History

Bibliographic Essay


Andbeing made into an electuary, it is good for them that cannot fetchtheir bibliographic essay breath. Used with salt, it takes away wens, kernels, or hardswelling in the flesh or throat. It cleanses foul sores, and easespains of the gout it is good for the liver and spleen a tansy orcaudle made with eggs, and juice thereof while it is young, putting toit essay sugar and rose-water, is good for a woman in child-birth, whenthe after-birth is not thoroughly voided, and for their faintings uponor in their sore travail the herb bruised and boiled in a little wineand oil, and laid warm on a boil, will ripen it, and break it barberry the shrub is so well known by every boy or girl that has but attainedto the age of seven years, that it needs no description government and virtues mars owns the shrub, and presents it tothe use of my countrymen to purge their bodies of choler the innerrind of the barberry-tree boiled in white wine, and a quarter of apint drank each morning, is an excellent remedy to cleanse the body ofcholeric humours, and free it from such diseases as choler causes, suchas scabs, itch, tetters, ringworms, yellow jaundice, boils, &c it isexcellent for hot agues, burnings, scaldings, heat of the blood, heatof the liver, bloody-flux. For the berries are as good as the bark, and more pleasing.

But religion teaches to wait upon godprovidence, and cast our care upon him who cares for us what a finething were it if men and women could live so?. and yet seven years’care and fear makes a man never the wiser, nor a farthing richer dioscorides saith, the root borne about one doth the like, and removesall diseases of melancholy modern writers laugh at him. Let themlaugh that win.

The physical properties of cerelene are as follows. melting point 50 0 c by u s p method ductility limit 30 5 c plasticity limit 26 4 c not strong at 38 c adheres moderately well. Detaches with “pulling ” on heating, readily loses eucalyptol, and a small amount of resinous substance forms in the bottom of the beaker if cerelene is heated to 145 c and cooled, the resulting product no longer has the properties of the original cerelene it is recommended that the preceding report be sent to the hollidaylaboratories, and that unless its superiority over simple paraffins isdemonstrated and the unwarranted claims abandoned, cerelene be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 6and 10 this report was submitted to the holliday laboratories with theinformation that it had been adopted, oct 3, 1917 it was alsoexplained that before cerelene could be accepted, the unofficialand unstandardized constituent “myricyl palmitate” would have to beconsidered and accepted for new and nonofficial remedies since, forobvious reasons, the council does not accept a preparation whichcontains an unofficial and unstandardized substance not in n n r the holliday laboratories acknowledged receipt of the council reportand asked that the matter be held in abeyance until the requestedevidence had been obtained later the council was advised that theadvertising circulars for cerelene had been withdrawn with theexception of one giving directions for its use five months later, thefirm stated that experiments were being made “to determine the actualstrength of cerelene in comparison with other paraffin waxes ”nothing further has been heard from the holliday laboratories and noreply has been received to an inquiry made oct 12, 1918 the counciltherefore authorizes publication of its report declaring cereleneinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies -- from the journala m a , feb 15, 1919 collosol cocaine not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe report which appears below was adopted by the council and sent tothe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, for comment in december, 1918 no explanation has been received from the manufacturer forthe information of the profession the council has now authorizedpublication of the report w a puckner, secretary “collosol cocaine” was submitted to the council in october, 1918, bythe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, under the claim that it wasan “absolute colloid” and that it contained “1 per cent cocain ” thelabel on the submitted specimen declares. “collosol cocaine 1-100” “ the cocaine exists as the pure alkaloid in the colloidal state-- the condition in which it is isomorphic with the protein of the body fluids the effect is more prolonged than that of a molecular cocaine solution and being non-toxic absorption presents no practical danger ”the product was assigned to the committee on pharmacology forconsideration the following report was submitted and its adoption bythe council recommended by the committee. “collosol cocaine” is said to be a colloidal form of cocain and is alleged to possess a remarkably low toxicity the subjoined report of the a m a chemical laboratory, however, shows that the preparation does not have the composition claimed for it and it is, in effect, misbranded in fact, the english manufacturers concede that it is not an “absolute colloid” and that the declaration with regard to the percentage of cocain is incorrect it is recommended that, without considering other conflicts with the rules of the council at this time, “collosol cocaine” be declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule 1 which requires that the composition of an article must be correctly declared the report of the a m a chemical laboratory is appended report of the a m a chemical laboratorysimpson, hewlett and eyre lancet, april 28, 1917, p 660 reported“collosol cocaine” to be much less toxic than cocain these writers, however, did not verify the statements as to the composition and inthe light of subsequent chemical examination it is not to be wonderedat that “collosol cocaine 1 0 per cent ” was much less toxic than asolution containing 1 0 per cent of cocain hydrochlorid barger, dale and durham report from the dewritingment of biochemistryand pharmacology, medical research committee lancet, dec 1, 1917, p 825, that they examined “collosol cocaine” and found it to containbut 0 25 per cent of cocain they also found that the cocain was notpresent in a colloidal form discussing the low toxicity claimed by themanufacturers, these investigators state. “in the samples which we examined the toxicity was, indeed, much lower than that of an ordinary 1 per cent solution of a cocain salt. But the local anesthetic action was low to a corresponding degree, and both actions corresponded satisfactorily with the proportion of cocain chemically recoverable from the solution ”stroud, of the crookes laboratory which manufactures the preparation, who apparently had been informed of this work in advance ofpublication, admits the correctness of it, and states british medicaljournal, nov 24, 1918, p 710 that “whilst the colloidal protectiveapparently absorbs a portion of the cocain, the remainder is found notto exhibit the attributes of a colloid, ”the specimen of “collosol cocaine” submitted to the council and labeled“collosol cocaine 1-100” was found to contain at most 0 4 per cent cocain the examination was made in accordance with the method used bybarger, dale and durham and calculated as cocain this method, however, probably would not distinguish between cocain and basic decompositionproducts, but would include all as cocain in the amount found thespecimen of “collosol cocaine” examined was neutral or slightly acid, afact which tends to confirm the conclusion of the british investigatorsthat “collosol cocaine” contains cocain in noncolloidal form andprecludes an increased physiologic effect due to alkalinity the council adopted both the report submitted by the committee and thatof the a m a laboratory and declared “collosol cocaine” inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , april12, 1919 cuprase not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report oncuprase, sold by the anglo-french drug co , ltd the councilcriticisms of the advertising claims were sent to the firm, december, 1918 the firm made no reply and essentially the same claims arecontained in recent advertisements w a puckner, secretary “cuprase” is now being advertised and sold in the united states by theanglo-french drug co , ltd , the firm which also markets it in england it is said to be “prepared in the laboratories of f ducatte, 8 placede la medeleine, paris ” according to an advertising circular entitled“the medical treatment of cancer” “cuprase” is “chemical colloidalcopper”. In another place it is “a colloidal copper hydroxid, ” which issaid to be obtained chemically by the reduction of salts of copper inthe presence of albumosic acid a box price $8 50 less 10 per cent discount of “cuprase-doctor gaubedu gers” was purchased recently from the anglo-french drug co , ltd it contained eight ampules each containing approximately $1 $2$3 of abrownish fluorescent liquid no information of composition was givenon the box, except the line. “chaque ampoule contient. $1 $2$3 00121de cuivre pur” each ampule contains o 00121 gr of pure copper thea m a chemical laboratory reports that the preparation does containa small amount of copper, with essay protein material and about 1 percent sodium chlorid the therapeutic claims in the advertising circular are thosecommonly made for cancer “cures” and are about equally convincing the publication of such statements and quotations as the following, which appear in a pamphlet “the medical treatment in cancer, ” cannotbe too strongly condemned in a medicament that at best has only anexperimental status. “a special preparation, cuprase, has been introduced into therapeutics which has been remarkably successful in the history of the therapeutics of cancer, nothing has been found which can compare with the effects produced by means of cuprase clinical facts carry greater weight than theoretical deductions it follows, from the clinical observations which i have collected, that in the large majority of paper cuprase effects the diminution or disappearance of the pains, an improvement in the general condition, a diminution or arrest of the neoplasms, and finally in certain paper, a cure has been effected it should be remarked that all or nearly all the observations refer to inoperable paper in which the prognosis was unfavorable at an early date it is needless to emphasize the practical importance of a preparation capable of yielding such results, even relative, in the worst stages of a disease which has always been regarded as absolutely resisting the action of all internal remedies ” “to sum up, cuprase has given positive results in about 94 per cent of the paper in which it has been employed for a sufficiently long period, and essay brilliant results in about 20 per cent of these paper therefore, it may be affirmed, that among the internal remedies for cancer, cuprase is the one which has produced the most successful results, and can, under certain circumstances, compete with surgical methods, even, so far as the rapidity of their results are concerned ” “it is indicated. A awriting from all operation, and as a specific and curative remedy. B before an operation, in order to give tone to the patient, mobilise the tumor, destroy its toxins. C after the operation, as a tonic and anti-toxic, and in order to avoid frequent relapses which are always possible ”essentially the same statements are made in the more recentadvertisements f i urological and cutaneous review, feb , 1919 opposed to these loose statements are the results of richard weil the journal a m a , 1913, sept 27, p 1034. Ibid, 1915, april 17, p 1283 weil avoided pitfalls of subjective impressions and usedas the essential criterion of efficiency “the demonstrable reductionin size of a tumor, of a kind not to be attributed to the naturalprocesses of evolution of that tumor or of its associated lesions” l c 1915, p 1289 the available evidence for cuprase is far from meeting this criterion that published by the manufacturers and agents presents only vaguegeneralities, and no definite data the evidence gathered by weilhimself permits an estimate of the value of cuprase and it is entirelyunfavorable he states l c 1915, p 1288:“colloidal copper has been used in recent time for the same purposeby gaube du gers and by others i have recently examined the effectsof colloidal copper on malignant tumors in man, and have been unableto find that it has any therapeutic value furthermore, a study ofthe distribution of the copper in tumors obtained at operation or bynecropsy from individuals so treated failed to show that the copper hadbeen deposited therein ”in view of the extravagant and cruelly misleading therapeutic claims, and the indefinite statements of composition, the council votedcuprase ineligible to n n r , and authorized the publication of thisreport -- from the journal a m a , april 12, 1919 collosol preparations report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below declaring “collosol argentum, ” “collosol arsenicum, ”“collosol cocain, ” “collosol cuprum, ” “collosol ferrum, ” “collosolhydrargyrum, ” “collosol iodin, ” “collosol manganese, ” “collosol quinin”and “collosol sulphur” inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, because their composition is uncertain conflict with rule 1 in thefew paper in which the therapeutic claims for these preparations wereexamined, the claims were found to be so improbable or exaggerated conflict with rules 6 and 10 as to have necessitated the rejection ofthese products w a puckner, secretarythe anglo-french drug co , ltd , london and new york, in november, 1918, requested the council to consider the products “collosolargentum, ” “collosol arsenicum, ” “collosol cocain, ” “collosol cuprum, ”“collosol ferrum, ” “collosol hydrargyrum, ” “collosol iodin, ” “collosolmanganese, ” “collosol quinin” and “collosol sulphur ” the term“collosol” appears to be a group designation for what are claimed tobe permanent colloidal solutions, marketed by the anglo-french drugco , ltd were this claim correct, “collosols” should contain theiractive constituents in the form of microscopic or ultramicroscopicsuspensions, protected against spontaneous precipitation by thepresence of proteins or essay similar “stabilizers ”according to the original patent specifications for collosols, themetals are precipitated or treated with “peptone, ” which acts as thesuspending or stabilizing agent the method of using the peptone makesit doubtful, in the first place, whether the major writing of the metalsis present in colloidal form, or merely in the form of peptonates, i e , as ordinary salts moreover, the later patents indicate that theproducts have been unsatisfactory. “experience having shown that essaymetal colloids under certain conditions not yet fully understood havethe tendency to break down after a certain period” u s patent no 1, 116, 247 phenol, it is claimed has a tendency to counteract thisdecomposition, and the patent covers the use of phenol for this purpose it is difficult to see how phenol could possibly have such action infact, it obviously does not, for a number of the samples of collosolssubmitted to the council had separated for instance, “collosolhydrargyrum” was not a colloidal solution at all, but a suspensionof a coarse powder the ampules of “collosol ferrum” contained aconsiderable quantity of flocculent precipitate if either of thesepreparations were injected intravenously as directed, death mightresult, making the physician morally if not legally liable the recklessness of the claims is further illustrated by the advicethat these indefinite mixtures of poisonous metals can be injected inunlimited quantities thus, henry crookes stated chemical news, may 7, 1914, p 218 that collosols “contain so small a proportion ofmetal, viz , 1 in 2000, that even a poisonous body like arsenic can beused with impunity ” he stated that they may be applied as a lotion, intramuscular or intravenous injection, and that “one pint or more canbe injected intravenously ”in the case of “collosol cocain, ” as was brought out in the councilreport published in the journal, april 12, 1919, the manufacturers haveadmitted that the product is not what they have claimed-- and stillclaim-- for it the report of the a m a chemical laboratory showedthat “collosol cocain, ” instead of containing 1 per cent cocain asclaimed, contained, in fact, at most not more than 0 4 per cent cocain the report of the a m a chemical laboratory on the collosol productswas sent by the council to the new york office of the anglo-french drugco , ltd , in duplicate in order to facilitate reference to the londonoffice this was essay months ago the information which the councilrequested has not yet been received, nor has the anglo-french drug co , ltd , indicated its intention of supplying such information on theother hand, claims to which specific objection have been made, continueto appear in current advertising accordingly, the council authorizespublication of this report, and declares the collosol preparationspreviously named ineligible to new and nonofficial remedies additional notes on collosol evidencein addition to the preceding the following notes of the referee on theevidence so far submitted were sent to the anglo-french drug company, ltd , for consideration:collosol iodine. The leaflet which describes collosol iodine containsclaims that are improbable, not in accord with accepted facts norsubstantiated by evidence.

If you fear such a thing, mix emolients with them caut 3 again, essaytimes by using discussives, the humours offending which physicians usually call the peccant humours is driven to essaymore noble writing of the body, or else it draws more than it bibliographic essay discusseth;in such paper, concoct and attenuate the matter offending before you goabout to discuss it from hence may easily be gathered at what time of the diseasediscussive medicines are to be used, viz about the declining of thedisease, although in diseases arising from heat of blood, we essaytimesuse them in the encrease and state of them they are known by the same marks and tokens attenuating medicines are, viz by their burning and biting quality, they being very hot, and ofthin writings, void of any biting quality, therefore they contract not thetongue in tasting of them chapter vi of repelling medicines repelling medicines are of contrary operation to these three lastmentioned, viz attenuating, drawing, and discussive medicines. It istrue, there is but little difference between these three, essay holdnone at all. And if you will be so nice, you may oppose them thus andso medicines making thick, correspond to attenuating medicines, or suchas make thin, repelling medicines are opposed to such as draw, and suchas retain the humours and make them tough, are opposite to such asdiscuss, essay hold this niceness needless 2 the sentence of authors about repulsive medicines is various for seeing an influxion may be caused thesis ways, a repulsive hath gotas thesis definitions for such things as cool, bind, stop, and make thick, stay influxions, and therefore repulsives are by authors opposed, not only toattractives, but also to attenuating, and discussing medicines but properly such things are called repulsives, which do not only stayinfluxions, for so do such medicines which stop and make thick butsuch as drive the humours flowing to, or inherit in the place, to essayother place the truth is, binding is inherent to repulsives, so is not coldness normaking thick. Yet such as are binding, cold and thin in operation, aremost effectual your taste will find repulsives to be, tart, or sharp, or austere, witha certain binding which contracts the tongue use 1 their use is manifold, as in hot tumours, head-aches, or thelike use 2 by these in fevers are the vapours driven from the head, vinegar of roses is notable time of giving they are most commodious in the beginning andencrease of a disease, for then influxions most prevail but seeing that in the cure of tumours there are two scopes, 1 thatthat which flows to it may be repelled 2 that that which is alreadyin it may be discussed. Repulsives are most commodiously used in thebeginning, discussives in the latter end in the middle you may mix them, with this proviso, that repulsivesexceed in the beginning, discussives in the latter end caution 1 if the matter offending be of a venomous quality, eitherabstain from repulsives altogether, or use purging first, lest thematter fly to the bowels and prove dangerous, especially if the bowelsbe weak 2 also forbear repulsives, if the pain be great 3 lastly, have a care lest by repulsives you contract the pores somuch, that the matter cannot be removed by discussives chapter vii of cleansing medicines cleansing medicines can neither be defined by heat, nor coldness, because essay of both sorts cleanse a cleansing medicine, then, is of a terrene quality, which takes awaythe filth with it, and carries it out definition here, to avoid confusion, a difference must be madebetween washing and cleansing a thing which washeth, carries away by fluxion, as a man washeth thedirt off from a thing a cleansing medicine by a certain roughness or nitrous quality, carriesaway the compacted filth with it this also is the difference between cleansing and discussing medicines, the one makes thick humours thin, and so scatters them, but a cleansingmedicine takes the most tenacious humour along with it, without anyalteration besides, of cleansing medicines, essay are of a gentler nature, essay aremore vehement these are not known one and the same way. For essay are sweet, essaysalt, and essay bitter the use of cleansing is external, as the use of purges are internal they are used to cleanse the sanies and other filth of ulcers, yea, andto consume and eat away the flesh itself, as burnt alum, precipitate, &c when these must be used, not only the effects of the ulcers, but alsothe temperature of the body will tell you for if you see either a disease of fulness, which our physicians callplethora or corrupted humours which they call cacochyma youmust empty the body of these, viz fulness by bleeding, and corrupthumours, or evil state of the body, by purging before you use cleansingmedicines to the ulcer, else your cure will never proceed prosperously chapter viii of emplasters by emplasters, here, i do mean things glutinative, and they are quitecontrary to things cleansing they are of a far more glutinous and tenacious substance they differ from things stopping because they do not stop the pores somuch, as stick to them like birdlime they have a certain glutinous heat, tempered both with coldness andmoisture from these plasters take their names their taste is either none at all, or not discernable whether hot orcold, but fat, insipid, or without taste, or sweet, and viscous infeeling their use is to stop flowing of blood, and other fluxes, to causesuppuration, to continue the heat, that so tumours may be ripened also they are mixed with other medicines, that they may the better bebrought into the form of an emplaster, and may stick the better to themembers chapter ix of suppuring medicines these have a great affinity with emolients, like to them intemperature, only emolients are essaywhat hotter yet is there a difference as apparent as the sun when he is upon themeridian, and the use is manifest for, emolients are to make hard things soft, but what suppures, rather makesa generation than an alteration of the humour natural heat is the efficient cause of suppuration, neither can it bedone by any external means therefore such things are said to suppure, which by a gentle heatcherish the inbred heat of man this is done by such medicines which are not only temperate in heat, but also by a gentle viscosity, fill up or stop the pores, that so theheat of the writing affected be not scattered for although such things as bind hinder the dissipation of the spirits, and internal heat, yet they retain not the moisture as suppuringmedicines properly and especially do the heat then of suppuring medicines is like the internal heat of ourbodies as things then very hot, are ingrateful either by biting, as pepper, or bitterness. In suppuring medicines, no biting, no binding, nonitrous quality is perceived by the taste, i shall give you bettersatisfaction both in this and others, by and by for reason will tell a man, that such things hinder rather than helpthe work of nature in maturation yet it follows not from hence, that all suppuring medicines aregrateful to the taste, for thesis things grateful to the taste provokesvomiting, therefore why may not the contrary be?. The most frequent use of suppuration is, to ripen phlegmonæ, ageneral term physicians give to all swellings proceeding of blood, because nature is very apt to help such cures, and physic is an art tohelp, not to hinder nature the time of use is usually in the height of the disease, when the fluxis stayed, as also to ripen matter that it may be the easier purgedaway chapter x of medicines provoking urine the causes by which urine is suppressed are thesis 1 by too much drying, or sweating, it may be consumed 2 by heat or inflammation of the reins, or passages whereby it passesfrom the reins, it may be stopped by compression urine is the thinnest writing of blood, separated from the thickest writingin the reins if then the blood be more thick and viscous than ordinary, it cannoteasily be separated without cutting and cleansing medicines this is for certain, that blood can neither be separated nordistributed without heat yet amongst diureticks are essay cold things, as the four greater coldseeds, winter-cherries, and the like although this seem a wonder, yet it may be, and doth stand with truth for cool diureticks, though they further not the separation of theblood one jot, yet they cleanse and purge the passages of the urine diureticks then are of two sorts:1 such as conduce to the separation of the blood 2 such as open the urinal passages the former are biting and are known by their taste very hot andcutting, whence they penetrate to the reins, and cut the gross humoursthere bitter things, although they be very hot, and cut gross humours, yetare they of a more dry and terrene substance than is convenient toprovoke urine hence then we may safely gather, that bitter things are not so moistnor penetrating, as such as bite like pepper chapter xi of medicines breeding flesh there are thesis things diligently to be observed in the cures of woundsand ulcers, which incur and hinder that the cure cannot be speedilydone, nor the separated writings reduced to their natural state viz fluxes of blood, inflammation, hardness, pain, and other thingsbesides our present scope our present scope is, to shew how the cavity of ulcers may be filledwith flesh such medicines are called sarcoticks this, though it be the work of nature, yet it is helped forward withmedicines, that the blood may be prepared, that it may the easier beturned into flesh these are not medicines which breed good blood, nor which correct theintemperature of the place afflicted, but which defend the blood andthe ulcer itself from corruption in breeding flesh for nature in breeding flesh produceth two sorts of excrements, viz scrosus humours, and purulent dross those medicines then which cleanse and consume, these by drying aresaid to breed flesh, because by their helps nature performs that office also take notice that these medicines are not so drying that theyshould consume the blood also as well as the sanies, nor so cleansingthat they should consume the flesh with the dross let them not then exceed the first degree unless the ulcer be verymoist their difference are various, according to the writing wounded, whichought to be restored with the same flesh the softer then, and tenderer the place is, the gentler let themedicines be chapter xii of glutinative medicines that is the true cure of an ulcer which joins the mouth of it together that is a glutinative medicine, which couples together by drying andbinding, the sides of an ulcer before brought together these require a greater drying faculty than the former, not only toconsume what flows out, but what remains liquid in the flesh, forliquid flesh is more subject to flow abroad than stick to together the time of using them, any body may know without teaching, viz whenthe ulcer is cleansed and filled with flesh, and such symptoms ashinder are taken away for thesis times ulcers must be kept open that the sanies, or fords thatlie in them may be purged out, whereas of themselves they would healbefore only beware, lest by too much binding you cause pain in tender writings chapter xiii of medicines resisting poison such medicines are called alexiteria, and alexipharmaca, whichresist poison essay of these resist poison by astral influence, and essay physicians though but few can give a reason for it these they have sorted into three ranks:1 such as strengthen nature, that so it may tame the poison the easier 2 such as oppose the poison by a contrary quality 3 such as violently thrust it out of doors such as strengthen nature against poison, either do it to the bodyuniversally, or else strengthen essay writingicular writing thereof for thesis times one writingicular writing of the body is most afflicted bythe poison, suppose the stomach, liver, brain, or any other writing. Suchas cherish and strengthen those writings, being weakened, may be said toresist poison such as strengthen the spirits, strengthen all the body essaytimes poisons kill by their quality, and then are they to becorrected by their contraries they which kill by cooling are to be remedied by heating, and thecontrary. They which kill by corroding, are to be cured by lenitives, such as temper their acrimony those which kill by induration, or coagulation, require cuttingmedicines also because all poisons are in motion, neither stay they in one tillthey have seized and oppressed the fountain of life, therefore theyhave invented another faculty to stay their motion, viz terrene andemplastic for they judge, if the poison light upon these medicines, they embracethem round with a viscous quality also they say the ways and passages are stopped by such means, tohinder their proceeding. Take terra lemnia for one truly if these reasons be good, which i leave to future time todetermine, it may be done for little cost essay are of opinion that the safest way is to expel the poison out ofthe body, so soon as may be, and that is done by vomit, or purge, orsweat you need not question the time, but do it as soon as may be. For thereis no parlying with poison let vomiting be the first, purging the next, and sweating the last this is general but, if thou dost but observe the nature and motion of the venom, that willbe thy best instructor in the stomach it requires vomiting, in the blood and spirits, sweating, if the body be plethoric, bleeding, if full of evil humours, purging lastly, the cure being ended, strengthen the writings afflicted the project gutenberg ebook of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicineand toxicology - vol 1 of 4, by rudolph august witthaus and tracy chatfield beckerthis ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the united states and mostother writings of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictionswhatsoever you may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms ofthe project gutenberg license included with this ebook or online atgutenberg org if you are not located in the united states, you'll haveto check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook title. Medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine and toxicology - vol 1 of 4author. Rudolph august witthaus tracy chatfield beckerrelease date. May 23, 2015 ebook #49027language. Englishcharacter set encoding.

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The physician adjusts the dosage to the individual patient and with obvious evidence of the efficiency of the adjustment as we understand it, the employment of alkaline carbonates is not based on purely chemic considerations-- a definite known quantity of acid of the gastric juice is to be neutralized. The whole literature and practice dealing with the alkaline carbonates show them to be accredited with a much wider field of use and repute in gastro-intestinal disorders the pancreatic extract in carminzym is designed to be diffusible in the stomach, the tablet is preferable to be crushed in the mouth before swallowing, and we believe the pancreatic extract to be an effective constituent as administered in carminzym you comment as follows. “ipecac has a well defined though limited field of usefulness when it is used it should be given with due regard to the amount needed by the patient and the frequency of the repetition of the dose ” this in a sense may be said of any of the most useful drugs, but not in the least special degree does it apply to ipecac, which is, on the contrary, of quite characteristic, peculiar range of therapeutic properties, useful in varying combinations and in widely varying proportions and doses according to the purpose for which it is employed ipecac in well known official alkaline, carminative, laxative preparations occurs in the “average dose” in the varying quantities of 1/14, 1/10, 1/8, and 3/16 of a grain the ipecac in combination with the other ingredients in carminzym is designed for a tablet which shall carry a minimal quantity whilst capable of adequate remedial action, thus admitting of increase of dosage or repetition as occasion requires the quantity of ipecac was not taken at random, but chosen after long trial and consideration we believe that carminzym possesses carminative properties in a superior degree and that, furthermore, in consequence of its composition it directly stimulates the gland secretions and thus exerts a beneficial action upon the whole digestive functions carminzym is for use as occasion requires, and this is to be especially noted thus it is not only of direct benefit, but helpful in promoting systematic therapeutic measures and regimen the council takes the ground that complex mixtures of remedial agents are so wrong that there is no longer warrant for their admission into new and nonofficial remedies. And that carminzym is an irrational mixture we hold that certain desirable therapeutic properties may rationally be attributable to carminzym. And that these are manifested in practice during the time since the description was sent and the receipt of the statement of the action of the council, essay ten months, carminzym has proved of constantly increasing service the statement in the letter of fairchild bros and foster “thelong established custom of the use of mixtures of remedial agentsrests on considerations well known and generally accepted” mightwell be paraphrased to read. The one-time prevalent custom of usingill-considered combinations of remedial agents has been thoroughlydiscredited and is generally abandoned by progressive practitioners such arguments as that “laxatives, tonics, carminatives, diuretics arecombined with distinct advantage” have led to the use of irrationalmixtures such as the compound syrup of hypophosphites and the electuaryof theriaca the council is confident that no one who has studied thecauses and treatment of digestive disorders will find occasion toprescribe at one time all the ingredients stated to be contained incarminzym, and certainly not in the fixed proportions present therein the comments in the council report concerning ipecac certainlydoes apply to all active therapeutic agents ipecac was mentioned inthe report because the several constituents of carminzym were underdiscussion and hence it was necessary to point out the futility of thesmall dosage of ipecac in this mixture the announcement that “carminzym has proved of constantly increasingservice” is not convincing the council does not know of a singleclinical study of the action of carminzym under conditions which wouldhave afforded satisfactory evidence of its therapeutic value -- fromthe journal a m a , sept 28, 1918 phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp hasbeen adopted by the council and authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp 125 is sold by the charlesh phillips chemical co , new york according to the published formula, each fluidram contains. Phosphoric acid 2 minims potassium phosphate } magnesium phosphate } calcium phosphate } 2-1/4 grains ferric phosphate } quinin muriate equal to nearly 1/2 gr bi-sulph 1/4 grain strychnin 1/120 grain flavoring, glycerin and syrup, q s 125 the evolution of “phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp ”from “phillips’ wheat phosphates” may be interesting every oneknows that therapeutics tends to fashions, and “phillips’ wheatphosphates” appears to have had its inception as the result of theobservation that super-refined white flour contains less phosphatesthan the corresponding amount of wheat it was assumed that suchflour must be deficient in an essential constituent, and the wheatphosphates preparation was apparently designed to fill the want it wasexploited for the relief of numerous conditions that were supposed, without satisfactory evidence, to result from this deficiency wheniron, quinin and strychnin mixtures became the vogue a quarter of acentury ago, it was only natural to ride on the wave of popularityand the already widely advertised “wheat phosphates” was furtherenhanced-- commercially-- by the addition of the iron, quinin andstrychnin, the amount of alkaloid added being practically negligible those who are not familiar with the various phases of the phosphorus, phosphoric acid, lactophosphate, lecithin, nuclein and glycerophosphatepropaganda are referred to a report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry in the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 1033 essay typical claims made for the preparation are. “with marked beneficial action upon the nervous system to be relied on where a deficiency of the phosphates is evident ” “ brace those tired nerves and aid that worn stomach with phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine ” “the maintenance of a satisfactory blood pressure level free from intervals of depression may be accomplished by the use of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine compound in appropriate doses ” “the quantities of quinin and strychnin in this preparation are so well balanced that they relieve the depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion, without the necessity of recourse to alcoholic stimulation ” “the other ingredients of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine-- phosphoric acid, and the phosphates of potash, magnesia, lime, and iron-- are the most rational as well as convenient means of administering these tissue remedies, and of introducing phosphorus-- the vitalizing constituent of the nervous system-- into the organism ”the action of such a mixture as a whole is practically that of the sumof the actions of its constituents the therapeutic action of strychninand quinin are described in every text-book of therapeutics, but itis necessary to distinguish carefully between the various conditionsin which these alkaloids have been used without discrimination, andthose conditions in which they have been proved to be of value while both have been widely used in a great variety of conditions, neither is of proved value in more than a distinctly limited rangeof diseases the manufacturers of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp seem to appeal to the less discriminating who use thesealkaloids without any definite conception of exactly what they seekto accomplish with them quinin, although used by the uncritical in ahost of diseases, has a definite field of usefulness in the treatmentof malaria, both prophylactic and curative, but the required dose inthe treatment of malaria is thesis times larger than that recommended inthe phillips’ preparation the claim that the “strychnin and quininin this preparation are so well balanced that they produce a mild, buoyant effect, so advantageous, instead of alcoholic stimulation, torelieve depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion” isnonsensical, if, indeed, it is not mendacious balderdash calcium and potassium have important functions in the body, but anydeficiency that may arise is usually attributable to an inability ofthe body to utilize that which is supplied, for there is seldom anydeficiency of these salts in the food, and when they are needed theyare best supplied as simple solutions of the salts in appropriate doseswithout all of the other constituents of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp phosphoric acid exerts practically the same actions as other mineralacids, hydrochloric being usually preferred for internal administrationin certain forms of indigestion, aside from which they are seldom usedas such in the more recent literature for phillips’ phospho-muriate of quininecomp , we find the attempt to utilize the well known craze aboutphosphorus, which has been through so thesis phases, every one of whichhas had its day and has been discarded the phosphoric acid and phosphates present in phillips’ phospho-muriateof quinine are of no more value in nervous diseases than is simplesodium phosphate which does not require the addition of a host of otheringredients for its action as a matter of fact, the phosphates ofcalcium and potassium present in a dose of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine are probably devoid of appreciable effect in practically allconditions to pretend that one who suffers from physical and nervous exhaustioncan be materially benefited by this mixture is sheer nonsense and isunworthy of a moment consideration by a clinician who is called on totreat such patients iron is useful in anemia, as every one knows iron has practically noother field of usefulness in therapeutics when it is indicated itshould be administered in a simple form, such as the pill of ferrouscarbonate, for example, and not in a “shotgun” mixture that is quite aslikely to do harm as good the claim that a satisfactory level of blood pressure can be maintainedby phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine is mentioned only to condemnas the limit of impudent therapeutic claims it is an insult to theintelligence of any practitioner to pretend that any known agent orcombination of remedial agents can maintain a uniform blood pressure inany one of innumerable conditions in short, phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp is a complex andirrational mixture exploited by means of unwarranted claims it isa survival of the old days of therapeutic chaos when impossible andfantastic chemical formulas were gravely published and as solemnlyaccepted without question, and also without the slightest understandingon the writing of thesis. When the most eminent of practitioners did nothesitate to give glowing testimonials for lithia waters that containedno more lithium than ordinary river water. When no therapeutic claimwas too preposterous to receive acceptance, no theory too nonsensicalto justify the use of all manner of claptrap mixtures for all manner ofconditions -- from the journal a m a , oct 19, 1918 b iodine and b oleum iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine, ” together with the reply submitted by themanufacturer and a discussion thereon by the referee in charge of thepreparations w a puckner, secretary specimens of b iodine and b oleum iodine b iodine chemical companyand an advertising pamphlet were sent to the council by john bohlander, a m , m d , with the declaration. “well knowing the value of iodin in surgical operations and dressings, prompted me for the benefit of my fellow physicians as well as myself, and for humanity sake, to make iodin my master-piece in chemistry “after several years of diligent work in my private laboratory i succeeded in discovering a new product of iodin-- nitrogen, hydrate of iodin ”while “b iodine” is said to be nitrogen hydrate of iodin and “b oleumiodine” a 5 per cent solution thereof, the examination made by prof a h clark of the university of illinois, school of pharmacy workingin the a m a chemical laboratory, indicates that the first is asimple mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, and the second a solutionof iodin in liquid petrolatum the council adopted the report of thea m a chemical laboratory which appears below and declared b iodine and b oleum iodine inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause:1 the composition is incorrectly declared b iodine is not a newlydiscovered iodin compound, “nitrogen hydrate of iodine, ” but a mixtureof iodin and ammonium iodid b oleum iodine is not a 5 per cent solution of b iodine as suggested by the statement on the label andin the advertising, but a solution of iodin in liquid petrolatumcontaining about 0 85 per cent of iodin 2 since b iodine is a mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, itssolution in water will have the properties of other solutions of iodinmade by the aid of iodid, such as a dilution of tincture of iodin or ofcompound solution of iodin lugol solution hence, the therapeuticclaim that b iodine “being of a colloidal nature has the advantage ofbeing more readily absorbed and taken up by all cellular structure, thus getting a perfect cellular medication of iodine, ” is unwarranted 3 the names “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine” are not descriptive ofthe pharmaceutical mixtures to which they are applied 4 b iodine and b oleum iodine are unessential modifications ofestablished articles b iodine has no advantage over tincture of iodinor compound solution of iodin as more convenient of transportation, the medical dewritingment of the u s army supplies its field hospitalswith a mixture of iodin and iodid ready for solution in water, eitherin tablet form or in powdered form in tubes solutions of iodin inliquid petrolatum may be readily prepared reports council pharm andchem , 1917, p 88 contribution from the a m a chemical laboratory b iodine products a h clark, ph g , b s “b iodine” products are marketed by the b iodine chemical company, cincinnati, ohio. John bohlander, a m , m d , is said to be thediscoverer they consist of “b iodine, ” “b oleum iodine, ” and “b aqua iodine ” b iodine and b oleum iodine were submitted to thecouncil in a circular submitted by the b iodine chemical company, b iodine issaid to be “nitrogen hydrate of iodin ” it is claimed that “coming incontact with water, h₂o, a chemical change takes place forming hydrooxid of iodin, the nitrogen of the nitrogen hydrate of iodin escaping, the balance taking up one of oxygen of the water its companion, theh₂, escaping at the same time with the nitrogen then combining with theremainder of the water to form the solution of hydrogen oxid of iodin;so you can readily see that you really have a pure water of iodin, nothing but the h, the o and the i ”-- from the journal a m a , feb 1, 1919 b iodineaccording to the circular, b iodine is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether also it.