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They exceedingly break the stone, provokeurine, and help such as cannot best website to buy an essay hold their necks upright boil them inwhite wine usnea moss. Once before flowers borage, and bugloss flowers strengthen the brain, and are profitable infevers chamomel flowers, heat and assuage swellings, inflammation of thebowels, dissolve wind, are profitably given in clysters or drink, tosuch as are troubled with the cholic, or stone stæchea, opens stoppings in the bowels, and strengthens the wholebody saffron powerfully concocts, and sends out whatever humour offendsthe body, drives back inflammations. Applied outwardly, encreasesvenery, and provokes urine clove-gilliflowers, resist the pestilence, strengthen the heart, liver, and stomach, and provoke venery schœnanth which i touched slightly amongst the herbs provokes urinepotently, provokes the menses, breaks wind, helps such as spit or vomitblood, eases pains of the stomach, reins, and spleen, helps dropsies, convulsions, and inflammations of the womb lavender-flowers, resist all cold afflictions of the brain, convulsions, falling-sickness, they strengthen cold stomachs, and openobstructions of the liver, they provoke urine and the menses, bringforth the birth and placenta hops, open stoppings of the bowels, and for that cause beer is betterthan ale balm-flowers, cheer the heart and vital spirits, strengthen thestomach rosemary-flowers, strengthen the brain exceedingly, and resistmadness. Clear the sight winter-gilliflowers, or wall-flowers, help inflammation of the womb, provoke the menses, and help ulcers in the mouth honey-suckles, provoke urine, ease the pains of the spleen, and suchas can hardly fetch their breath mallows, help coughs red roses, cool, bind, strengthen both vital and animal virtue, restore such as are in consumptions, strengthen there are so thesiscompositions of them which makes me more brief in the simples violets, to wit, the blue ones, cool and moisten, provoke sleep, loosen the belly, resist fevers, help inflammations, correct the heatof choler, ease the pains in the head, help the roughness of thewind-pipe, diseases in the throat, inflammations in the breast andsides, plurisies, open stoppings of the liver, and help the yellowjaundice chicory, or succory as the vulgar call it cools and strengthens theliver, so doth endive water lilies, ease pains of the head coming of choler and heat, provoke sleep, cool inflammations, and the heat in fevers pomegranate-flowers, dry and bind, stop fluxes, and the menses cowslips, strengthen the brain, senses, and memory, exceedingly, resist all diseases there, as convulsions, falling-sickness, palsies, &c centaury, purges choler and gross humours, helps the yellow jaundice, opens obstructions of the liver, helps pains of the spleen, provokesthe menses, brings away birth and afterbirth elder flowers, help dropsies, cleanse the blood, clear the skin, openstoppings of the liver and spleen, and diseases arising therefrom bean-flowers, clear the skin, stop humours flowing into the eyes peach-tree flowers, purge choler gently broom-flowers, purge water, and are good in dropsies the temperature of all these differ either very little or not at allfrom the herbs the way of using the flowers i did forbear, because most of them may, and are usually made into conserves, of which you may take the quantityof a nutmeg in the morning. All of them may be kept dry a year, andboiled with other herbs conducing to the cures they do fruits and their buds green figs, are held to be of ill juice, but the best is, we are notmuch troubled with them in england. Dry figs help coughs, cleansethe breast, and help infirmities of the lungs, shortness of wind, theyloose the belly, purge the reins, help inflammations of the liver andspleen. Outwardly they dissolve swellings pine-nuts, restore such as are in consumptions, amend the failings ofthe lungs, concoct flegm, and yet are naught for such as are troubledwith the head-ache dates, are binding, stop eating ulcers being applied to them. Theyare very good for weak stomachs, for they soon digest, and breed goodnourishment, they help infirmities of the reins, bladder, and womb sebestens, cool choler, violent heat of the stomach, help roughnessof the tongue and wind-pipe, cool the reins and bladder raisins of the sun, help infirmities of the breast and liver, restoreconsumptions, gently cleanse and move to stool walnuts, kill worms, resist the pestilence, i mean the green ones, not the dry capers eaten before meals, provoke hunger nutmegs, strengthen the brain, stomach, and liver, provoke urine, ease the pains of the spleen, stop looseness, ease pains of the head, and pains in the joints, strengthen the body, take away weakness comingof cold, and cause a sweet breath cloves, help digestion, stop looseness, provoke lust, and quicken thesight pepper, binds, expels wind, helps the cholic, quickens digestionoppressed with cold, heats the stomach quinces see the compositions pears are grateful to the stomach, drying, and therefore help fluxes all plums that are sharp or sour, are binding, the sweet are loosening cucumbers, cool the stomach, and are good against ulcers in thebladder galls, are exceeding binding, help ulcers in the mouth, wasting ofthe gums, ease the pains of the teeth, help the falling out of the womband fundament, make the hair black pompions are a cold and moist fruit, of small nourishment, theyprovoke urine, outwardly applied. The flesh of them helps inflammationsand burnings.

Found hanging in half-lying position 20 3d man, age 50 first tried to kill himself with best website to buy an essay phosphorus, thensulphuric acid. Finally hung himself in a half-kneeling position 21 müller-beninga. Berlin klin woch , 1877, xiv , p 481 - man, age 40. Hung himself there was no swelling of genitals and no soilingof clothing necroscopy showed death from asphyxia, and in urethra nearmeatus quite a quantity of seminal fluid, as shown by microscopicalexamination 22 tardieu. Op cit , p 18 - the prince of condé was found hangingin his room, august 27th, 1830 he was suspended by two handkerchiefsto a window fastening, his feet, however, touching the floor the knotwas at the back of the neck as shown by the illustration, the faceturned slightly to the left, the tongue protruding. Face discolored;mucus at the mouth and nose. Arms hanging and stiff. Fists shut. Heelsraised. Knees half bent the text says that the knot was nearly underthe right ear, but the illustration shows a different position seefig 22, p 743 23 allison. Lancet, 1869, i , p 636 - three paper of suicide byhanging, in which there was no mark.

So doth the leaves in the same manner. As also if thehead and temples be bathed with the decoction warm, or with the oilof poppies, the green leaves or the heads bruised and applied witha little vinegar, or made into a poultice with barley-meal or hoggrease, cools and tempers all inflammations, as also the disease calledst anthony fire it is generally used in treacle and mithridate, andin all other medicines that are made to procure rest and sleep, and toease pains in the head as well as in other writings it is also used tocool inflammations, agues, or frenzies, or to stay defluxions whichcause a cough, or consumptions, and also other fluxes of the belly orwomen courses. It is also put into hollow teeth, to ease the pain, and hath been found by experience to ease the pains of the gout the wild poppy, or corn rose as matthiolus saith is good to preventthe falling-sickness the syrup made with the flower, is with goodeffect given to those that have the pleurisy. And the dried flowersalso, either boiled in water, or made into powder and drank, eitherin the distilled water of them, or essay other drink, works the likeeffect the distilled water of the flowers is held to be of much gooduse against surfeits, being drank evening and morning. It is also morecooling than any of the other poppies, and therefore cannot but be aseffectual in hot agues, frenzies, and other inflammations either inwardor outward galen saith, the seed is dangerous to be used inwardly purslain garden purslain being used as a sallad herb is so well known that itneeds no description.

Average0 1436 gm , or 2 87 per cent in a third case the temperature reached250 c , and there was essay decomposition of the fat in the flask andessay colored material distilled over for this sublimate 15 54 c c oftenth-normal alkali were required after evaporating the alcohol and acidulating the solutions obtainedin the previous experiments, the benzoic acid was extracted withchloroform in the first case, 0 1383 gm was obtained. In the second, 0 1541 gm. Average 0 1462 gm , or 2 92 per cent of benzoic acid when the original chloroformic extract was heated until all of thebenzoic acid had been driven off, the residue had the appearance of asemisolid fat it compared quite closely in color, odor, etc , with thefatty material obtained by extracting colchicum seed with chloroform, although the odor was more suggestive of oleic or stearic acid it wasdistinctly acid, which is also true of the fatty material obtained froma sample of colchicum seed the extract obtained with hot water was light yellow. Gummy, at first, but dried to a glass-like brittle mass it had a slight burned-sugarodor and taste, and was neutral in reaction it was stronglydextrogyrate and at once reduced fehling solution as well as alkalinesilver nitrate solution on boiling with potassium hydroxid solution, it turned deep red it also gave the molisch carbohydrate reaction, and the ozazone test in seventeen minutes as described in mulliken identification of pure organic compounds, ed 1, 1905, p 26 theseare all characteristic reactions of lactose or milk sugar from this examination we conclude that desanctis’ pills containpowdered colchicum seed, benzoic acid, and sugar of milk there is alsopresent fatty material which resembles the fat of colchicum seed, butmay be, in writing, added fatty acid the percentage of colchicin found 0 50 is about that of a good quality of colchicum seed, the u s pharmacopeial standard being not less than 0 45 per cent since thepills contain material other than colchicum seed, this assay wouldindicate a colchicum seed of high alkaloidal content, or the possiblereinforcement of the pills with colchicum extract or colchicin the amount of benzoic acid, 2 92 per cent , or about 1/7 grain perpill, is insignificant from a therapeutic standpoint, since an averagedose is 0 5 gm , or 8 grains fatty acids, and the fatty matter fromcolchicum seed are inert, at least in the quantities found here theonly office which fatty acids might perform, would be to give the pillsan enteric quality, preventing their absorption until they reach theintestine the sugar of milk, about 10 per cent , or 1/2 grain perpill, no doubt is simply an excipient desanctis’ pills are therefore essentially 5 grain doses of powderedcolchicum seed, of which the average dose is 0 2 gm , or 3 grains u s p ix, p 120 the journal in presenting the facts contained in the above report madethe following comments:“here then, we have sold for self-medication an extremely poisonousdrug, with no warning of the risk the public runs in using it whilethe directions call for “one pill every eight hours until relieved, ”it is notorious that the public takes the attitude toward “patentmedicines” that, if a little is good, more is better, and the averageuser of remedies for self-treatment is likely, unless there is essaywarning, to use his own discretion as to the amount taken “the individual dose is above that of the average recommended in theunited states pharmacopeia colchicum or its alkaloids-- or for thatmatter, any drug as toxic as colchicum-- have no place in preparationsof the home-remedy type in the case of all “patent medicines, ”public interest demands that the full quantitative formula of thetherapeutically active ingredients should be given on the label, forwhen the public prescribes for itself, it has a right to know what itis taking unfortunately, public interest clashes with vested interestsand, as usual, vested interests get the better of it in the case ofsuch dangerous preparations as desanctis’ pills, if their sale is tobe permitted at all, not only should the names and quantities of alltherapeutically active ingredients in the mixture be given, but thelaw should require that the word poison be plainly printed on thelabel ”-- abstracted from the journal a m a , july 19, 1919 iodex and liquid iodexthe a m a chemical laboratory examined iodex in 1915 213 theclaims made, at that time, by the exploiters, menley & james, wereshown to be contrary to facts in that iodex contained only traces offree iodin while they claimed “5 per cent therapeutically free iodin ”even the total quantity of iodin was shown to be only about one halfof the 5 per cent claimed to be present as free iodin 213 annual reports of the chem lab of the a m a , 1915, p 89 an examination of the advertising matter sent out by menley & jamesin 1919 showed that substantially the same claims were being made asin 1915 this at once suggested the inquiry. Since the claims are thesame as previously made, have the manufacturers altered the compositionto conform to the claims?. the answer is found in the results of theanalysis of two samples purchased in the open market early in 1919 this analysis shows conclusively that iodex is essentially the same asin 1915, that is, that it contains no free iodin and only about threefifths of the total amount of iodin claimed it would seem that iodex ung iodi , m & j is in obvious conflictwith section 7 of the food and drugs act while it is sold under a namerecognized by the u s pharmacopeia, namely, ung iodi , it does notconform to the standards of the u s pharmacopeia for that product iodin ointment u s p is made with 4 per cent of free iodin, 4 percent of potassium iodid, 12 per cent of glycerin, and a benzoinatedlard base it should then contain approximately 7 per cent of totaliodin it has been shown by warren214 that about 75 per cent of theiodin in the u s p ointment remains in the free state even aftermonths of standing ung iodi , u s p , then, should contain about 3per cent of free iodin iodex contains no free iodin, or but traces, and no potassium iodid furthermore, the iodex label declares thepresence of 5 per cent of “therapeutically free” iodin as a matter offact, the amount of iodin is variable, the highest amount found being3 5 per cent and samples containing as low as 2 63 per cent have beenexamined 214 warren, l e. Iodin ointment, am j pharm , august, 1917, p 339 it would seem further that iodex is misbranded under the sherleyamendment in that it is said that it “may be used externally withadvantage in all paper where the action of iodin is desired ” sinceit contains no iodin as such this cannot possibly be true it is alsostated in a circular accompanying the trade package that “thirtyminutes after inunction iodin can be found in the urine ” thisstatement has also been shown to be untrue -- annual reports a m a chem lab , 1915, p 89 details of analysisiodex -- this is a rather soft ointment, almost black but with adecided greenish cast in thin layers it is soluble in chloroformbut is only writingly saponified and dissolved by alcoholic potassiumhydroxid iodex has a distinct odor like oleic acid free iodin -- when examined by the method previously used215 onlyminute traces of free iodin were found 215 ibid , p 90 total iodin -- the methods employed were as follows. 1 iodex wassaponified by boiling for from two to three hours with alcoholicpotassium hydroxid the alcohol was then evaporated and the iodindetermined by the method described in the u s pharmacopeia for thymoliodid 2 the same as method 1, except that after ignition of the saponifiedmixture the halogen was determined by weighing as silver iodid 3 the carius method it should be noted that methods 2 and 3 determine chlorin and brominshould any be present with the iodin when 5 gm of sample 1 was assayed by method 1, it required 73 56 c c of tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate, equivalent to 3 11 per cent of iodin in a duplicate, 2 7565 gm of iodex required 38 c c oftenth-normal sodium thiosulphate, equivalent to 2 92 per cent ofiodin. Average of the two, 3 02 per cent of iodin a weight of 2 5800 gm of sample 1, assayed by method 2, gave0 1582 gm of silver halid, equivalent to 0 0855 gm of iodin, or 3 31per cent a weight of 0 588 gm of sample 2, assayed by the carius method, gave0 0388 gm of silver halid, indicating 0 02096 gm of iodin, or 3 52per cent in a duplicate, 0 5342 gm gave 0 0338 gm of silver halid, indicating 0 01826 gm of iodin, or 3 42 per cent. Average, 3 49 percent of iodin liquid iodex -- this is sold by menley & james, ltd , the firm sellingiodex ointment according to a circular in a trade package “thevaluable properties of free iodine are available in liquid ‘iodex’ in astate of greatly enhanced activity. But the irritating, corrosive andhardening drawbacks of ordinary solutions of the drug are absent ” thelabel on a bottle reads as follows.

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Only in one eighth of the tablets was the variation less than 5per cent the connecticut investigators substantiate once again the workpreviously reported, namely, that there are a number of firms who areeither best website to buy an essay incompetent or careless for tablets of simple composition, a variation from the declaration of 10 per cent should be amplysufficient to compensate for the errors of careful manufacture it maybe added that the best tablets originate generally from firms havingcompetent chemical control -- from the journal a m a , july 27, 1918 therapeutic evidence. Its crucial testo torald sollmann, m d , clevelando read before the section on pharmacology and therapeutics at thesixty-eighth annual session of the american medical association, newyork, june, 1917 o this article clearly states the difficulties experienced by thecouncil in estimating the merits of a proprietary medicinal productand clearly defines the method which has been found to be practical injudging of the therapeutic value of such preparations the council hasapproved this discussion of the subject and has directed that the paperbe published in the annual council reports w a puckner, secretary according to the good old truism, the last and crucial proof of thepudding is in the eating thereof. And so, the last and crucial test ofa therapeutic agent is its consumption by a patient there is, however, one essential difference. When the pudding is eaten, with a sense ofsatisfaction, we know that it was a good, or at least an eatable, pudding if the patient improves after taking a remedy, we do not yet knowthat he improved on account of the remedy the post hoc type ofreasoning or logic is not respectable. But it is all too apt to creepin unawares, unless one takes great precautions indeed clinical evidence needs especially to be on its guard against thispitfall, for the conditions of disease never remain constant. Nor is itpossible to foresee with certainty the direction which they are goingto take it is just this point which makes the clinical evidence somuch more difficult to interpret than laboratory evidence, in whichthe conditions can be more or less exactly controlled, and any changesforeseen it is on this account, also, that clinical experiments mustbe surrounded with extra painstaking precautions in brief, while the “proof” of a remedy is on the patient, that is notthe whole story, but merely an introduction the real problem is toestablish the causative connection between the remedy and the events the imperfect realization of this has blocked therapeutic advance, hasdisgusted critical men to the point of therapeutic nihilism, and hasfertilized the ground for the commercial exploitation of drugs that areof doubtful value or worse this has been impressed on me writingicularly by my service on the councilon pharmacy and chemistry in the course of its work of passing on theclaims advanced for commercial remedies, this council is forced toinquire critically into the basis of the claims of manufacturers it is interesting to note the qualitative differences in the evidencefor the various kinds of claims. The chemical data are usuallypresented in such a form that it is possible to tell at a glancewhether or not they are based on demonstrated facts, which couldusually be verified or refuted without special difficulty thedeductions are usually such as can be legitimately drawn from the data, or else they are obviously absurd all this agrees with the relativelyexact status of chemical science in passing to data and deductions from animal experiments, a distinctchange is noticeable. Not only are the data less reliable, and lessworthy of confidence, but they are more often stated in a lessstraightforward manner the presentation of the data often showsevidence of manipulation of the results, so as to make them mostfavorable to a preconceived conclusion that would recommend the drug this is not always intentional, but is writingly due to the less exactnature of animal experimentation, which leaves a wider play to thearbitrary interpretation of the reporter a certain amount of thisis unavoidable no serious objection can be raised, provided theexperimenter presents all the essential data, and discusses fairly allof the interpretations that would apply to them on the whole, it is usually possible to form a fairly definite estimateof the value of experimental data when one comes to the clinical evidence, an entirely differentatmosphere obtains when the council demands evidence of the usefulnessof a remedy, the manufacturers generally respond with every sign ofenthusiasm they may have ready a series of articles already published, or they instruct their agents to bring in letters from physicians thelast method seems to meet the most cordial response, judging from thedeluge of letters and opinions that floods the council the quality of the published papers is a fair reflection of thedeficiencies of what is still the common type of clinical evidence a little thought suffices to show that the greater writing cannotbe taken as serious evidence at all essay of the data are merelyimpressions-- usually the latest impressions of an impressionableenthusiast-- the type of man who does not consider it necessary topresent evidence for his own opinions.