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thus it was the unavoidable consequence ofthe theistic theory of life that the priest was the physician as wellas the representative of physical knowledge and also the helper andadviser in all mundane exigencies whether bodily or psychic troublesafflicted individuals, whether an entire population groaned underheavy chastisements like pestilence, aid and deliverance were alwayssought in the sanctuary of the gods, from the infallible priest andthe priests were always equal to the occasion. They have always, in amasterly manner, known the art of satisfying the medico-physical needsof their suppliants for the religions of all civilized peoples andchristianity by no means occupies an exceptional position in thisrespect have always endeavored most strenuously to keep physical aswell as medical thought in strictest dependence upon their doctrinesand dogmas to attain this end various ceremonies, customs, and dogmaswere relied upon to keep the priests in a position to secure theassistance of the gods for humanity harassed by pain and affliction these sacred observances were strange, and varied with the variousreligious systems according to the primeval cult of zoroaster, allevils, consequently also all diseases, were derived from the principleof darkness which was embodied in the person of ahriman, and only thesacerdotal caste of the magicians who sprung from a special mediantribe was able to heal them but it was by no means easy to become amember of this caste and to acquire the magic powers pertaining toit alone it was necessary before gaining mastery over the powersof nature to become initiated into the mysteries of mitra however, after priestly consecration had once been bestowed, the individualthus honored bore the proud title “conqueror of evil, ” and was able topractise medicine as the most essential constituent of every medicaltreatment, the divine word was applied in the form of mysteriousexorcisms, sacred hymns, and certain words which were consideredspecially curative in effect, writingicularly the word “ormuzd, ” the nameof the highest god, in whose all-embracing power of healing greatconfidence was placed the sumerians, the precursors of babylonico-assyrian culture, ascribeda considerable and important rôle to dreams they were considered tobring direct medical advice from the gods, and it became the officeof the sacerdotal physician to interpret the dream in such a way as toalleviate the sufferings of the dreamer the ancient greek culture also conceded a conspicuous medicalsignificance to dreams, and even arranged a system of its own, that ofthe temple sleep, in order always to obtain prophesying dreams fromthe gods the patient, after the obligatory offering, was required toremain a night in the temple, and his dream during this night was themedical advice of the divinity in its most direct form but only thepriest was able to interpret a dream obtained in such a manner, and toextract medical efficacy from it but as it occasionally happened thata too prosaic and phlegmatic patient did not dream at all, the priestwas benevolent enough to intercede he was always promptly favored bythe gods with a suggestive dream the medical function of the priests had reached a peculiar developmentduring the first centuries of rome this was manifest especially inthe time of public calamities, such as pestilence, war, etc whensuch events reached dimensions which threatened the existence of therepublic, attempts were made to gain the favor of the gods by mostcurious ceremonies the celestials were simply invited to take writingin an opulent banquet the first divine feast of such a characterwas celebrated in rome in the sixth century, b c , on account of agreat epidemic apollo, latona, diana, hercules, mercury, and neptunewere most ceremoniously invited to take writing in a religious banquetwhich lasted for eight days the images of the gods were placed uponmagnificently cushioned couches, and the tables were loaded withdainties not only the gods, but the entire population, were invited;every one kept open house, and whoever wished to do so could feastat the richly prepared boards of the wealthy even the pronouncedenemies of the house were allowed to enter and to enjoy the daintieswithout fear of hostile remarks. Indeed, it was deemed advisable in theinterests of public hygiene to unchain the prisoners and to liberatethem but if the gods, in spite of the most opulent entertainments, did not have any consideration, and if pestilence, military disaster, failure of crops, or whatever was the immediate cause of popularanxiety, continued to persist with unabated fury, endeavors were madeby theatrical performances to provide as much as possible for theamusement of the gods such plays, at first, consisted only in gracefuldances, with flute accompaniments, and from these simple beginnings, according to livy, book 7, chapter ii , the drama is said to havedeveloped all those variations which characterized the scenic art ofantiquity there can be no doubt that even the stage of modern times isof religio-sanitary origin a peculiar fact which modern patrons of thetheater scarcely ever dream of an attempt was eventually made to increase the delight of the gods insuch amusements by a number of novel devices for instance, it wasstipulated that the performances instituted to ward off the invasion ofhannibal were to cost 333, 333⅓ copper asses but if, nevertheless, the gods were not sufficiently propitiated by banquets, dances, andplaying of the flute, and if they could not be prevailed upon by suchpastimes to remove the pestilence or other calamity, a dictator wasnamed who, if possible, on september 13th, drove a nail into the templeof jupiter to appease divine indignation it appears that this wasa primeval custom of the etruscans. At least, it is reported by theroman author, cincius, that such nails could be seen in the temple ofthe etruscan goddess nortia this nail therapy was resorted to by theromans, for instance, during the terrible plague which raged in thefifth century, b c , and of which the celebrated furius camillus died wonderful as all the described procedures seem to us, and closelyas they may conform to the modern conception of superstition, at thetime they originated they were considered as quite removed from thatsuperstition with which we so closely identify them to-day for theperiod which saw the above events was an era of exclusive theism, andfor that reason divine sleep, divine feasts, the sacred performances, and all the other peculiar means which were employed to secure medicalaid of the gods, were well-established features of religious worship the stigma of superstition was not set upon them as yet and this stateof things naturally persisted so long as the theistic theory of lifestood unchallenged this absolute reign of theistic theory dominating human life throughthe above-described therapeutic ideas was followed by an epoch in whichtheism was forced to divide its authority with a powerful rival namely, the physico-mechanical theory of life the struggle between both thesesystems was ushered in, for the hellenic as well as for the occidentalworld of civilization, by the appearance of ionian philosophy even inour own day this struggle is still going on in thesis minds this much, at least, is certain.

And this is alsoan approved medicine it likewise cleanses and heals all foul ulcers, and sores whatsoever, and stays their inflammations by washing themwith the water, and laying on them a green leaf or two in the summer, or dry leaves in the winter this water, gargled warm in the mouth, and essaytimes drank also, doth cure the quinsy, or king evil in thethroat the said water applied warm, takes away all spots, marks, andscabs in the skin. And a little of it drank, quenches thirst when it isextreme lovage descript it has thesis long and green stalks of large winged leaves, divided into thesis writings, like smallage, but much larger and greater, every leaf being cut about the edges, broadest forward, and smallest atthe stalk, of a sad green colour, smooth and shining. From among whichrise up sundry strong, hollow green stalks, five or six, essaytimesseven or eight feet high, full of joints, but lesser leaves set onthem than grow below. And with them towards the tops come forth largebranches, bearing at their tops large umbels of yellow flowers, andafter them flat brownish seed the roots grow thick, great and deep, spreading much, and enduring long, of a brownish colour on the outside, and whitish within the whole plant and every writing of it smellingstrong, and aromatically, and is of a hot, sharp, biting taste place it is usually planted in gardens, where, if it be suffered, it grows huge and great time it flowers in the end of july, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, under the signtaurus if saturn offend the throat as he always doth if he beoccasioner of the malady, and in taurus is the genesis this is yourcure it opens, cures and digests humours, and mightily provokeswomen courses and urine half a dram at a time of the dried rootin powder taken in wine, doth wonderfully warm a cold stomach, helpsdigestion, and consumes all raw and superfluous moisture therein.

To strengthen the brain, assignment helper preservethe body in health, to teach a man to be an able co-artificer, orhelper of nature, to withstand and expel diseases i shall touch only the principal faculties both of body and mind. Whichbeing kept in a due decorum, preserve the body in health, and the mindin vigour i shall in this place speak of them only in the general, as they arelaid down to your view in the synopsis, in the former pages, and inthe same order virtue procreative the first in order, is the virtue procreative:for natural regards not only the conservation of itself, but to begetits like, and conserve in species the seat of this is the member of generation, and is governedprincipally by the influence of venus it is augmented and encreased by the strength of venus, by her herbs, roots, trees, minerals, &c it is diminished and purged by those of mars, and quite extinguishedby those of saturn observe the hour and medicines of venus, to fortify. Of mars, tocleanse this virtue. Of saturn, to extinguish it conservative the conservative virtue is vital, natural, animal vital the vital spirit hath its residence in the heart, and isdispersed from it by the arteries.

Tongue between teeth. Brainnormal. Mark of cord slight. Subcutaneous tissue infiltrated withblood marks of pressure on chest. Bloody froth in trachea. Lungscongested. Heart contained fluid blood opinion given that she hadbeen struck on head, causing unconsciousness. Then writingly stranded andwritingly suffocated by pressure on neck and chest body afterward burntto cover up the crime 31 ibid , p 211 - three murders by one man all women all injuredabout the head and then strangled by both hand and ligature two died;one had an odor of alcohol and had apparently not resisted the thirdwas resuscitated she was strong and stout, and resisted marks offingers and nails on neck afterward she had headaches and giddinessfor a long time suicide 32 francis. Med times and gaz , december 2d, 1876, p 634 - hindoo lunatic, a giant, strangled himself he passed two orthree coils of stout thread around his neck, attached the ends securelyto his wrists, and then extended his arms to their utmost limit thisoccurred during a ten-minute absence of his attendant, who, returning, found the man had fallen to one side from a kneeling position, with hisback against a wall, quite dead no reason to suspect homicide 33 badahur. Indian med gaz , december, 1882, p 330 - hindoowoman, age about 17, strangled herself with the border of her saree necroscopy. Circular depressed mark caused by the border of a bandof cloth, which she had passed in three coils around her neck, thecoils tightly overlapping each other. The short ends had been knottedtogether with a “granny” knot at the back of the neck, like the nativewomen tie up their hair the coils were so tight that they had to becut off face swollen, dark purple. Conjunctivæ congested tonguebetween the shut teeth. Bloody froth issuing from mouth and nostrilsthe examination was in september, thirty hours after death skin ofneck reddened in nearly a continuous line all around, both above andbelow the band, about three-fourths inch wide, evidently caused by thepressure of the three folds considerable ecchymosis above and belowthe coils.

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Itwould require to be stated in a new form, but it would be fully ascogent as before indeed, it is, perhaps, not too much to say that themore fully this conception of universal evolution is grasped, the morefirmly a scientific doctrine of providence will be established, and thestronger will be the presumption of a future progress ”1 1 “history of the rise and influence of the spirit of rationalism in europe, ” vol i , chapter iii , pages 294-295 compare also magnus, “medicine and religion, ” page 24, sqq in such a manner, despite the fact that in teleology the point ofagreement between theistic and physico-mechanical medical thought hasbeen now found, theism, in the course of the history of our science, continually attempted new attacks upon the physical tendency inmedicine. And with each assault superstition in medicine, as well as inthe natural sciences, was most palpably exposed after having satisfied ourselves in this second chapter regardingtheism and its attitude with reference to the physico-mechanical theoryof life, we shall now enter upon the consideration of the variousforms of medical superstition, and it is our intention, as stated inthe first chapter, so to arrange the enormous material at hand as todiscuss medical superstition according to the sources from which it hassprung we shall begin by pointing out the intimate relations whichhave prevailed between the teachings of religion and superstition iiireligion the support of medical superstitionreligion undoubtedly plays the most conspicuous writing in the historyof medical superstition religious teaching, of whatever character, has fostered medical superstition more than any other factor ofcivilization not only has religion called forth and nourished medicalsuperstition, but it has also defended it with all the influence at itsdisposal indeed, it has not infrequently happened that those who werereluctant to believe in the blessings of a medical theory ridiculouslyperverted by religion were exposed to persecution by fire and sword and this not only from one or other religious denomination, for allreligious believers, without exception, had proved to be the mostassiduous promotors of medical superstition. So that we are probablynot wrong in designating priesthoods in general, whatever their creed, as the most prominent embodiment of medical superstition during certainperiods of the world history but the details will be learned fromthe following paragraphs:§ 1 priesthood the support of medical superstition - the principalreason for a not quite reputable activity in the chosen representativeof a deity is probably the fact that, with the appearance of aphysico-mechanical contemplation of the world, the theistic theory oflife, which until then had exclusive sway, was forced into a pitchedbattle with a newly formulated definition of nature this struggle wascarried on principally by the priesthood, who, as a matter of fact, had most to lose from the ascendency of a new theory of life whichonly reckoned with natural factors they indeed had been the means, until then, of procuring for the people the assistance of the godsin all bodily ailments, as they had been the exclusive depositoriesof physical knowledge and it could scarcely be expected that thepriesthood would at once willingly relinquish the extensive supremacyhitherto exercised by it as the oracle of divine guidance in allmedico-physical questions. For humanity has always considered thepossession of authority much more delightful than submission, and theruler has always objected most energetically to any attempt whichdisputes his rule this was precisely what was done by priests of allcreeds when the mechanico-physical theory of life began to supersedethe obsolete dreams of theistic medicine fair-minded persons willsurely allow that such action was natural but they can not approve ofthe methods resorted to, unless they belong to those who feel boundalways to discern nothing but what is sacred in every action of aservant of heaven in order to wage war most effectively against the physico-mechanicaltheory of life, the priesthood at once claimed for themselves the powerof completely controlling nature they made the people believe thatthe celestials had bestowed upon them the faculty of dominating naturein the interests of the sick, and that all powers of the universe, theobvious ones as well as those mysteriously hidden in the depths ofnature, were obedient to sacerdotal suggestions the servant of heavenprofessed that he could regulate the eternal processes of matter, withits becoming, being, and passing away, quite as irresistibly as his eyewas able to survey the course of time in the past, present, and future equipped with these extensive powers, a priest necessarily appearedto the people not only as physician, but also as a miraculous beingcrowned with the halo of the supernatural and this was the rôle heactually played in thesis ancient religions with the peoples of italythe priest appeared at a period, indeed, which was previous to thebeginning of rome as physician, prophet, interpreter of dreams, raiser of tempests, etc he held exactly the same offices among theceltic tribes in gaul and britain his position was the same in theoriental world, and by the medians and the persians especially werepriests considered to be persons endowed with supernatural powers we may notice that members of a certain median tribe formed thesacerdotal caste, and bore the name of “magi ” however, this name, which originally was confined to the priestly order, obtained, in thecourse of time, a distinctly secular meaning very soon thesis cunningfellows arrived at the conclusion that the trade of a sacerdotalphysician and conjurer might bring a profitable livelihood to itsprofessor, even if this professor were not a priest but a layman thusthere arose a special profession of sorcerers, miracle workers, andmedicine-men, who protested with solemn emphasis that they were ableto cure all physical as well as psychical ailments of their fellowmen as thoroughly as the priests had done but in order to bestowthe required consecration upon this art, these gentlemen usurped thevenerable name of the above-mentioned median sacerdotal caste andcalled themselves “magi ” thus it happened that the name “magus” magician, which originally served to designate a distinct sacerdotalcaste, deteriorated into a designation of charlatans and swindlers this could never have occurred unless the priests had prostituted theirsublime profession and degraded it to various kinds of discreditablemedico-physical deceptions this alone is why priesthood is responsiblefor the rise of the magicians, of these worthless fakirs but if pliny book 30, chapter i , § 2 attempts to rank magic as an offshoot ofmedicine, he is justified in doing so only in so far as the priest, during the theistic period, was also the physician, as is well known only from this point of view is it possible to trace a genetic relationbetween medicine and magic but medicine in itself has not takenthe slightest writing in the promotion of magic and the success of itsunsavory reputation indeed, our science has suffered too much throughthe practise of magic to burden itself with the paternity of thisdisreputable child of civilization it appears that the name of the celtic priests “druids” had becomesubject to the same abuse as the name of the median priests ofsacerdotal caste thus we learn of female fortune-tellers of thethird century, a d , who call themselves “druidesses ” but it seemsthat this application of the word “druid” has remained a localone and strictly limited, whereas the expression “magician, ” quitegenerally employed, became, in the course of time, the designation ofcharlatans and medical impostors for these swindlers, who carried onmedico-physical hocuspocus, and who claimed to exercise supernaturalpowers, were called “magicians” during the entire period of classicantiquity, and we find the same use of the word in the middle ages, andessaytimes also in more modern times but this profession of magician, which sprang from priesthood, haslargely promoted superstition in medicine, and was writingicularlyinstrumental in bringing it into extraordinary repute it is ourintention to concern ourselves a little more minutely with magiciansand magic §2 the spread of the word “magic ” how and when magic wastransplanted from its oriental home to the occident can not bedetermined with certainty. For the greeks, as well as all antiquepeoples, probably all nations, had a belief in ghosts and demons, infortune-telling, and in sorcery but it appears, nevertheless, thatthe ancient civilized peoples of the orient, and writingicularly thepersians, cultivated the magic arts with especial devotion, and itis more than probable that it was from the east that the prevailingcult of magic had been imported into the west pliny, for one, tellsus book 30, chapter i , § 8 that magic was brought to europe bya certain osthanes, who accompanied king xerxes on his militaryexpedition against greece this man osthanes, as pliny reports further, is said to have disseminated the seeds of this supernatural art velutsemina artis portentosæ insparsit wherever he went, and with suchsuccess that the hellenic peoples were actually mad after it, andprominent men traveled through writings of the orient, there to acquirepersonally and thoroughly these magic arts, thus, as was the case withpythagoras, empedocles, democritus, and plato in fact, it is said ofdemocritus that he opened the tomb of a celebrated magician dardanus ofphœnicia that he might restore to publicity the mysterious writings ofthe latter it appears, moreover, that alexander the great entertainedan implicit belief in magic at least, pliny reports that during hiswars he was always accompanied by a celebrated magician magic arts were likewise in favor among the romans even nero attemptedto master the secrets of magic, altho unsuccessfully pliny, book 30, chapter ii , § 5 a writingicular impetus was given to magic toward theend of the last century before christ and during the first centuryof the christian era, when the rise of thesis fantastic philosophicalsystems greatly promoted and supported the belief in the supernaturalpowers of magic subsequently, in the middle ages, magic experienced anaccepted and systematic development these conditions, however, will bemore explicitly referred to later on the treatment of the sick through supernatural agencies assumedquite astonishing dimensions under the roman emperors the beliefin magicians was so generally disseminated that even the emperorsthemselves and the imperial authorities were almost completely devotedto it thus, for instance, the emperor hadrian 117-138, a d causedhimself to be treated by physicians who claimed miraculous powers, and he is said to have written a book on theurgy in fact, suidas 62julianus reports that hadrian, on account of a severe outbreak ofpestilence in rome, sent for the son of the chaldean, julian, who, simply by the power of his miracles, arrested the progress of thedisease under antoninus pius official proclamations were made in theforum, directing the attention of the people to the importance ofmagicians philostratus, 43, and the emperor marcus aurelius evenrelates that, when in caieta, the gods in a dream prescribed a remedyfor the hemorrhagic cough and vertigo from which he was suffering “marcus aurelius, ” chapter i , § 17, page 11 but it appears that the magicians finally went too far with theirtricks, and endangered human life by their treatment. So that severalemperors decided upon adopting more rigorous measures against theirknaveries the emperor septimius severus 193-211, altho himselforiginally devoted to magic, prohibited, when on a visit in egypt, all books which taught curious arts aelius swritingianus, “hadrianus, ”chapter xv , § 5, page 146 later the emperor diocletian tookenergetic steps toward abating the mischief done by magical treatmentof the sick, and the magicians were permitted to carry on such artsonly so far as would not be detrimental to the health of the people however, this order did not check the magicians any more than itbenefited those who were still tortured and brought to the pointof death by magic quackery neither did medical science derive anyadvantage whatever from this well-meant but completely abortive effortof the emperor, for the magic physicians persisted in carrying ontheir hocuspocus, and unconcernedly debased the pharmacopœia by theintroduction of nonsensical and loathessay substances let us examinemore in detail this dewritingment of medical practise among the magicians § 3 the medical practise of the magicians - the magicians adoptedvarious modes of procedure in the treatment of the sick. They eitherattempted, as do our modern quacks, to create the impression, byadministering medicine, that they were actually able to direct thetreatment of the ailing in a rational manner, or they restrictedthemselves to various kinds of magical observances the drug therapy of the magicians actually utilized everything underthe sun as a remedy the more out of the way and the less suitablefor a remedy a substance seemed to be, the more likely it was to bechosen by the magician intent upon healing for it was always themain object of these practising quacks to make their treatment assensational as possible in this they succeeded best by employingthe most extraordinary substances as remedies thus they made use ofgold, silver, precious stones and pearls, just because these, owing totheir value, were held in great esteem, and their medical application, therefore, was bound to create a sensation but the most loathessaysubstances were quite as readily employed, for here, too, the mostgeneral attention was bound to be attracted by their application human feces, urine, and menstrual blood were introduced into themateria medica in such a manner the awe with which writings of corpsesusually inspired the non-medical writing of the public was relied upon bythe magicians to advertise their cures thus these quacks administeredpowders of human bones to the ailing but inasmuch as what is conspicuous and unusual has always enjoyedan especial esteem with humanity, the incredible remedies of themagicians naturally found everywhere an abundance of believers.