History

Beowulf Essay Topics


Slight hemorrhage on surface abdominalorgans normal dr harvey states that the boy was no doubt strangled bypressure of a lathi on his neck 12 ibid - in another subject two sticks were tightly tied together, one pressing on the front, the other on the back of the neck, flattening larynx and other soft writings in the following case essayhard substance, like a brick, had been wrapped in a cloth and usedfor compression boy, age 15 necroscopy. Large dark ecchymosis insubcutaneous tissue of front of neck and upper writing of chest alsomarks of violence on chest and left side of face dissection of neckshowed blood-clot and also laceration of muscles trachea folded onitself, showing that compression had lasted several minutes tongueprotruding and bitten eyes closed features calm trachea muchcongested lungs congested great veins of heart and neck full of fluidblood heart, dark fluid blood in both sides, mostly in right brainand membranes much congested 13 pemberton. Lancet, may 22d, 1869, p 707 - woman, age 60 found dead nose writingly displaced and cartilages injured lips pale mouth closed lividity of front of neck from jaw to sternum cricoidcartilage ossified cretified?. and broken on left side. Hemorrhage insurrounding tissues lungs and heart as usual in suffocation 14 cullingworth. Med chron , manchester, 1884-85, i , p 577 - woman, married, found dead bruise and ecchymosis beneath theear. Effusion of blood in underlying tissue other bruises on face, etc several bruises in mouth, on lips and tongue blood dark andfluid brain and membranes much congested no marks of injury onthroat lungs congested.

And in kansas and oklahoma communications with referenceto a physical or supposed physical disease beowulf essay topics and any knowledge obtainedby a personal examination of a patient it does not appear whether anarrower construction would be given to the term communications thanto the term information. But it would seem not, if a person deprivedof speech is to be protected, 382 or if the term communications isnot to be construed as meaning oral communications “from the patient. By the patient ” the former qualifying termsare used in the statutes of arkansas, indian territory, and missouri;the latter in the statutes of kansas and oklahoma the liberalinterpretation put upon this term in the missouri law has alreadybeen shown 383 the law of the indian territory is adopted fromarkansas 384 the statute is strictly construed in arkansas, 385 butthis term does not seem to have received interpretation “advice ” the laws of indiana, ohio, and wyoming expressly cover thephysician advice in new york it is incompetent for the physicianto disclose what he told his patient;386 but advice to a patientconcerning a third person is not privileged 387the relation of physician and patient - under each of the statutes, the relation of physician and patient must have existed at the timethe information was acquired in those paper where the relation isestablished by contract and is recognized by both physician and patientas existing, no difficulty arises in determining that it does exist it is in those paper where essay one of these elements is lacking thatthe difficulties are met in california it has been held that therelation exists where a physician attends and prescribes for a person, notwithstanding he was employed by another, who seeks to disclosethe evidence 388 in michigan, where the physician was employed bydirection of the prosecuting attorney to examine the defendant in jail, and so notified the defendant at the outset of the examination, andhe submitted voluntarily to a personal examination, and there was nointention to prescribe or to act as the defendant physician, it washeld that the relation did not exist, and that the physician couldtestify as to the defendant physical condition 389in one new york case it has been said that the relation is oneof contract, and that the test is whether the physician would bechargeable with malpractice or negligence for failure to advise orprescribe in case the alleged patient were in urgent need of it atthe time 390 but the decisions of the court of appeals extendthe privilege to paper where this test would lead to a differentconclusion 391where the physician to a county jail was called in to attend aprisoner and examined him, though there was no prescription at thetime, but it appeared that the doctor told the prisoner what he shouldprescribe, and subsequently two physicians came to see the prisonerat the instance of the coroner and examined him as they would haveexamined one of their patients, though they did not prescribe and hadno conversation about a prescription, it was held that the prisonerhad, under the circumstances, reason to suppose that the relationof physician and patient did exist between him and all three of thephysicians, and that their testimony as to what they learned on suchvisits should have been excluded. And the rule is thus stated. Wheneverthe patient has reason to suppose that the relation exists and does infact and truth so suppose, in a case where the physician attends undercircumstances calculated to induce the opinion that his visit is of aprofessional nature, and the visit is so regarded and acted upon by theperson attended, the relation of physician and patient contemplated bythe statute may fairly be said to exist 392but the fact that it is the duty of a physician to prescribe for aperson in case of need, does not constitute the relation, thoughthe position of the physician gives him the opportunity to observesuch person. So, therefore, a jail physician was not precluded fromtestifying as to what he had observed of a prisoner, where it did notappear that he had ever attended the latter in a professional capacityor had ever been called on to attend him 393it would seem, however, that where it is the duty of a physician toattend a person in a professional capacity or to acquire knowledgeconcerning him in such capacity, he cannot disclose informationactually acquired in the performance of his duty it has been saidthat a medical attendant at an insane asylum cannot testify as to themental condition of an inmate;394 and that a physician employed in ahospital to notice and enter in its records the arrival and conditionof the patients coming in, cannot testify as to information soacquired 395it is immaterial that another person employs the physician to examinethe patient, and to report to the employer, and that the personexamined does not appear to desire any knowledge as to his condition;if the examination is made as a professional act, the relation ofphysician and patient is established between the physician and theperson examined, even though it be the only interview 396and in a case where the public prosecutor sent a physician to a personfor the purpose of making a professional examination, so as to obtainevidence against another person charged with crime, and the personexamined accepted the services of the physician in a professionalcharacter, it was held that he could not testify as to the results ofhis examination 397but where the district attorney sent a physician to jail to make anexamination of a prisoner mental and physical condition, and he madesuch examination, and it did not appear that he prescribed for ortreated the prisoner or that the prisoner accepted his services, theopinion of the physician as to his mental condition was admitted 398where the defendant employed a physician to examine the plaintiff, andhe went as coming from the defendant for that purpose, and examinedthe plaintiff in the presence of his attending physician, but not asthe plaintiff physician and not for the purpose of prescribing, therelation of physician and patient was not established 399 where aphysician examined the plaintiff at the instance of the plaintiffphysician, but it was not shown that he was requested or expectedto treat or prescribe or to advise in respect to either, or that hedid either, it was held that the relation was not established;400but a physician consulted by the patient regular physician for thepurpose of advice concerning his treatment is a physician contemplatedby the statute;401 as is also the writingner of a physician whois present during a conference with the patient or who overhearssuch a conference 402 attendance at the patient house is notcontemplated as essential by the law, and it makes no differencewhere the examination is conducted 403 but where the physician wasalso a county clerk and the alleged patient was an attorney, and theconsultation took place in the clerk office and consisted of anexamination of an eruption on the skin, which was made gratuitously andwithout a prescription being made or asked for, the relation was heldnot to have been established, notwithstanding that the clerk made useof his knowledge and learning as a physician in forming his opinion, and that it was in confidence that he possessed medical skill that theperson requested the examination 404it does not follow that the relation once established continues always;the secrecy growing out of the relationship, as to knowledge thenacquired, always continues unless properly waived. And the physicianwill not be allowed to testify in regard to matter which is writingly theresult of such information, though another writing may have been acquiredindependent of the relation;405 but where it is clear that the matterdesired is independent of the relation of physician and patient, suchevidence is admissible if otherwise competent 406“professional capacity ” the states in which the statutes limitthe privilege to information acquired in a professional capacityhave been enumerated 407 as to what constitutes a professionalcapacity, the discussion of the facts that establish the relation ofphysician and patient, and of the information necessary to enable aphysician to prescribe or a surgeon to act, makes it unnecessary todiscuss at length the meaning of this phrase the decision in lunzv massachusetts mutual life insurance company408 would make itappear that in missouri information apparent on a casual inspectionwhich any one might make is not received in a professional capacity, but this idea is disapproved in the later case of kling v city ofkansas 409 information acquired by the physician by observing thepatient on the street anterior to his employment as a physician is notreceived by him in a professional capacity 410in new york, where the physician had not seen the patient before orsince his interview for the purpose of treatment, and he was askedwhat his opinion was, based on a general sight of the man before theexamination, it was held that the physician could not properly answer, as all the information upon which the opinion would be based musthave been acquired in a professional capacity;411 but in anothercase a physician was permitted to express his opinion as to the mentalcondition of a patient whom he had seen at various times when notin attendance, excluding from his mind any knowledge or informationobtained while acting as her medical attendant and confining his answerto such knowledge and information as he had obtained by seeing her whennot his patient 412 it has been said that where information is notsuch as is obtained on sight by any person, but by removing clothingand by percussion and listening to the action of the lungs, these areprofessional acts and the information may be considered as obtainedprofessionally 413 it has been said that information received in aprofessional capacity involves a decision, though it may be negative;and that signing as witness to a will is not a professional act 414matter necessary to enable a physician to prescribe or a surgeon toact - a list of those states whose laws limit the privilege to matternecessary to enable the witness to prescribe or act for the patient isto be found in another place 415in arkansas, where six hours after delivery, the patient stated to herphysician who attended at accouchement, that she had never been engagedto marry and never had promised to marry, the statements were held notto be necessary to enable the physician to act 416in iowa, a physician who had treated a patient for injuries was notallowed to testify whether his patient told him that the car on whichhe was injured was in motion at the time, because as the injury wouldbe likely to be more severe if the car was in motion, that informationwas necessary to enable the physician to prescribe 417in michigan, a physician was allowed to contradict his patient asto when her trouble commenced, in the absence of evidence thatsuch information was necessary to enable him to act 418 where aphysician was asked whether he treated a person for typhoid fever, and he answered that she was not so diseased, it was held that thisinformation was not necessary to enable him to act 419 and the samewas held to be true where a physician examined a prisoner at the jailand testified that he was diseased, the prisoner having been notifiedat the time of the examination that it was made by direction of theprosecuting attorney and there being no intention to prescribe or actfor the prisoner 420 but it has been stated that all disclosures bya patient to a physician respecting ailments are privileged whethernecessary to enable the physician to prescribe or not 421in minnesota, a physician was allowed to disclose statements as tosuffering made by his patient, but not for the purpose of enabling himto prescribe or act 422in missouri, it has been said that information as to the way in whichan injury was inflicted is of the greatest necessity for successfultreatment. And that it is information which physicians universallydemand and receive 423 in another case, with reference to the causeof a patient condition, it was said that while knowledge of thecause may not be necessary, the disclosure of the cause cannot be madewithout a disclosure of the condition, and that as a medical personcannot tell indirectly what he is forbidden to tell directly, thephysician evidence of the cause is inadmissible 424 in another caseit was said that any information, necessarily coming to a physician inorder to treat his patient, is to be regarded as necessary informationthough unimportant, and that the test is how it was acquired, notwhether it could have been acquired in a different way, and thereforeit was incompetent for a physician to testify that his patient wasdrunk when he treated him 425in new york, in an early case, 426 where a man consulted a physicianwith reference to committing an abortion and told him that a certainwoman was pregnant by him, this admission was said not to be essentialto enable him to prescribe, even if the relation of physician andpatient were considered established. But this seems to be at variancewith the later case of people v brower, 427 where the accusedconsulted a physician with reference to the treatment of a woman onwhom he had attempted to commit an abortion, and admitted that hehad done so, and the physician was not permitted to disclose it a broader view is now taken of the word necessary it has beenheld by the court of appeals that a physician could not testifythat his patient had a venereal disease while under his care as aphysician, the presumption being that he learned it for the purpose ofprescribing;428 and again, that it is assumed from the relationshipthat the information would not have been imwritinged except for thepurpose of aiding the physician to prescribe 429 but this presumptiondoes not attach to information regarding a patient, communicated by athird person 430where a person went to a physician to call for medicine, andit appeared that he was not consulting for himself and was notrepresenting any one else who needed or desired medical assistance, thephysician was allowed to testify as to a conversation which took placeat that time 431in the case of edington v ætna life insurance company, 432 it wassaid that before the exclusion, the facts on which it is justifiedmust appear in essay way, and the court must know essaywhat of thecircumstances. From the opinion it is easy to infer that it is onlyconfidential communications and information as to secret ailments whichmay be regarded as necessary within the statute. But this view wasoverruled in grattan v metropolitan life insurance company, 433and there it was distinctly stated that it is enough that the witnessacquired the information in his character as physician and in the dueand proper exercise of his calling, and that it is not incumbent onthe person objecting, to show by formal proof that the informationwas necessary to enable the witness to prescribe in this case theexamination of the witness was as to the cause of his patientdeath, and the argument urged upon the attention of the court was thatinformation regarding the cause of death could not be necessary toenable the physician to prescribe, as the utility of the prescriptionceased with the death and before the cause was determined. But thecourt held that the privilege attached, because, although the death wasthe result of the cause, the facts constituting the cause were learnedwhile the physician was attending the living patient in a professionalcapacity and from the symptoms manifested at that time in consonance with the decision in grattan v metropolitan lifeinsurance company, 434 it has been held that a physician whoamputated a patient leg could not testify as to its condition at thetime it was amputated 435the fact that the physician does not prescribe does not defeat theprivilege. If the information is acquired in the course of professionalemployment the statute operates, for the decision that neither advicenor medicine is needed is a professional act within the spirit of thelaw 436 medicus optimus, medicamentum minimum, is the maxim used inanother case to illustrate this point 437but it cannot be predicated as matter of law that a physician cannotexclude from his consideration facts learned or opinions formed whileattending as physician. Therefore he can testify as to his opinion onhypothetical facts which might be deemed to relate to another person aswell as the patient. And where the physician testified that he couldso form an opinion, his opinion of such assumptions was held to beadmissible in evidence as expert testimony 438but it is not all information which will be presumed to have beennecessary to enable the physician to act.

They are dull witted, my herb shallfortify their apprehensions. And yet among astrologers all this doesnot deserve a good word. Oh the patience of mars!. felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere caucas, inque domus superum scandere cura facit o happy he that can the knowledge gain, to know the eternal god made nought in vain to this i add, i know the reason causeth such a dearth of knowledge. ’tis because men love the earth the other day mars told me he met with venus, and he asked her, whatwas the reason that she accused him for abusing women?. he never gavethem the pox in the dispute they fell out, and in anger writinged, andmars told me that his brother saturn told him, that an antivenereanmedicine was the best against the pox once a month he meets with themoon mars is quick enough of speech, and the moon not much behindhand, neither are most women the moon looks much after children, andchildren are much troubled with the worms. She desired a medicine ofhim, he bid her take his own herb, wormwood he had no sooner writingedwith the moon, but he met with venus, and she was as drunk as a hog;alas!. poor venus, quoth he. What!. thou a fortune, and be drunk?. i’llgive thee antipathetical cure. Take my herb wormwood, and thou shallnever get a surfeit by drinking a poor silly countryman hath got anague, and cannot go about his business. He wishes he had it not, andso do i.

A piece of them ifyou set it in the garden, and defend it from the first winter cold willgrow and flourish place they are only nursed in the gardens in england, where theywill grow very well time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is an excellent plant under the dominionof the moon. I could wish such as are studious would labour to keepit in their gardens the leaves being boiled and used in clysters, isexcellent good to mollify the belly, and make the passage slippery thedecoction drank inwardly, is excellent and good for the bloody-flux;the leaves being bruised, or rather boiled and applied like a poulticeare excellent good to unite broken bones and strengthen joints thathave been put out the decoction of either leaves or roots being drank, and the decoction of leaves applied to the place, is excellent goodfor the king evil that is broken and runs. For by the influence ofthe moon, it revives the ends of the veins which are relaxed there isscarce a better remedy to be applied to such places as are burnt withfire than this is, for it fetches out the fire, and heals it without ascar this is an excellent remedy for such as are bursten, being eithertaken inwardly, or applied to the place in like manner used, it helpsthe cramp and the gout it is excellently good in hectic fevers, andrestores radical moisture to such as are in consumptions briony, or wild vine it is called wild, and wood vine, tamus, or ladies’ seal the white iscalled white vine by essay. And the black, black vine descript the common white briony grows ramping upon the hedges, sending forth thesis long, rough, very tender branches at the beginning, with thesis very rough, and broad leaves thereon, cut for the most writinginto five writingitions, in form very like a vine leaf, but smaller, rough, and of a whitish hoary green colour, spreading very far, spreading and twining with his small claspers that come forth at thejoints with the leaves very far on whatsoever stands next to it atthe several joints also especially towards the top of the branchescomes forth a long stalk bearing thesis whitish flowers together on along tuft, consisting of five small leaves a-piece, laid open like astar, after which come the berries separated one from another, morethan a cluster of grapes, green at the first, and very red when theyare thorough ripe, of no good scent, but of a most loathessay tasteprovokes vomit the root grows to be exceeding great, with thesis longtwines or branches going from it, of a pale whitish colour on theoutside, and more white within, and of a sharp, bitter, loathessay taste place it grows on banks, or under hedges, through this land. Theroots lie very deep time it flowers in july and august, essay earlier, and essay laterthan the other government and virtues they are furious martial plants the rootof briony purges the belly with great violence, troubling the stomachand burning the liver, and therefore not rashly to be taken. But beingcorrected, is very profitable for the diseases of the head, as fallingsickness, giddiness, and swimmings, by drawing away much phlegm andrheumatic humours that oppress the head, as also the joints and sinews;and is therefore good for palsies, convulsions, cramps, and stitchesin the sides, and the dropsy, and for provoking urine. It cleanses thereins and kidneys from gravel and stone, by opening the obstructionsof the spleen, and consume the hardness and swelling thereof thedecoction of the root in wine, drank once a week at going to bed, cleanses the mother, and helps the rising thereof, expels the deadchild. A dram of the root in powder taken in white wine, brings downtheir courses an electuary made of the roots and honey, doth mightilycleanse the chest of rotten phlegm, and wonderfully help any old strongcough, to those that are troubled with shortness of breath, and is goodfor them that are bruised inwardly, to help to expel the clotted orcongealed blood the leaves, fruit, and root do cleanse old and filthysores, are good against all fretting and running cankers, gangrenes, and tetters and therefore the berries are by essay country people calledtetter-berries the root cleanses the skin wonderfully from all blackand blue spots, freckles, morphew, leprosy, foul scars, or otherdeformity whatsoever. Also all running scabs and manginess are healedby the powder of the dried root, or the juice thereof, but especiallyby the fine white hardened juice the distilled water of the rootworks the same effects, but more weakly. The root bruised and appliedof itself to any place where the bones are broken, helps to draw themforth, as also splinters and thorns in the flesh. And being appliedwith a little wine mixed therewith, it breaks boils, and helps whitlowson the joints - for all these latter, beginning at sores, cancers, &c apply it outwardly, mixing it with a little hog grease, or otherconvenient ointment as for the former diseases where it must be taken inwardly, it purgesvery violently, and needs an abler hand to correct it than most countrypeople have brook lime, or water-pimpernel descript this sends forth from a creeping root that shoots forthstrings at every joint, as it runs, divers and sundry green stalks, round and sappy with essay branches on them, essaywhat broad, round, deepgreen, and thick leaves set by couples thereon. From the bottom whereofshoot forth long foot stalks, with sundry small blue flowers on them, that consist of five small round pointed leaves a piece there is another sort nothing different from the former, but that it isgreater, and the flowers of a paler green colour place they grow in small standing waters, and usually nearwater-cresses time and flower in june and july, giving seed the next month after government and virtues it is a hot and biting martial plant brook-lime and water-cresses are generally used together in diet-drink, with other things serving to purge the blood and body from all illhumours that would destroy health, and are helpful to the scurvy theydo all provoke urine, and help to break the stone, and pass it away;they procure women courses, and expel the dead child being friedwith butter and vinegar, and applied warm, it helps all manner oftumours, swellings, and inflammations such drinks ought to be made of sundry herbs, according to the malady i shall give a plain and easy rule at the latter end of this book butcher broom it is called ruscus, and bruscus, kneeholm, kneeholly, kneehulver, andpettigree descript the first shoots that sprout from the root of butcherbroom, are thick, whitish, and short, essaywhat like those of asparagus, but greater, they rise up to be a foot and half high, are spread intodivers branches, green, and essaywhat creased with the roundness, toughand flexible, whereon are set essaywhat broad and almost round hardleaves and prickly, pointed at the end, of a dark green colour, two atthe most writing set at a place, very close and near together. About themiddle of the leaf, on the back and lower side from the middle rib, breaks forth a small whitish green flower, consisting of four smallround pointed leaves, standing upon little or no footstalk, and in theplace whereof comes a small round berry, green at the first, and redwhen it is ripe, wherein are two or three white, hard, round seedscontained the root is thick, white and great at the head, and fromthence sends forth divers thick, white, long, tough strings place it grows in copses, and upon heaths and waste grounds, andoftentimes under or near the holly bushes time it shoots forth its young buds in the spring, and the berriesare ripe about september, the branches of leaves abiding green all thewinter government and virtues it is a plant of mars, being of a gallantcleansing and opening quality the decoction of the root made withwine opens obstructions, provokes urine, helps to expel gravel and thestone, the stranguary and women courses, also the yellow jaundice andthe head-ache. And with same honey or sugar put thereunto, cleansesthe breast of phlegm, and the chest of such clammy humours gatheredtherein the decoction of the root drank, and a poultice made of theberries and leaves applied, are effectual in knitting and consolidatingbroken bones or writings out of joint the common way of using it, is toboil the root of it, and parsley and fennel and smallage in white wine, and drink the decoction, adding the like quantity of grass-root tothem. The more of the root you boil, the stronger will the decoctionbe. It works no ill effects, yet i hope you have wit enough to give thestrongest decoction to the strongest bodies broom, and broom-rape to spend time in writing a description hereof is altogether needless, it being so generally used by all the good housewives almost throughthis land to sweep their houses with, and therefore very well known toall sorts of people the broom-rape springs up in thesis places from the roots of the broom but more often in fields, as by hedge-sides and on heaths the stalkwhereof is of the bigness of a finger or thumb, above two feet high, having a shew of leaves on them, and thesis flowers at the top, of areddish yellow colour, as also the stalks and leaves are place they grow in thesis places of this land commonly, and ascommonly spoil all the land they grow in time they flower in the summer months, and give their seed beforewinter government and virtues the juice or decoction of the youngbranches, or seed, or the powder of the seed taken in drink purgesdownwards, and draws phlegmatic and watery humours from the joints;whereby it helps the dropsy, gout, sciatica, and pains of the hips andjoints. It also provokes strong vomits, and helps the pains of thesides, and swelling of the spleen, cleanses also the reins or kidneysand bladder of the stone, provokes urine abundantly, and hinders thegrowing again of the stone in the body the continual use of the powderof the leaves and seed doth cure the black jaundice the distilledwater of the flowers is profitable for all the same purposes.

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For diseasesthat come by repletion or fulness, are cured by evacuation or emptying;yet neither blood nor gross humours are to be expelled by sweating, or insensible transpiration as they call it but the one requiresblood-letting, the other purgation, but scrosus or thin humours andfilthy vapours, and such like superfluities, are to be expelled bysweat, and be wary in this too, for thesis of them work violently, andviolent medicines are not rashly to be given caution 2 besides, swellings are essaytimes made so hard by sweatingmedicines, that afterwards they can never be cured. For what is thinbeing by such medicines taken away, nothing but what is perfectly hardremains. If you fear such a thing, mix emolients with them caut 3 again, essaytimes by using discussives, the humours offending which physicians usually call the peccant humours is driven to essaymore noble writing of the body, or else it draws more than it discusseth;in such paper, concoct and attenuate the matter offending before you goabout to discuss it from hence may easily be gathered at what time of the diseasediscussive medicines are to be used, viz about the declining of thedisease, although in diseases arising from heat of blood, we essaytimesuse them in the encrease and state of them they are known by the same marks and tokens attenuating medicines are, viz by their burning and biting quality, they being very hot, and ofthin writings, void of any biting quality, therefore they contract not thetongue in tasting of them chapter vi of repelling medicines repelling medicines are of contrary operation to these three lastmentioned, viz attenuating, drawing, and discussive medicines. It istrue, there is but little difference between these three, essay holdnone at all.