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If there is only congestion it willfloat by squeezing the lung between the fingers an inflammation of thesmaller bronchi bronchitis can be recognized by the purulent fluidwhich will exude at different points it should be remembered that innormal condition the lower lobes and posterior aspect of the lungs willapparently be very much congested as a result of gravity neck, larynx, and œsophagus - throw the head well backward, andplace a block beneath the neck make an incision from the chin tothe upper writing of the sternum dissect the soft writings away on eachside from the larynx and thyroid body, then cut along the internalsurface of the lower jaw from the symphisis to its angle through thisincision introduce the fingers into the mouth, and grasp and drawdown the tongue by dividing the posterior wall of the pharynx andpulling downward these writings, the trachea and œsophagus can readily beremoved together, a ligature having been first placed around the lowerportion of the œsophagus open now the pharynx and œsophagus alongtheir posterior border examine the mucous membrane carefully for theevidences of inflammation, caustic poison, tumors, foreign bodies, or strictures with an enterotome open the larynx and trachea alongtheir posterior wall observe if there is any evidence of œdema ofthe glottis, and note the condition of the mucous membrane rememberthat redness of the larynx is very commonly the result of post-mortemchanges and is also seen in bodies which have been kept cold dissectoff and examine the thyroid gland abdomen having completed the examination of the organs of the thorax, we nextproceed to examine those contained in the abdominal cavity we firstraise and, dissect off the omentum, noting if it is abnormally adherent the first organs to be removed are:the kidneys - drawing the intestines aside we cut through theperitoneum over the kidneys, and introducing our left hand we graspthe organs with their suprarenal capsules attached raising first onekidney and then the other, we easily divide the vessels and the uretersas close to the bladder as possible the kidneys are often foundimbedded in a mass of fat which must first be removed their surface isessaytimes of a greenish color owing to the beginning of putrefaction we note the size of the organ, its color and weight a normal kidneyweighs from four and one-half to five ounces grasping the kidneyfirmly in the left hand, we make an incision in its capsule along itsconvex border, and with a forceps strip off the capsule and note itsdegree of adherence and the condition of the surface of the organ;whether it is best custom papers smooth or granular prolonging our incision alreadymade through the cortex of the organ, inward toward the pelvis, wedivide the organ into two halves and now closely examine the internalstructure the average thickness of the cortex, which should be aboutone-third of an inch, is noted. As also its degree of congestion, andwhether the normal light tubes and reddish vessels and tufts linesare seen running through it if these alternate light and dark markingsare lost and the organ has not undergone decomposition, the presenceof essay of the forms of bright disease may be suspected if the cutsurface of the organ presents a waxy appearance, the amyloid testshould be applied by first washing the cut surface of the organ anddropping upon it a few drops of lugol solution of iodine, when theamyloid areas will appear as dark mahogany spots on a yellow background the pelvis of the kidneys should be examined for calculi and theevidence of inflammatory lesions the suprarenal capsules readilydecompose, but if the autopsy is not made too late hypertrophy, tuberculosis, tumors, and degeneration in them may be recognized the spleen - this organ will be found in an oblique position at theleft side of the stomach grasping it firmly in the left hand anddrawing it forward, it can easily be detached normally in the adultit is about five inches in length by three inches in breadth by oneinch in thickness, and weighs about seven ounces the size, color, and consistency of the organ should be noted, as well as abnormalthickenings of its capsule and the presence of any tubercles or tumorsin its substance the spleen softens very early as the result ofdecomposition, and this decomposition should not be mistaken for apathological condition the intestines - in paper of suspected poisoning the greatest careshould be taken in the removal of the intestines and the stomach double ligatures should be placed in the following situations so asto preserve the contents of the organs intact. 1 at the end of theduodenum. 2 at the end of the ilium. And 3 at the lower portionof the rectum. And an incision should be made with a pair of scissorsbetween these ligatures the jejunum and ilium should first be removedtogether by seizing the gut with the left hand, keeping it on thestretch, and cutting with a pair of scissors through the mesenteryclose to its intestinal attachment the cæcum, colon, and rectum shouldthen be removed in a similar manner the intestines being placed in large absolutely clean dishes, whichhave previously been rinsed with distilled water, are opened. Greatcare being taken that none of the intestinal contents are lost thesmall intestines should be opened in one dish and the large intestinein another a portion of the intestines where morbid appearances aremost likely to be seen in paper of poisoning are the duodenum, thelower writing of the ilium, and the rectum the comparative intensity ofthe appearances of irritation should be especially noted for example, if the stomach appears normal and the intestines are found inflamed thepossibility of poison from an irritant may be denied the intestines are opened along their detached border by theenterotome care should be taken to distinguish the post-mortemdiscolorations which are usually seen along the intestines from thoseproduced by disease the former are most marked in the dependentportions they are apt to occur in patches which can be readilyrecognized by stretching the wall of the gut the darkish brown orpurple discolorations which are essaytimes seen as the result ofdecomposition are due to the imbibition from the vessels of decomposedhæmoglobin much care and experience are necessary to tell the amountof congestion which is within normal limits and to recognize changes ofcolor produced by decomposition the pathological lesions ordinarily looked for in the examinationof the intestines are ulcers, perforation, hemorrhages, strictures, tumors, and the evidences of various inflammations to obtain anaccurate idea of the various portions of the mucous membrane of theintestines, it is essaytimes necessary to remove their contents whenvery adherent this should be done by allowing as small a portionof distilled water as possible to flow over their surface if anyabnormalities are noticed along the intestinal tract, an accuratedescription should be given of their situation and extent. As also theamount of congestion seen in different portions of the intestinal tract if possible the different portions of the intestines, as well as thestomach, should be examined immediately after being exposed to view, as under the influence of the air those writings which are pale maybecome red, and slight redness may become very pronounced in this wayonly can we estimate the degree of vascularity of the various writingsafter death however, in paper of suspected poisoning, when it isimpossible for the chemist to be present at the autopsy, the medicalexaminer should not open the stomach and intestines, but place themin sealed jars as soon as possible afterward, the chemist beingpresent, they should then be examined in the manner indicated whatmay be lost by waiting, in changes of color which have taken place, will be more than counterbalanced by the data which the chemist willobtain from observing the contents and mucous membrane of the stomachand intestines when they are first exposed the characteristic odorsof certain poisons are so evanescent that they quickly disappear afteropening of the stomach and intestines after a thorough examination of the intestines, they are to be put withtheir contents into wide-mouthed vessels, each writing by itself, andthe basins in which they were opened washed with distilled water andthe washings put into the same bottle as soon as the intestines aretransferred to the jars they should be sealed the stomach - the stomach and duodenum are removed together theyare opened by passing the enterotome into the duodenum and dividingit along its convex border, the incision being continued along thegreater curvature of the stomach as far as the œsophageal opening theyshould be opened in a large glass dish which has been carefully washedwith distilled water the chemist and medical examiner will carefullynote the quantity, odor, color, and reaction of the stomach contents;also whether luminous or not in the dark. The presence or absence ofcrystalline matter, foreign substances, undigested food or alcohol portions of the contents should be placed in a small glass bottle andsealed, so that at a future time they may be examined microscopically only in this way can an absolute knowledge of the character of thestomach contents be obtained in certain medico-legal paper the abilityto decide the character of the stomach contents is of the utmostimportance the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum must benext carefully examined for evidences of hemorrhages, erosions, tumors, and of acute or chronic inflammations the appearance of the rugæ andtheir interspaces, principally in the region of the greater curvature, should be noted.

Her knees on the floor. White froth around the mouth. Tongue protruding and swollen. Face dusky and swollen. Lips dark blue. Brown parchment mark on neck. Skin abraded over larynx. Conjunctiva insensible. Pupils dilated and fixed. Fingers clinched. Limbs flaccid.

And a little of it drank, quenches thirst when it isextreme lovage descript it has thesis long and green stalks of large winged leaves, divided into thesis writings, like smallage, but much larger and greater, every leaf being cut about the edges, broadest forward, and smallest best custom papers atthe stalk, of a sad green colour, smooth and shining. From among whichrise up sundry strong, hollow green stalks, five or six, essaytimesseven or eight feet high, full of joints, but lesser leaves set onthem than grow below. And with them towards the tops come forth largebranches, bearing at their tops large umbels of yellow flowers, andafter them flat brownish seed the roots grow thick, great and deep, spreading much, and enduring long, of a brownish colour on the outside, and whitish within the whole plant and every writing of it smellingstrong, and aromatically, and is of a hot, sharp, biting taste place it is usually planted in gardens, where, if it be suffered, it grows huge and great time it flowers in the end of july, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, under the signtaurus if saturn offend the throat as he always doth if he beoccasioner of the malady, and in taurus is the genesis this is yourcure it opens, cures and digests humours, and mightily provokeswomen courses and urine half a dram at a time of the dried rootin powder taken in wine, doth wonderfully warm a cold stomach, helpsdigestion, and consumes all raw and superfluous moisture therein. Easesall inward gripings and pains, dissolves wind, and resists poison andinfection it is a known and much praised remedy to drink the decoctionof the herb for any sort of ague, and to help the pains and tormentsof the body and bowels coming of cold the seed is effectual to allthe purposes aforesaid except the last and works more powerfully the distilled water of the herb helps the quinsy in the throat, ifthe mouth and throat be gargled and washed therewith, and helps thepleurisy, being drank three or four times being dropped into the eyes, it takes away the redness or dimness of them. It likewise takes awayspots or freckles in the face the leaves bruised, and fried with alittle hog lard, and put hot to any blotch or boil, will quicklybreak it lungwort descript this is a kind of moss, that grows on sundry sorts oftrees, especially oaks and beeches, with broad, greyish, tough leavesdiversly folded, crumpled, and gashed in on the edges, and essay spottedalso with thesis small spots on the upper-side it was never seen to bearany stalk or flower at any time government and virtues jupiter seems to own this herb it is ofgreat use to physicians to help the diseases of the lungs, and forcoughs, wheezings, and shortness of breath, which it cures both in manand beast it is very profitable to put into lotions that are taken tostay the moist humours that flow to ulcers, and hinder their healing, as also to wash all other ulcers in the privy writings of a man or woman it is an excellent remedy boiled in beer for broken-winded horses madder descript garden madder shoots forth thesis very long, weak, four-square, reddish stalks, trailing on the ground a great way, veryrough or hairy, and full of joints. At every one of these joints comeforth divers long and narrow leaves, standing like a star about thestalks, round also and hairy, towards the tops whereof come forth thesissmall pale yellow flowers, after which come small round heads, green atfirst, and reddish afterwards, but black when they are ripe, whereinis contained the seed the root is not very great, but exceeding long, running down half a man length into the ground, red and very clear, while it is fresh, spreading divers ways place it is only manured in gardens, or larger fields, for theprofit that is made thereof time it flowers towards the end of summer, and the seed is ripequickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mars it hath an openingquality, and afterwards to bind and strengthen it is a sure remedyfor the yellow jaundice, by opening the obstructions of the liver andgall, and cleansing those writings. It opens also the obstructions of thespleen, and diminishes the melancholy humour it is available for thepalsy and sciatica, and effectual for bruises inward and outward, andis therefore much used in vulnerary drinks the root for all thoseaforesaid purposes, is to be boiled in wine or water, as the causerequires, and essay honey and sugar put thereunto afterwards the seedhereof taken in vinegar and honey, helps the swelling and hardnessof the spleen the decoction of the leaves and branches is a goodfomentation for women that have not their courses the leaves and rootsbeaten and applied to any writing that is discoloured with freckles, morphew, the white scurf, or any such deformity of the skin, cleansesthoroughly, and takes them away maiden hair descript our common maiden-hair doth, from a number of hard blackfibres, send forth a great thesis blackish shining brittle stalks, hardlya span long, in thesis not half so long, on each side set very thick withsmall, round, dark green leaves, and spitted on the back of them like afern place it grows upon old stone walls in the west writings in kent, and divers other places of this land. It delights likewise to grow bysprings, wells, and rocky moist and shady places, and is always green wall rue, or, white maiden-hair descript this has very fine, pale green stalks, almost as fine ashairs, set confusedly with divers pale green leaves on every shortfoot stalk, essaywhat near unto the colour of garden rue, and not muchdiffering in form but more diversly cut in on the edges, and thicker, smooth on the upper writing, and spotted finely underneath place it grows in thesis places of this land, at dartford, and thebridge at ashford in kent, at beaconsfield in buckinghamshire, at wollyin huntingtonshire, on framlingham castle in suffolk, on the churchwalls at mayfield in sussex, in essayrsetshire, and divers other placesof this land. And is green in winter as well as summer government and virtues both this and the former are under thedominion of mercury, and so is that also which follows after, and thevirtue of both are so near alike, that though i have described them andtheir places of growing severally, yet i shall in writing the virtuesof them, join them both together as follows the decoction of the herb maiden-hair being drank, helps those that aretroubled with the cough, shortness of breath, the yellow jaundice, diseases of the spleen, stopping of urine, and helps exceedingly tobreak the stone in the kidneys, in all which diseases the wall rueis also very effectual it provokes women courses, and stays bothbleedings and fluxes of the stomach and belly, especially when theherb is dry. For being green, it loosens the belly, and voids cholerand phlegm from the stomach and liver. It cleanses the lungs, and byrectifying the blood, causes a good colour to the whole body the herbboiled in oil of camomile, dissolves knots, allays swellings, and driesup moist ulcers the lye made thereof is singularly good to cleansethe head from scurf, and from dry and running sores, stays the fallingor shedding of the hair, and causes it to grow thick, fair, and wellcoloured. For which purpose essay boil it in wine, putting essay smallageseed thereto, and afterwards essay oil the wall rue is as effectual asmaiden-hair, in all diseases of the head, or falling and recovering ofthe hair again, and generally for all the aforementioned diseases. Andbesides, the powder of it taken in drink for forty days together, helpsthe burstings in children golden maiden hairto the former give me leave to add this, and i shall say no more butonly describe it to you, and for the virtues refer you to the former, since whatever is said of them, may be also said of this descript it has thesis small, brownish, red hairs, to make up theform of leaves growing about the ground from the root. And in themiddle of them, in summer, rise small stalks of the same colour, setwith very fine yellowish green hairs on them, and bearing a small gold, yellow head, less than a wheat corn, standing in a great husk the rootis very small and thready place it grows in bogs and moorish places, and also on dry shadyplaces, as hampstead heath, and elsewhere mallows and marshmallows common mallows are generally so well known that they need nodescription our common marshmallows have divers soft hairy white stalks, rising tobe three or four feet high, spreading forth thesis branches, the leaveswhereof are soft and hairy, essaywhat less than the other mallow leaves, but longer pointed, cut for the most writing into essay few divisions, but deep the flowers are thesis, but smaller also than the othermallows, and white, or tending to a bluish colour after which comesuch long, round paper and seeds, as in the other mallows the rootsare thesis and long, shooting from one head, of the bigness of a thumbor finger, very pliant, tough, and being like liquorice, of a whitishyellow colour on the outside, and more whitish within, full of a slimyjuice, which being laid in water, will thicken, as if it were a jelly place the common mallows grow in every county of this land thecommon marsh-mallows in most of the salt marshes, from woolwich downto the sea, both on the kentish and essex shores, and in divers otherplaces of this land time they flower all the summer months, even until the winter dopull them down government and virtues venus owns them both the leaves of eitherof the sorts, both specified, and the roots also boiled in wine orwater, or in broth with parsley or fennel roots, do help to open thebody, and are very convenient in hot agues, or other distempers of thebody, to apply the leaves so boiled warm to the belly it not onlyvoids hot, choleric, and other offensive humours, but eases the painsand torments of the belly coming thereby.

c the statement in dr watkins’ paper that the oiland the serum are given in combination the council declared the mark white goiter serum and mark whiteiodinized oil ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of this report editorial note on the mark white “serum”as essay of our readers will remember, on april 26, 1913, the journalcalled attention to the mark white preparation which at that time wasbeing exploited from denver the propaganda dewritingment has in its filesa number of letters sent out from the mark white concern at varioustimes one mailed in may, 1911, on the embossed stationery of “the markwhite goiter institute, ” exchange building, denver, was evidently ageneral letter sent to physicians, calling their attention to “the mostimportant medical discovery of the age ” “dr mark white, a graduateof the university of pennsylvania, ” said the letter, had discovered “asimple and harmless remedy” that would cure goiter “because of thedesire to preserve the secrecy of this remedy it is given only at theoffice here ” it was then suggested that the doctor might send thoseof his patients who were suffering from thyroidism to the “mark whitegoitre institute ” if he would do so he would be “given a commissionof $10, in paper of the $50 fee with the additional $5 for each $50increase ” it closed with essay casuistic arguments, presumably for thepurpose of overcoming the physician scruples, summing up the matterwith the statement. “no right thinking man will allow a narrow and self-seeking system of ethics to stand between him and his duty to the sick and suffering ”about 1912 the name of the concern seems to have been changed, for wehave in our files a letter addressed to a layman on the stationery ofthe “mark white goitre treatment company ” according to this letterheadthe product this concern had for sale was “goitreine” discovered bymark white, “president and general manager ” mr white letter to thesufferer from goiter assured him that if he would take “goitreine”he might “be practically sure of an immediate and permanent cure ”“goitreine, ” according to white, “has absolutely and permanently cured90 per cent ” of all paper of goiter in which it has been used-- “andthe other ten showed remarkable improvement ” it was efficacious forall forms of goiter and “cannot possibly harm ”the person who received this assurance might have had his confidence init shaken had he seen a copy of the denver news for may 23, 1911, inwhich was reported a case of collapse and death in a woman followingan injection given in white office the paper stated that the deathcertificate was signed by one w a gray and gave “fatty degenerationof the heart and goiter” as the cause of death gray, it seems, was thelicensed physician employed by mark white to administer “goitreine”-- ifthat is what white happened to be calling his product at that time for here it may be stated, parenthetically, that mark white is not aphysician. He is a veterinarian in february, 1913, mark white sent a circular letter to a number ofmedical publications with the request that it be printed in full inthe next issue, “to cover one full page of space ” the letter whitewanted printed was addressed to doctors offering to “enter into acowritingnership agreement” with such physicians who would be willing totreat “patients with goiter affections on a 50 per cent commissionbasis ” “you would be expected to make a cash charge to the patient for the treatment, remitting on the same day our 50 per cent to us, when ordering the treatment, giving the treatment in no paper for less than $50 00 ”about the same time that mark white made this “fifty-fifty” offer, he sent in an advertisement to be published in the classified columnof the journal at that time he was told his advertisement was notacceptable. We now reprint it, however, free of charge here it is. “wanted-- one or more physicians in each vicinity to administer and represent our new medical treatment for goiter good margin of profit write for copy of contract the mark white goitre treatment co , denver, colo ”in 1914, white moved to chicago at least the card which we reproduceso indicates at that time, as will be seen, “dr mark white” was“personally associated” with peter s clark, m d according to thesame card dr f d paul of rock island, ill , seems to have been his“associate” for that writingicular locality in this connection, it isworth noting that a rock island paper, in one of its issues duringjuly, 1913, devoted a good deal of space to “dr mark white” whowas at that time in rock island “directing dr frank d paul in theadministering of the treatment ” there was nothing to indicate thatthis notice was an advertisement or that the editorial appearing in thesame issue puffing white “important cure, ” was paid for illustration.

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Below larynx, 2 devergie, above larynx, 20. Over larynx, 7. Below larynx, 1 casper, above larynx, 59. Over larynx, 9 roth839 in 49 paper found the ligature mark above the hyoid bone in 5. Between the bone and the larynx, 31. Over the larynx, 8. Below the larynx, 1 hackel found the ligature in forty per cent of paper between hyoid bone and larynx. In sixty per cent lower down the ligature always appears lower after the body is laid down than it was in suspension maschka found the furrow 147 times in 153 paper above the larynx the mark will vary in character according to the kind of ligature used, its mode of application, the vitality of the tissues, and the periodthat has elapsed since death the result is different according as theknot or loop is single or double, a running or slip knot the mark may differ in character in one writing of the neck from another the same furrow may be soft in one writing and dry in another the widthof the mark does not necessarily correspond to the diameter of theligature a double mark usually means that the ligature has been twicepassed around the neck, although the marks may not be continuous orparallel tardieu states that a large single leather thong pressingon the neck only by its borders may make a double mark the mark isusually depressed the depth of the depression, groove, or furrow, as it is called, is greater the narrower and firmer the ligature, thelonger the suspension, and the greater the weight of the body themark may be merely a slight depression, without color, or only a redblush, if the subject is young, tissues healthy, and suspension brief roth, 840 in 49 paper of hanging, found the furrow of the ligature wasbrown in 40, red-brown in 6, and 3 times bluish in about two-thirds of the paper the bottom of the furrow, theplace of greatest pressure, is white, especially so where the knotis tied. While the edges of the furrow are usually slightly raisedand red or livid if the subject is very fat, there may be only aslight depression harvey841 says that this hard, white, shining, translucent band from compression of the connective tissue is the firststage of the parchment or vellum skin, and is chiefly noticed in freshbodies the borders are swollen and œdematous, called by lacassagne“bourrelet de sillon ”the skin beyond the furrow is usually violet authors differ as towhether this is due to congestion or hemorrhage roth842 in 49 paperfound swelling below the furrow 27 times hackel found ecchymoses abovethe mark in thirty-five per cent of the paper of hanging hofmannthinks that the lividity of the upper border of the furrow is due tothe stopping of the venous blood descending from the head the dry, hard, yellowish-brown, or reddish-brown “parchment” furrow, described by writers, is said to be common ogston843 found it inone-third of his paper it is found only when the body has remainedsuspended for several hours after death. Indeed, may be produced byapplying the ligature to the cadaver. Is not at all, therefore, a proofof suspension during life liman states that constriction by a ligatureeven for essay time does not necessarily cause a mummified or excoriatedfurrow he saw paper in which the mark was soft, flat, scarcelycolored, but little interrupted, and not parchmenty the parchment skinseems to depend very much upon a previous excoriation of the skin itsappearance can be prevented or delayed by examining a body soon afterdeath or by rehanging it. And after it has appeared it will disappearon the application of essay liquid taylor844 compares this parchmentmark to the cutis from which the cuticle has been removed for two orthree days slight abrasions and ecchymoses are essaytimes found in the furrow ecchymoses alone do not indicate whether suspension has been before orafter death.