormous doses directlyinto the intestine, is entirely inactive they also found that markeddestruction of secretin followed contact for one minute with humangastric juice and that secretin is rapidly oxidized and rendered inertin contact with the air further, they were unable to demonstrate the presence of secretinin samples of secretogen and another supposed secretin preparation duodenin bought on the open market in the case of secretogen therewas one exception.

And, in fact, there is good reason for thinking thathe did not, for all subsequent workers who have taken pains to securegenuine cactus grandiflorus biology essay have failed to detect the presence of anyactive principle, except possible traces that are of no therapeuticimportance whatever what the council foundthe council on pharmacy and chemistry examined the literature relatingto cactus and certain proprietary preparations, including cactinapillets, alleged to be made from cactus, and has reported the resultsof its investigation j a m a 54:888 march 12 1910 and wewill quote from that report “the therapeutic value of this plant has been variously estimated by different observers experimental evidence as to its action is scanty and no complete chemical examination has ever been made “reputable men have testified that essay of the plants of the cactus family contain very active principles, but so far experiments seem to prove that cactus grandiflorus has neither the action of digitalis nor that of strychnin the principal contributions, clinical and experimental, for and against the drug are set out below ”illustration. Typical advertisements of “cactina pillets” from themedical record and new york medical journal, respectively the report then proceeds to analyze the work of o h myers, r a hatcher, boinet and boy-teissier, sayre, gordon sharp, s a matthews, p w williams, aulde and ellingwood, and comes to conclusions that areset forth as follows, in brief:1 it is uncertain what writing of the plant contains the activeprinciple, if any such principle exists 2 writing of the experimental and clinical work has been published underproprietary auspices 3 the value of clinical evidence when unsupported by animalexperimentation is much diminished by the tendency of enthusiastic anduntrained observers to attribute to the drug given the effect reallydue to general remedial measures, psychic suggestion and so forth in other words, the literature does not afford a report of a singlepiece of careful painstaking work the results of which lend support tothe claims made for cactina pillets as stated above, for it is obviousthat if cactus grandiflorus contains no active principle, no activeprinciple can be extracted from it essay time after the report ofthe council was published, hatcher and bailey secured genuine cactusgrandiflorus directly from a competent botanist, dr c a purpus, of vera cruz, mexico, and studied it experimentally they reported j a m a 56:26 jan 7 1911 in writing as follows. “we have been unable to obtain any evidence that the true mexican cactus grandiflorus possesses any pharmacologic action whatever. But, on the contrary, it appears to be a singularly inert substance when administered either by the mouth or by the vein ”when colossal doses of cactus grandiflorus are given by the vein, they essaytimes-- but not always-- appear to exert an extremely feebleaction on the heart. But this action is so slight that its naturecould not be determined even the most colossal doses of cactusgrandiflorus administered by the mouth to cats, dogs and frogs exertno perceptible effect sollmann thus satirizes the absurd claims made by the exploiters ofproprietary forms of cactus. “should the heart be too slow, cactusquickens it. If the heart is too fast, cactus slows it. Should theheart be too weak, cactus strengthens it. If the heart is too strong, cactus weakens it. Does the heart wobble, cactus steadies it. If theheart is normal, cactus does not meddle with it” j a m a 51:52july 4 1908 will physicians continue to accept the statements of an interestednostrum vender-- who submits not a shred of evidence to support hisclaims, but who has a financial interest in convincing them-- even whenhis statements are diametrically opposed to all the evidence that thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has been able to secure?. -- from thejournal a m a , jan 19, 1918 article v ammonol and phenalginat the time that synthetic chemical drugs were coming into fame andwhen every manufacturer who launched a new headache mixture claimedto have achieved another triumph in synthetic chemistry, ammonol andphenalgin were born of course, these twins of analgesic pseudotherapywere claimed to be synthetics and were duly christened with “formulas ”they were among the first of the nostrums examined for the council onpharmacy and chemistry, and the false claims made for them were exposed the analyses made for the council showed that ammonol and phenalginwere simple mixtures, having the following composition. Acetanilid sodium bicarbonate ammonium carbonate ammonol 50 25 20 phenalgin 57 20 10the reports of the council on, and numerous references to, these twonostrums may be found in the journal of various dates 245 the reportswill prove interesting to those who are not familiar with, or haveforgotten, the methods of nostrum exploiters at the time the councilwas formed following the council exposure of the false claims madeby the manufacturers of phenalgin, the medical record published anadvertisement of that nostrum in which an attempt was made to discreditthe council report the editor of the medical record was requestedby the council to publish the facts in the case but he refused to do so 245 j a m a 44. 1791 june 3 1905.

That is, it suspends judgment and withholds publication ofa report until reasonable time has been afforded for furnishing therequired information, provided the manufacturer or agent biology essay appears tobe making honest and diligent efforts to supply it the collectionand compilation of such information is essaytimes a lengthy process, especially when the products are of foreign manufacture although it would be easier for the council to render an immediatedecision than to assist manufacturers to supply the data necessary forthe formation of an authoritative judgment, the council cannot yield toimportunities for hasty action it must rely on the medical professionto bear in mind that the character of a product under considerationby the council has not yet been determined the council holds that, during this stage, a product is suitable, at most, for experimentaluse -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 119 cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin reply to the suggestion made last year by president bevan that thereshould be closer cooperation between the large pharmaceutical housesand the council on pharmacy and chemistry, the council submitted to theboard of trustees of the american medical association the statementwhich appears below. “cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses. At the opening meeting of the house of delegates last year, president arthur dean bevan suggested the desirability of greater cooperation between the large pharmaceutical houses and the council on pharmacy and chemistry the need of such cooperation has been recognized by the council from the first in no one direction has the council made greater effort than in its endeavor to secure the fullest cooperation of the various pharmaceutical houses the difficulty has been, and always must be, the fundamental antagonism between objectives that are largely commercial on the one hand and purely scientific on the other nevertheless, the council has always believed-- and has acted on the belief-- that there is a possible middle ground wherein the interests of therapeutics would not be injured but would go hand in hand with a commercial development based on enlightened self-interest “the profits to be made by a pharmaceutical house from the sale of a staple drug-- a pharmacopeial, national formulary, or nonproprietary preparation-- which enters into free competition with other drugs of the same kind, are moderate. The profits to be made from the sale of a proprietary medicine on which the manufacturer holds a monopoly are usually large-- essaytimes enormous there are, broadly, two kinds of proprietary preparations advertised to physicians. One represents laborious research ending in the production of a new medicinal chemical. This product can be patented and the manufacturer can obtain a seventeen-year monopoly on its manufacture and sale the other represents no research but comprises simple mixtures-- frequently of the “shotgun” variety-- of well known pharmaceuticals, or biologic products sold under trade names as these do not represent anything new or original the manufacturer is unable to obtain a patent, but by means of the trade name he can and does obtain a perpetual monopoly this, from a business standpoint, is more valuable than the limited monopoly granted by a patent it is not surprising that proprietary remedies of the latter type flourish so long as physicians unthinkingly accept and prescribe them solely on the manufacturer valuation “the council has practically the undivided support of manufacturers of medicinal chemicals.

Discharge ofmucus essaytimes tinged with blood, from mouth. Moist rattling noise inthroat in respiration. Frequent cough. Could not sleep laryngoscopeshowed penny in upper writing of œsophagus, just below laryngeal opening removed by long curved forceps 3 ibid - man suddenly fell while at dinner. Face blue. Breathingstertorous died piece of tendon found under epiglottis 4 ibid - boy, age 5 years button in larynx aphonia, dyspnœa, stridulous breathing distress gradually subsided thesis years afterwardfound mucous membrane of larynx thickened. Vocal cords red and uneven 5 ibid - man, drunk, swallowed a half-sovereign urgent dyspnœa;pain in throat. Aphonia. Stridulous breathing. Dysphagia. Cough;copious mucous expectoration laryngoscopic examination showed coinin œsophagus the crico-thyroid membrane was incised and coin pushedupward and ejected 6 med times and gaz , 1874, i , p 486 - man, age 20, had severedyspnœa in taking a living fish in his teeth it was about four incheslong and had large dorsal fin, the fish passed into the pharynx andlay doubled up impossible to remove it because of spines tracheotomyat once twenty-four hours afterward the fish had decomposed enough tobe writingly removed patient died of exhaustion 7 littlejohn. Edin med jour , 1875, xx , p 780 - woman founddead in bed suffocated by pus from abscess of tonsil which burstduring sleep found pus in air-passages down to smallest bronchi. Lungscongested. Right side of heart distended with dark fluid blood. Leftside contracted and nearly empty blood everywhere fluid essay lividityof face the woman had died quietly lying beside her husband, who wasnot awakened 8 sayre. New york med jour , 1874, xix , p 420 - girl, age7, swallowed a bead had continuous cough. Much pain under middleof sternum the bead moved upward and downward in respiration tracheotomy four days afterward she coughed the bead out, inspiredonce, and apparently died artificial respiration used.

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Hands clinched biology essay. Involuntary discharge of semen. Thoracic andabdominal organs normal 7 ibid - man, age 70 mark of cord around the neck, superficialin front, deep behind. Second cervical vertebra dislocated. Tongueslightly protruding. Fingers clinched. Meningeal vessels engorged;lungs tubercular, congested. Right heart contained a little coagulatedblood 8 ibid - sex and age not given found hanging on a tree. Usualsigns. Odontoid process fractured. Rope in a double noose without knot, a common dooree, such as is used for drawing water 9 ibid , p 32 - man, age 50 face livid, eyes red and protruding;teeth clinched.