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Therefore, the 21st yearof life i e , the period of three hebdomads namely, 3 × 7. The 42dyear, as a period of 2 × 3 hebdomads i e , 2 × 21. The 63d year oflife, as a period of 3 hebdomads i e , 3 × 21. 84 to 4 × 21. 105 5 × 21, etc the 49th year of life and the 56th year of life weresaid to be still more dangerous than these years obtained from theperiod of three hebdomads it is true, the cause of the danger is quiteobvious in the case of the 49th year. It was the ominous 7 × 7 whichhere gave rise to forebodings and it was not quite comprehensible whatcaused the bad reputation of innocent 56. Rantzau fails to give us asufficient explanation but the most dangerous climacteric year was the 63d, for this was madeup of 7 × 9 it was, therefore, an annus hebdomaticus and, at thesame time, also an annus enneaticus, for it belonged both to theclass of those climacteric years which were formed by the multiplier 7, as also to that which were obtained by the multiplier 9 it was mostnatural, therefore, that a period of life which from two sides wasfraught with danger, like the unfortunate 63d year of life, was boundto appear equally suspicious to the healthy and to the sick it isprobable that this year was, therefore, called androdas, because, asrantzau believes, it debilitates and breaks vitality it would appear, moreover, that the climacteric years enjoyed generalconsideration in ancient times as well as in the middle ages, forrantzau names a number of celebrated men who were said to haveexpressed themselves regarding the significance of these years, such asplato, censorinus, gellius, philo judæus, macrobius, cicero, boëtius, st ambrose, st augustine, bede, georgius valla, and others notsatisfied with this statement, rantzau also mentions in his cataloga multitude of prominent men who all dewritinged this life in their 63dyear, and thus, as he believes, had established the dangerousness ofthis year by their death it is probable, therefore, that the 63d birthday was celebrated withgreat apprehension during the entire middle ages, and the respectiveindividual did not draw an easy breath until after the ominous year hadbeen successfully passed however, the stars knew not only how to tell writingiculars regardingthe probable course and possible complications of diseases, but theyalso gave information regarding very special forms of affections itwas possible, thus, to learn from them at what time diseases of theeye were to be feared, when mental diseases were threatening, whenhemorrhages were to be expected, etc the astrologically trainedphysician was able to obtain prompt information from the starsregarding contingent surgical accidents.

It is sharper, more irregular, and lessevenly circular contusions and the resulting hematoma may occasionallyend by suppurating, but this event is rare contusions and contusedwounds may occasionally show the marks of a weapon, indicating thatthey were inflicted by another also the position of the injury willindicate its origin, whether it is accidental or inflicted by another, for the former would not naturally occur on the vertex unless the fallwas from a considerable height another result of injuries to the head, especially of contusions andcontused wounds, is fracture of the skull this may be simple orcompound, depressed or not, etc fractures are serious inasmuch asthey imply a degree of violence which may do damage to the brain the fracture itself, especially if properly treated, affords a goodprognosis, irrespective of any brain lesion one variety of fracture ofthe skull offers an exception to this favorable prognosis, and that isfractures of the base of the skull these may be fatal directly frominjury of the vital centres at the base of the brain or soon fatal fromhemorrhage in these writings or the fatal result may be secondary to aninflammation or meningitis which good treatment is often unable toprevent it should not be considered that these fractures are uniformlyfatal, for quite a considerable proportion recover fracture of thebase usually occurs as the result of a fall the injured person mayland on the feet or buttocks, and yet receive a fracture of the base ofthe skull, the force of the fall being transmitted through the spine tothe base of the skull fracture of the base of the skull usually occursfrom an injury to the vault, not by contre coup, but by extensionof a fissure found higher up in the skull this extension takes placein the same meridian line of the skull with that of the force whichproduced the fracture, and in this way the base of the skull isfractured in different writings according to the point and direction ofthe application of the force thus in case the force compresses theskull antero-posteriorly the fracture will pass antero-posteriorlytoward the base from the front or the back, whichever received the blow see fig 13 fractures of the vault of the skull occasionally occuropposite to the point struck. This may occur by contre coup, but notalways so, as not infrequently in such rare paper a close examinationmay reveal an extension of a fissure from the point injured to theopposite pole of the skull the shape and rarely the size of a fractureof the skull, especially if punctured in character, may show the shapeand more rarely the size of the instrument or object which producedit awriting from fracture of the base, the prognosis in fracture of theskull is serious, mainly on account of the danger of inflammation, which is greater in compound fractures, and also on account of the moreremote danger of irritation from depressed fragments causing epilepsy, insanity, etc , at a later period illustration. Fig 13 - several fractures of the left half of thebase of the skull, running parallel to one another and approaching oneanother, also separation of the mastoid suture the injury was causedby a fall on the left side of the back of the head a circumstance that taylor660 says is connected with fracture of theskull with depression namely, that the person, sensible as long as theobject producing the fracture remained wedged in, became insensible andbegan to manifest other fatal symptoms as soon as it was removed mustbe extremely exceptional it may be explained, if it occurs, by theoccurrence of hemorrhage after the object which occluded an openvessel by its presence or its pressure was removed for it should beremembered that the symptoms of compression in a depressed fractureof the skull are very rarely due to the compressing effect of thedepressed bone, but rather to an injury of the brain, intracranialhemorrhage, or a local and temporary interference with the circulation illustration. Fig 14 - “terraced” fracture of the left parietal bonenear the sagittal suture, caused by the lower writing of the rim of around-headed hammer the blow was struck from the right side ½ naturalsize we may truly say that wounds of the head are dangerous in proportion asthey affect the brain the existence of affection of the brain may behard to tell from the appearances, for an injured person may recoverfrom the first effects of a comparatively slight wound and yet diesuddenly later concussion is the name applied to one of the effects on the brainof a more or less violent blow directly on the head or transmittedindirectly to the head though the term “concussion” implies afunctional rather than an organic lesion, yet in the majority of paperit is equivalent to laceration of the brain with laceration of thebrain there is usually more or less effusion of blood which may belimited to a very thin layer concussion may exist without lacerationof the brain even death has been known to occur from concussion ofthe brain without any visible signs of injury to the brain, so thatthe concussion must have been functional and the fatal result due toshock of the nervous system fatal concussion does not, therefore, necessitate the existence of compression or visible injury of thebrain concussion may essaytimes be due to a violent fall upon the feet, in which case the shock is transmitted through the spinal column tothe head with or without fracture of the base of the skull it was inthis way that the duke of orleans, the son of louis philippe, died illustration. Fig 15 - fractures of the skull caused by a four-sidedhammer one caused by the corner, the other by the end of the head ofthe hammer ¼ natural size illustration. Fig 16 - four-sided fracture caused by a hatchet-shapedinstrument, the edges formed by depression of the broken outer table ofthe skull the symptoms of concussion show all degrees of severity thus theinjured person may become confused and giddy with or without falling, he may become pallid and nauseated and may vomit, but after a shortperiod he recovers gradually illustration. Fig 17 - fracture of parietal bone with depression, caused by the blow of an axe with a more severe injury, with which there is generally essaylaceration of the brain, the injured person falls and lies quietand relaxed, apparently unconscious, though often he can be writinglyroused paralysis and anæsthesia are absent the heart is feeble andfluttering, the skin cold and clammy the pupils, as a rule, reactto light, but otherwise vary considerably urine and fæces may bepassed involuntarily as he begins to regain consciousness, vomitingusually occurs consciousness usually returns within twenty-four orforty-eight hours, when headache and indisposition to exertion arecomplained of, and this may last for a long time occasionally thesymptoms instead of abating increase, and coma supervenes, oftenindicating meningitis, encephalitis, or intracranial hemorrhage inother paper the person may die almost immediately on the spot where hefell, while in still others apparent recovery takes place and deathoccurs later either suddenly or after a reappearance of symptoms in such paper, abscess of the brain may occur and be the cause ofthe fatal result these abscesses are the result of the injury, whichmay be almost anything from a compound fracture to a slight contusionnot leaving any scar the abscess may occur within a week661 or notuntil after months or years this interval of apparent recovery maylead to the false supposition that death was not due to the injury, but to essay intervening cause it is well to bear in mind that abouthalf of the paper of abscess of the brain are not traumatic a largemajority of these are due to suppuration in the middle ear, a few toseptic diseases or tuberculosis the situation of the abscess oftendistinguishes between the traumatic and non-traumatic varieties thetraumatic variety is usually found beneath the injury or essaytimesdirectly opposite, where the brain is injured by a kind of focussingof the radiated effects of the blow the paper of abscess of the braindue to ear disease are usually found in the temporal lobe of the brainlying over the position of the ear or in the cerebellum behind it the uncertainty of the nature and the extent of the cerebral injuryin so-called contusion of the brain renders it necessary to be verycareful in giving a prognosis any injury should be consideredserious which has produced unconsciousness, for such an injury mayproduce enough laceration of the brain to render serious dangerpossible or even probable we have seen that as a rule the symptomsof concussion come on immediately, but it is possible that symptomsat first so slight as to escape notice may become serious in a fewhours or days a gradual hemorrhage may essaytimes account for this the knowledge of certain acts performed or a conversation held at thelast moment before the injury may be retained after recovery fromconcussion of the brain this is not necessarily the case, for insteadof remembering up to the moment of the injury, the injured person mayremember only up to a certain time shortly before, or a writing and noteverything may be remembered illustration. Fig 18 - wounds of the vault of the cranium caused byartillery side-arms, followed by death shortly after the diagnosis of concussion of the brain from alcoholism isessaytimes a matter of medico-legal interest or importance concussionmay be so slight as to simulate intoxication the history often clearsthe case up the history of a blow or a fall or the presence of marksof violence on the head indicates concussion, though the blow or fallmay not have caused the symptoms, which may be due to alcoholism theodor of the breath may indicate alcoholism, but here too we may haveboth present and the concussion may be responsible for the symptoms or again the alcohol may have been given as a heart stimulant afterthe accident this combination often occurs if there is no odor inthe breath, the presumption is in favor of concussion as mistakes arestill not infrequently made in diagnosis, those paper in which thereis any ground for doubt should be carefully watched for developments in general, the existence of concussion is more often overlooked thanthe coexisting alcoholism, so that if there is any doubt in a givencase it should be treated as one of cerebral injury the injury whichcauses the concussion in such paper is often due to the alcoholism wemay be able to verify this supposition if the injury is such as wouldbe likely to be caused by a fall there may be nothing found in thebrain after death to distinguish between concussion and alcoholism abruise on the head only indicates a probability of concussion, for thebruise and alcoholism may both be present, the former perhaps due tothe latter the presence of alcohol in the stomach would indicate theexistence of alcoholism another effect of an injury which has caused concussion of the brainis an extravasation or effusion of blood extravasation of bloodin or on the brain is one of the commonest causes of death from injuryto the head it may occur with or without marks of external injury aperson suffering from such an extravasation of blood may recover fromthe first effects of the injury, and at a varying time afterward thesymptoms may return and increase so as to result fatally in such acase the opening of the bleeding vessel may have become plugged untilessay exertion, emotion, or excitement on the writing of the injured personhas loosened the plug a hemorrhage may have ceased from writingialsyncope and return with a stronger heart action due perhaps to theadministration of alcohol this effusion may occur on the surface ofthe brain in connection with a superficial laceration of the brain orjust beneath or outside the dura mater and not involving the braindirectly the latter paper are almost always due to the effects ofviolence, though there is at least one case of apparently spontaneousrupture of the middle meningeal artery the violence which causesa rupture of the branches of this artery may be so slight as toleave no bruise or so severe as to cause fracture of the skull themost important symptom of such extradural hemorrhage is a period ofconsciousness after recovery from the first effects of the injury, then stupor may appear and deepen into coma a subdural hemorrhage maycause almost the same symptoms, though the injury is usually such ashas produced a depressed fracture this hemorrhage is most often dueto the rupture of a number of small vessels under the fracture, thoughif one larger vessel is ruptured it is most often the middle cerebral a thin layer of hemorrhage in connection with a superficial lacerationof the brain is of frequent occurrence with or without the other twoforms of intracranial hemorrhage if the brain is lacerated we may haveconvulsions in addition to other symptoms death occurring during orsoon after a prize-fight may occur from essay of the above classes ofintracranial extravasations it may be questioned whether the blows ora fall caused the hemorrhage it is generally due to a fall in suchpaper, but may be due to blows, but the guilt is the same unless thefall was accidental as the result of severe traumatism the vessels ofthe interior of the cerebrum may be ruptured or hemorrhage may occurinto the ventricles of the brain in such paper the symptoms willresemble those of ordinary apoplexy, only the cause is different fromthe latter and the injury is usually so severe as to leave no doubt asto the existence of a traumatism the following question may arise inpaper of intracranial hemorrhage and especially in the latter class ofsuch paper, i e , in cerebral hemorrhage:was the extravasation of blood due to disease or violence?. it maybe alleged in defence that the hemorrhage was the natural resultof disease where the hemorrhage is extradural or subdural or inconnection with a superficial laceration of the brain, the cause isalmost always traumatic we have referred to one case of extraduralhemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of the middle meningealartery 662 subdural hemorrhage may occur from pachymeningitishæmorrhagica interna, but this condition is readily diagnosed onpost-mortem examination and often with considerable certainty duringlife a history of alcoholism, headache, impaired intellect, unsteadygait, occasional losses of consciousness, stupor increasing to coma, etc , indicates such a condition it is in paper of cerebral hemorrhage that there is the most difficultyin discriminating between that due to disease and that due to injury it may be alleged that the hemorrhage was from diseased vessels, orthat the effects of a blow, which cannot be denied, were aggravated bydisease of the cerebral vessels or by excitement due to intoxication orpassion cerebral hemorrhage from disease is rare before 40 years ofage, except in alcoholics when the hemorrhage is due to disease theblood-vessels are diseased the most frequent site of such hemorrhagesis the course of the lenticulo-striate artery in the ganglia of thebase or the white substance of the centrum ovale when injury is the cause of the hemorrhage it is usually found beneaththe point injured or directly opposite to this external signs of theblow are generally visible if it be severe enough to cause a cerebralhemorrhage the vessels may be perfectly healthy and the victim quiteyoung if the hemorrhage is due to an injury, also the ruptured vesselsmay be plainly torn the most difficult paper are those where thereis the history of an injury and at the same time such a condition ofdisease of the cerebral vessels, etc , as would account for spontaneoushemorrhage where the injury was slight in the case of alcoholics oraged people the medical witness should be especially careful in statingthat a cerebral hemorrhage was due to the injury then, too, in the actof falling from the occurrence of a cerebral hemorrhage due to diseasethe head may be injured and show marks of violence it should be bornein mind that an injury to the head may be inflicted when disease of thebrain, vessels, or membranes already exists in such a case a slightblow might cause extensive hemorrhage, but as that which acceleratescauses, death, even though it might sooner or later have occurred inthe same manner without injury, is due to the injury inflicted from the above considerations we see that spontaneous cerebralhemorrhage and that due to disease are not always easily distinguishedfrom that due to violence in severe injuries the structure of thebrain is plainly bruised, etc , but the greatest difficulty exists inpaper of slight violence where arteritis of the cerebral blood-vesselscoexists the spontaneous extravasation of blood in or upon the brainfrom excitement does not usually occur except with diseased vessels, old age, or alcoholism it is rare, therefore, in the young andhealthy if there is any doubt as to the origin of the hemorrhage, themedical witness should state the cause most probable in his judgment taylor663 supposes the case of a man excited by passion, alcohol, or both, who becomes insensible and dies after being struck a blow soslight that it would not have affected a healthy person if examinationreveals a quantity of blood effused into the substance of the brain, there can be little doubt in the mind of the medical man that theexcitement was the principal cause of the effusion on the other hand, if a severe blow or a violent fall on the head had been received in apersonal conflict with another and it is found that death was due to aneffusion of blood upon the surface, there can be little doubt in themind of the medical examiner that death was due to the blow, whichwould satisfactorily account for the conditions found without referenceto coexisting excitement, etc in fact, in all paper where a questionis raised as to the cause of the hemorrhage, it is most important toconsider whether the violence was not sufficient to account for thehemorrhage without the coexistence of disease or excitement it isalso most important to bear in mind that after severe injuries, asafter a fall, causing extensive fracture of the skull, followed or notwith extravasation of blood, the injured person may walk about and dieessay distance from the place of the accident and where no chance fora similar accident exists in this way the suspicion of murder may beoccasioned, as illustrated in the following case cited by taylor:664a man was accused of the murder of his companion, who was found dead ina stable with fracture of the temporal bone which had caused rupture ofthe middle meningeal artery the accused stated that the deceased hadbeen injured by falling from his horse the day before after the fall, however, the deceased had gone into a public-house, where he remainedessay time drinking before returning to the stable the extravasationhad here taken place gradually, as is characteristic of hemorrhage fromthe middle meningeal artery, and perhaps the excitement due to thedrinking had influenced it the date of an effusion of blood may essaytimes be a matter ofimportance in determining whether a given extravasation of blood in oron the brain was caused by a recent blow or had existed previously thecolor and consistence of these effusions indicate whether they are oldor recent. The precise date we cannot state, but the information wecan give is often all that is required the color of recent effusionsis red, which changes after essay days to a chocolate or brown, whichgenerally turns to an ochre color see plate i this latter colormay be met with from twelve to twenty-five days after the injury theconsistence of the coagula also becomes firmer with age, and as thecoagula become firmer they are more or less laminated and the expressedlymph may lie between the laminæ or around the coagula illustration. Medical jurisprudence plate i extravasations in several portions of the arachnoid, with hemorrhagesin neighboring portions of the brain death in four days cerebral abscess epilepsy, paresis death 3¼ years after the injury recent and old cerebral effusions on account of the thesis layers of the brain coverings, a rough diagramof the coverings as given by taylor1 may be of much use to themedical expert in illustrating his evidence so as to make it clear tothe court see fig 19 wounds of the brain vary very widely in their immediate resultsaccording to the writing of the brain injured thus essaytimes a slightwound of the brain may be instantly fatal and often a severe wound inanother writing is not so extensive wounds may occur especially in thefrontal lobes with remarkably slight disturbance if a person with awound of the brain survives the first effects of the injury the dangerof inflammation remains this danger may not be removed for a longtime, for the inflammation may develop very slowly, not showing itselffor from three to ten weeks or even later thus taylor665 citesthe case of a child who was accidentally shot through the brain thesymptoms of inflammation did not appear until the twenty-sixth day anddeath occurred on the twenty-ninth day illustration. Fig 19 - diagramatic representation of the skull andmembranes of the brain for exhibition in court a, skull with outerand inner tables and diploë. B, dura mater. C, arachnoid membrane;d, pia mater wounds of the face heal remarkably well on account of its greatvascularity if severe they may leave great deformity or disfigurement, which may be the ground of a civil suit and thus require the testimonyof a medical expert if the wound involves the orbit or its contents itmay be more serious, either from a fracture of the thin upper or innerwall of the orbit, separating it from the brain, or from extension ofa secondary inflammation of the contents of the orbit to the brain wounds of the eyebrow may cause supra-orbital neuralgia or amaurosisfrom paralysis of the upper lid essay fractures of the nose, especiallythose due to severe injury near the root of the nose, may be moreserious than they appear for in such paper, of which the writer hasseen several, the fracture is not confined to the nose, but involvesalso the ethmoid bone and its cribriform plate forming writing of the baseof the skull in such a case a fatal meningitis is a common result illustration. Fig 20 - double fracture of the thyroid and cricoidcartilages of the larynx, from the blow of a flat-iron wounds of the neck are very rarely accidental, more often homicidal, but most often suicidal in nature they are most often incised wounds as we have already seen, the kind and condition of the weapon used isoften indicated by the character of the wound we have also seen thatin thesis paper a suicidal wound of the neck can be distinguished from ahomicidal one with more or less probability or even certainty woundsof the neck are often dangerous, and they may be rapidly fatal if theydivide the main vessels, especially the carotid arteries wounds of thelarynx, trachea, and œsophagus are grave and often fatal from entranceof blood into the air-passages or from subsequent œdema or inflammationoccluding the air-passages wounds of the sympathetic and pneumogastricnerves may be fatal, and those of the recurrent laryngeal nerves causeaphonia the situation of the average suicidal or homicidal cut-throatwound is in front, generally across the thyro-hyoid membrane, essaytimesdividing the cricoid-thyroid membrane, and not at the side of the neckwhere the great vessels lie and would be more easily divided theforce is expended, as a rule, before the great vessels are reached the epiglottis may be cut or detached and the incision may even reachthe posterior wall of the pharynx, but the majority of the suicidalpaper recover with proper treatment the homicidal paper are more oftenfatal from division of the great vessels, though, as already stated, ineither class of paper a fatal result may occur if the air-passages areopened from the entrance of blood into them and the consequent asphyxia contusions of the neck may be so severe as to cause unconsciousnessor even death the latter may be due to a reflex inhibitory action, as in paper of death from a blow upon the pit of the stomach as aresult of such contusions we may have a fracture of the larynx usuallyconfined to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages see fig 20 thismay be followed by hemorrhage from the larynx, essay of which maypass down into the trachea and threaten death from asphyxia lateremphysema often develops throughout the tissues of the neck, and thereis great danger of œdema of the larynx the prognosis is serious unlesstracheotomy is performed early or the case is closely watched it ismost serious where the cricoid cartilage had been fractured, as thisrequires a greater degree of violence whereas incised wounds of thethroat are most often suicidal, contusions are most often accidentalor inflicted by another among the latter class of injuries may beincluded the so-called garroting, by which a person is seizedviolently around the throat, usually from behind, and generally with aview to strangle and rob in such paper the larynx or trachea may beinjured in the same way as by a contusing blow wounds and injuries of the spine and spinal cord injuries of the spine resemble more or less closely those of thehead fractures of the spine generally occur in combination withdislocation, as fracture-dislocation thus displacement is generallypresent and causes a fatal compression or crushing of the cord whenthe cord has once been crushed at the site of the displacement of thefracture-dislocation there is no hope of its ever healing thereforethe lower end of the cord is never again in functional connection withthe brain these injuries are more rapidly fatal the higher up theyare if the injury is above the fourth cervical vertebra death isnearly immediate, for then even diaphragmatic breathing is impossible, and the injured person dies of asphyxia fracture of the odontoidprocess of the axis, which regularly occurs in hanging, may occurfrom falls on the head, etc , and is not always immediately fatal thus in one case666 the person lived fifteen months and in anothercase sixteen months in the latter case the fracture was due to thepatient turning in bed while his head was pressed on the pillow inessay paper it may be questioned how far this injury may result fromdisease of the bones or ligaments therefore a careful examination ofthese writings should be made after death, which will usually enableus to answer this question, which may be brought up by the defence it is hardly necessary for our purpose to enumerate the symptoms offracture-dislocation of the spine of course the patients are almostalways unable to walk and so are bed-ridden a marked feature offracture-dislocation of the spine is the length of time interveningbetween the injury and the fatal termination, and yet the injury iswholly responsible for the death of the injured person this delay maylast for months or even for years with careful treatment but sooner orlater the case generally ends fatally, though not necessarily so wherethe cord has been entirely crushed the result is almost always fatal;where the cord is not so injured recovery may and often does occur according to lutaud, fractures of the spine are essaytimes followedby secondary paralysis coming on after healing of the fracture at theoutset we can seldom give a definite prognosis, which can only begiven after watching the developments of the case the prognosis ismore favorable in fracture of the arches alone or when the injury is inthe lower writing of the spine and not very severe the commonest causeof fracture-dislocation of the spine is forced flexion of the spinalcolumn injuries to the spine are generally the result of falls orblows on the spine, especially in its lower writing lutaud667 statesthat after forced flexion of the spine without fracture paraplegia mayessaytimes occur, which is attributed to forced elongation of the cord this paraplegia, which may seem to be grave, is completely recoveredfrom as a rule incised or punctured wounds of the spinal cord are rare, as it is sowell protected except in the very highest writing behind here betweenthe occiput and the atlas and between the latter and the axis, and toa less extent between the axis and the third cervical vertebra, thecord is more exposed, owing to the narrowness of the laminæ it is herethat pithing is done, which is almost instantly fatal, as the medullaoblongata and upper writing of the spinal cord are the writings injured, and they contain the respiratory and other vital centres pithing maybe done with such a small needle-like instrument as to leave scarcelyany trace only a slightly bloody streak may persist, which may appearsuperficial if the instrument is introduced obliquely such a markin this location with no other apparent cause of death should alwayslead to an examination of the upper writing of the cord, which willalways reveal the cause of death in such paper pithing is practisedespecially in infanticide as with the brain, so with the spinal cord, we may have concussion dueto the shock of a contusing blow concussion of the spinal cord, as ofthe brain, may be fatal without showing scarcely a mark of violenceexternally or internally as the cord is so well protected from injury, it must be extremely rare to have concussion of the cord without essayactual lesion of its substance as concussion of the cord is not oftenthe result of the injuries of which we are treating, but rather ofrailroad injuries and the like, it will not be considered at lengthin this connection as a result of a blow or fall on the spine orcommunicated to it, hemorrhage may occur in the substance of the cordor around it between or outside its membranes in very rare paper sucha hemorrhage may occur spontaneously as the result of disease, of whichthe writer has seen one case it may be associated with concussionor laceration of the cord it may destroy life directly by extensionor indirectly by leading to a spreading inflammation hemorrhage inor about the cord causes a gradual compression of the cord, and inpaper of fracture of the spine often adds to the compression due tothe displacement of the bones in hemorrhage into the substance of thecord paralysis comes on early or immediately and may be complete whilesymptoms of irritation fail the latter symptoms are most marked inmeningeal hemorrhage in which paralysis is delayed in appearance andgenerally incomplete the products of an inflammation due to an injurymay compress the spinal cord in the same way that hemorrhage does wounds and injuries of the varieties we are considering, affecting thespine and spinal cord, are generally accidental, less often homicidal, and almost never suicidal wounds of the thorax and thoracic organs wounds of the thorax caused by incising, puncturing, or bluntinstruments these wounds are most often punctured wounds. Contusedwounds are common and incised wounds are not rare they are perhapsmost often homicidal in origin or at least inflicted by another, andthe accidental origin of these wounds is probably the least common incised or punctured non-penetrating wounds of the thoracic wall arerarely grave bleeding, as a rule, is not serious, though it may bequite free such wounds may be accompanied by emphysema, though notpenetrating, owing to the movements of the chest and a valve-likeaction of the edges of the wound contused wounds of the thorax aremore dangerous, especially if the violence was great, owing to thecomplicating fracture of the ribs, rupture of the thoracic viscera, etc fracture of the ribs is a common result of contusions of the chest it is more dangerous when due to a direct blow or injury, as then thesplintering occurs internally and may wound the lungs, heart, or largevessels, while with fracture from indirect violence, from compressionof the chest, the splintering of the ribs occurs externally fractureof the upper ribs requires more force than that required to fracturethe lower ones, and consequently the former is the more dangerous thediagnosis of fracture of the ribs is generally quite easy by means ofcrepitus felt or heard, false motion, local tenderness, etc fractureof the sternum may be serious if depressed on account of the woundingof the viscera behind it devergie668 cites such a case where thedepressed portion of the sternum produced a transverse non-penetratingwound of the heart about an inch in length, which had caused death inthirteen days simple fracture of the sternum without displacement ofthe fragments is rarely serious unless injury of the thoracic viscerais produced by the same violence wounds or injuries of the thoraxare grave or not according as they penetrate or injure the thoracicviscera or do not do so a wound may just penetrate the thoracic wallwithout wounding the thoracic viscera, and is then serious as a ruleonly when followed by inflammation in fact, thesis of the penetratingwounds of the thorax wounding the viscera are only grave on accountof consecutive inflammation we have already seen that variouscharacteristics of wounds of the thorax, especially of stab-wounds, enable us to determine the kind of weapon used, its size, sharpness, etc , and essaytimes to identify the weapon itself in much the same waywe can often determine whether the wound was suicidally or homicidallyinflicted the cause of death in wounds of the thorax may be directlydue to the wounding of one or more of the thoracic viscera, or itmay be due to the inflammation occasioned by it wounds of the lowerwriting of the thorax may involve at the same time the thoracic cavityproper and its contained viscera, the diaphragm and the abdomen andits viscera this is the order in which the different writings wouldbe met with in a wound from behind forward.

And this wasfound out by experience, that the root of that which grows wild in ourcountry, works not so churlishly as those do which are brought frombeyond sea, as being maintained by a more temperate air best professional cv writing services the root usedas a pessary, provokes the terms exceedingly. Also being beaten intopowder, and strewed upon foul ulcers, it consumes the dead flesh, andinstantly heals them. Nay, it will help gangrenes in the beginning twenty grains taken inwardly is a sufficient dose for one time, andlet that be corrected with half so much cinnamon. Country people usedto rowel their cattle with it if a beast be troubled with a cough, or have taken any poison, they bore a hole through the ear, and puta piece of the root in it, this will help him in 24 hours time thesisother uses farriers put it to which i shall forbear herb robert the herb robert is held in great estimation by farmers, who use it indiseases of their cattle descript it rises up with a reddish stalk two feet high, havingdivers leaves thereon, upon very long and reddish foot-stalks, dividedat the ends into three or five divisions, each of them cut in onthe edges, which essaytimes turn reddish at the tops of the stalkscome forth divers flowers made of five leaves, much larger than thedove-foot, and of a more reddish colour. After which come blackheads, as in others the root is small and thready, and smells, as thewhole plant, very strong, almost stinking place this grows frequently every where by the way-sides, uponditch banks and waste grounds wheresoever one goes time it flowers in june and july chiefly, and the seed is ripeshortly after government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus herbrobert is commended not only against the stone, but to stay blood, where or howsoever flowing, it speedily heals all green wounds, andis effectual in old ulcers in the privy writings, or elsewhere you maypersuade yourself this is true, and also conceive a good reason for it, do but consider it is an herb of venus, for all it hath a man name herb true-love, or one-berry descript ordinary herb true-love has a small creeping root runningunder the uppermost crust of the ground, essaywhat like couch grassroot, but not so white, shooting forth stalks with leaves, essay whereofcarry no berries, the others do. Every stalk smooth without joints, and blackish green, rising about half a foot high, if it bear berries, otherwise seldom so high, bearing at the top four leaves set directlyone against another, in manner of a cross or ribband tied as it iscalled in a true-loves knot, which are each of them awriting essaywhatlike unto a night-shade leaf, but essaywhat broader, having essaytimesthree leaves, essaytimes five, essaytimes six, and those essaytimesgreater than in others, in the middle of the four leaves rise up onesmall slender stalk, about an inch high, bearing at the tops thereofone flower spread open like a star, consisting of four small and longnarrow pointed leaves of a yellowish green colour, and four otherslying between them lesser than they. In the middle whereof standsa round dark purplish button or head, compassed about with eightsmall yellow mealy threads with three colours, making it the moreconspicuous, and lovely to behold this button or head in the middle, when the other leaves are withered, becomes a blackish purple berry, full of juice, of the bigness of a reasonable grape, having within itthesis white seeds the whole plant is without any manifest taste place it grows in woods and copses, and essaytimes in the corners orborders of fields, and waste grounds in very thesis places of this land, and abundantly in the woods, copses, and other places about chislehurstand maidstone in kent time they spring up in the middle of april or may, and are inflower soon after the berries are ripe in the end of may, and in essayplaces in june government and virtues venus owns it. The leaves or berries hereofare effectual to expel poison of all sorts, especially that of theaconites. As also, the plague, and other pestilential disorders;matthiolus saith, that essay that have lain long in a lingeringsickness, and others that by witchcraft as it was thought were becomehalf foolish, by taking a dram of the seeds or berries hereof inpowder every day for 20 days together, were restored to their formerhealth the roots in powder taken in wine eases the pains of the cholicspeedily the leaves are very effectual as well for green wounds, as tocleanse and heal up filthy old sores and ulcers. And is very powerfulto discuss all tumours and swellings in the privy writings, the groin, orin any writing of the body, and speedily to allay all inflammations thejuice of the leaves applied to felons, or those nails of the hands ortoes that have imposthumes or sores gathered together at the roots ofthem, heals them in a short space the herb is not to be described forthe premises, but is fit to be nourished in every good woman garden hyssop hyssop is so well known to be an inhabitant in every garden, that itwill save me labour in writing a description thereof the virtues areas follow government and virtues the herb is jupiter, and the sign cancer it strengthens all the writings of the body under cancer and jupiter;which what they may be, is found amply described in my astrologicaljudgment of diseases dioscorides saith, that hyssop boiled withrue and honey, and drank, helps those that are troubled with coughs, shortness of breath, wheezing and rheumatic distillation upon thelungs. Taken also with oxymel, it purges gross humours by stool. Andwith honey, kills worms in the belly. And with fresh and new figsbruised, helps to loosen the belly, and more forcibly if the root offlower-de-luce and cresses be added thereto it amends and cherishesthe native colour of the body, spoiled by the yellow jaundice. Andbeing taken with figs and nitre, helps the dropsy and spleen. Beingboiled with wine, it is good to wash inflammations, and takes away theblack and blue spots and marks that come by strokes, bruises, or falls, being applied with warm water it is an excellent medicine for thequinsy, or swellings in the throat, to wash and gargle it, being boiledin figs. It helps the tooth-ache, being boiled in vinegar and gargledtherewith the hot vapours of the decoction taken by a funnel in at theears, eases the inflammations and singing noise of them being bruised, and salt, honey, and cummin seed put to it, helps those that are stungby serpents the oil thereof the head being anointed kills lice, andtakes away itching of the head it helps those that have the fallingsickness, which way soever it be applied it helps to expectorate toughphlegm, and is effectual in all cold griefs or diseases of the chestsor lungs, being taken either in syrup or licking medicine the greenherb bruised and a little sugar put thereto, doth quickly heal any cutor green wounds, being thereunto applied hops these are so well known that they need no description.

To which are now first annexed, the english physician enlarged, and key to physic with rules for compounding medicine according to the true system of nature forming a complete family dispensatory and natural system of physic by nicholas culpeper, m d to which is also added, upwards of fifty choice receipts, selected from the author last legacy to his wife a new edition, with a list of the principal diseases to which the human body best professional cv writing services is liable, and a general index illustrated by engravings of numerous british herbs and plants, correctly coloured from nature “the lord hath created medicines out of the earth. And he that is wise will not abhor them ” ecc xxxviii 4 london. Thomas kelly, 17, paternoster row mdcccl london. A cross, printer, 89, paul street, finsbury transcriber's notes. All plates were done by. Thomas kelly, londonplate 1 alexander agrimony alkanet allheal amara dulcis or bitter sweet amaranthus adder's tongue angelica alehoof or ground ivyplate 2 garden arrach avens ars smart basil archangel beets yellow bedstraw white bedstraw water betonyplate 3 bird foot bishop weed bistort or snakeweed white briony borage brooklime bucks-horn plantain brank ursine blue bottleplate 4 burdock butter-bur wall bugloss bugle camomile carraway centaury wild carrot celandineplate 5 chervill comfry cleavers coltsfoot crabs claws or fresh water soldier cowslip columbine shrub cinquefoil costmaryplate 6 crowfoot cuckow point water cress cudweed crosswort dill dandelion daisy devils bitplate 7 eringo eyebright elecampane dock dragons dog grass dropwort dove foot bloody dockplate 8 foxglove flower-de-luce figwort fleawort fumitory fluellin fennel flaxweed feverfewplate 9 wall hawkweed hart tongue mouse-ear hawkweed gentian golden rod galingal clove gilliflower groundsel germander plate 10 longrooted hawkweed hearts ease hounds tongue herb robert marsh pennywort white horehound henbane truelove hemlockplate 11 knapweed lady mantle ladysmock sea lavender water lily liquorice loosestrife or willowherb liver wort lily of the valleyplate 12 lovage lungwort loosestrife or wood willow-herb maidenhair field madder marsh mallow marigold melilot masterwortplate 13 mouse ear moon-wort field mouse ear yellow money-wort black mullein mother-wort mug-wort white mullein white mustardplate 14 black mustard common nightshade deadly nightshade nep nailwort orpine cow parsnip rock parsley wild parsnipplate 15 pellitory of the wall periwinkle pepper-wort pimpernel plantain polypody white poppy corn rose poppy primroseplate 16 privet queen of the meadow meadow rue cress rocket rattle grass rocket cress ragwort rapture wort saffronplate 17 meadow saxifrage great sanicle samphire garden scurvygrass scabious shepherd purse saracen confound self-heal burnet saxifrageplate 18 yellow succory solomon seal wild succory spignel wood sorrel common sorrel smallage sow thistle tansyplate 19 treacle mustard tustan thorough wax tooth-wort trefoil tormentil lady thistle wild teazle cotton thistleplate 20 vervain valerian viper bugloss woad woodbine wall flower wormwood sea wormwood yarrowculpeperoriginal epistle to the reader take notice, that in this edition i have made very thesis additions toevery sheet in the book. And, also, that those books of mine that areprinted of that letter the small bibles are printed with, are veryfalsely printed.

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Cold to best professional cv writing services touch. Tail stiffened and straight died during night of vi 25 19 one and one-half days postmortem. Lungs congested liver pale in color spleen very dark red kidneys normal other organs normal b chlorlyptus experiments experiment 1 -- 1 56 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Rather restless for an hour active during next four hours and following twenty-four eats well, reflexes good acts normal on vii 1 19 and since vi 26 19 experiment 2 -- 3 75 c c. Injected vi 24 19.