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Outwardly it helpsthe shingles, st anthony fire, and other hot inflammations soldanella bindweed, hot and dry in the second degree, it opensobstructions of the liver, and purges watery humours, and is thereforevery profitable in dropsies, it is very hurtful to the stomach, and therefore if taken inwardly it had need be well corrected withcinnamon, ginger, or annis-seed, &c sonchus levis asper sow-thistles smooth and rough, they are of acold, watery, yet binding quality, good for frenzies, they increasemilk in nurses, and cause the children which they nurse to have a goodcolour, help gnawings of the stomach coming of a hot cause. Outwardlythey help inflammations, and hot swellings, cool the heat of thefundament and privities sophi chirurgorum fluxweed. Drying without any manifest heat orcoldness.

A reply to the above questions and any other information in regardto silvol will receive careful consideration -- from the journala m a , july 13, 1918 katharmon report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfollowing inquiries, the council took up “katharmon” for considerationand authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the katharmon chemical company of st louis in advertising itskatharmon appeals especially to a profession whose members, shouldthey live up to their ethical code, could not prescribe it 124 in1893 when the publication of “a formula” for proprietary preparationswas thought to satisfy the requirements of scientific medicine anadvertisement in the journal of the american medical association gavethe following “formula” for katharmon:124 “ it is equally unethical to prescribe or dispense secretmedicines or other secret remedial agents, ” sec 6, art i, chapterii, principles of medical ethics “hydrastis canadensis, phytolacca decandra, acid salicylous c p from oil of wintergreen, acid boric c p , mentha arvensis, thymus vulgaris, dist ext hamamelis virg conc ”in 1907 an advertisement in the kansas city medical index-lancetdeclared that. “katharmon represents in chemical combination the active principles of hydrastis canadensis, gaultheria procumbens, hamamelis virginica, phytolacca decandra, mentha arvensis, thymus vulgaris, with two grains c p boric acid to each fluid drachm ”now the advertisements which appear in essay medical journals state. “katharmon represents in combination hydrastis canadensis, thymus vulgaris, mentha arvensis, phytolacca decandra, 10-1/2 grains acid borosalicylic, 24 grains sodium pyroborate to each fluid ounce of pure distilled extract of witch hazel ”a comparison of these so-called formulas shows that they have not onlyvaried from time to time, but that in no instance was a quantitativestatement with regard to all the asserted ingredients given the chemical laboratory of the a m a reports. Katharmon has analkaline reaction and therefore cannot contain boric acid, salicylicacid or “borosalicylic acid” the latter is unknown to medicalliterature except as loosely applied to a simple mixture of boric andsalicylic acids the solution gives tests for sodium, borate, andsalicylate and therefore probably contains sodium borate and sodiumsalicylate examined by the methods used for the determination ofhydrastin in goldenseal preparations, a residue giving only a fainttest for alkaloid was obtained. If present at all, hydrastis canadensis goldenseal is there only in very small amounts a circular wrapped with the trade package of katharmon contained thefollowing, palpably unwarranted, claims. “internally it is very useful in acute indigestion, gastric catarrh, diarrhoea and cholera infantum ” “ it has demonstrated its remarkable curative effects, not only in preventing unhealthy conditions of fresh wounds, but also in correcting the decaying of putrefactive processes peculiar to the body under certain circumstances it has, further, a remarkable efficacy in surface inflammations, whether produced by accident or disease, and is an indispensable remedy in the affections of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, stomach, bowels, vagina, uterus, urethra, bladder and rectum ”katharmon is in conflict with rules 1 and 4 of the council on pharmacyand chemistry because of its indefinite and secret composition andthe method of advertising it indirectly to the public. It is inconflict with rules 10, 6 and 8, in that it is an irrational shotgunmixture sold under unwarranted therapeutic claims and under a namenondescriptive of its composition -- from the journal a m a , aug 10, 1918 iodinized emulsion scott and creosotonic scott report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry“iodinized emulsion scott” and “creosotonic scott” are proprietarypreparations of the dawson pharmacal company, dawson springs, ky thelatter preparation used to be known as “iodinized emulsion scott withhypophosphites, guaiacol and creosote ” in 1907 these preparations wereconsidered by the council and found inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies examination of the preparations having been again requested, the council considered them anew because the composition and claimshad been changed essaywhat and because at the previous consideration noreport was published the reports which appear below were sent to the dawson pharmacalcompany for comment before publication in reply the company offered torevise its claims for the preparations the council replied that thereport sent explained that both preparations are irrational mixtures, and hence a revision of the claims would not make them eligible for newand nonofficial remedies it advised that publication of the reportwould be withheld sixty days and that it would be revised if newinformation or evidence was submitted permitting such revision afterexpiration of the stipulated postponement, the dawson pharmacal companywrote that no new advertising matter had been prepared, but that theold circulars were not being sent out as these irrational preparations were still sold and advertised to themedical profession and presumably used by essay physicians, the councildirected publication of its report with this explanation w a puckner, secretary iodinized emulsion scottthe label for iodinized emulsion scott declares. “each fluidram contains. Alcohol, m 4-3/4. Rectified ol of turpentine, m 3-1/2. Iodin, gr 1/8. Phenol, gr 1/2.

“firwein is prepared from the inside fresh green bark of the assignment help website review fir tree ”the label on the product reads. “firwein is pleasantly and effectively blended with salts of iodin and bromin, held in solution with 20 per cent alcohol ”the therapeutic claims made for firwein and the mystery enshroudingits composition make it obvious that the product is intended to appealto those who are either thoughtless or ignorant this is emphasized bythe suggestion that firwein be combined with 1 cod liver oil underthe claim that it will “promote the efficiency of the oil”, with 2whisky for the treatment of bronchorrhea of the aged, and with 3syrup of hypophosphites for the treatment of persistent bronchitis as the composition of firwein is secret, the therapeutic claimsunwarranted, and its use irrational, the council declared itinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies -- from journal a m a , feb 17, 1917 firolyptol plain and firolyptol with kreosote report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfirolyptol, another product of the tilden company, is, we are told, composed of eucalyptol 10 drops, cottonseed oil 1/2 ounce and firweinenough to make 1 ounce as the composition of firwein is secret, itis evident that the composition of firolyptol is also unknown, exceptto the manufacturers “firolyptol with kreosote” is said to contain, in addition to whatever may be the component writings of firolyptol, 10 minims of creosote to each ounce according to an advertisement, firolyptol with kreosote is “antituberculous, antistrumous” and“contains all the desired features of cod liver oil and is readilyassimilated ”the advertisements of “firolyptol plain” and “firolyptol with kreosote”seem to have for their key-note the assertion that cottonseed oilis a writingicularly valuable nutriment and that when combined withconstituents of firolyptol and firolyptol with kreosote becomeswritingicularly valuable to the tuberculous to quote from an advertisingcircular. “now that the reconstructive properties of cottonseed oil are better appreciated by the profession, the advantages that follow the administration of a palatable emulsion of this strengthening and fattening food product are being demonstrated in hundreds of paper where formerly reliance would have been placed in cod liver oil a recent writer says that pure cottonseed oil is the greatest and purest vegetable oil known to chemistry, and will do much toward revolutionizing the treatment of the great white plague if the treatment of tuberculosis could resolve itself into the administration of a fatty substance in a readily assimilated form, there would be no need for any writing of firolyptol but the cottonseed oil the toxic material constantly produced in the system by the germs of tuberculosis tend to expose it more and more to the ravages of the disease, and the physiologic functions of the body suffer a constant depression to neutralize this germ activity with a consequent production of toxins it seems most logical to employ such agents as have demonstrated their suitability for such purposes, for which reason eucalyptol and kreosote with firwein are incorporated in firolyptol ”the assertion that cottonseed oil is an especially valuable formof fat is without warrant, but even if it were true the fat isavailable in cheap and palatable forms in numerous other cottonseedoil products it is unnecessary to discuss the problematic value ofcreosote in the treatment of tuberculosis or the value of eucalyptol now generally abandoned, or even of the secret mixture firwein food and fresh air, not drugs, constitute the fundamentals of thetreatment of tuberculosis, and it is both irrational and detrimental tothe interests of the tuberculous to administer various potent agentsin fixed and unknown amounts with such simple articles of food ascottonseed oil neither of these products is acceptable for new andnonofficial remedies editorial note -- firwein110 has been advertised to physiciansfor twenty-five or thirty years and it is a sad commentary on theintelligence of our profession that a preparation sold under suchobviously false and misleading, not to say silly, claims, should stillbe in existence firwein is claimed to “prevent waste of tissue” intuberculosis if it had this power, it would have found its placelong ago among the few great agents in drug therapy as a matter offact, firwein has gained virtually no recognition outside of the“literature” of the tilden concern the claims made for firwein are apeculiar mixture of studied candor-- when the truth is not likely tohurt its sale-- and inane vaporing-- when the facts would not redound toits credit the tilden company declares that “firwein stands withouta peer in its class ” but the company adds 10 drops of eucalyptol andessay cottonseed oil to this peerless product and an improvement isborn-- “firolyptol”!. then, to perfect the already perfectly perfected, 10 drops of creosote are added to “firolyptol” and the profession isoffered “firolyptol with kreosote”!. in just what verbal pyrotechnicsthe tilden company might indulge, should it decide to add ten dropsof essaything else to “firolyptol with kreosote, ” one shudders tocontemplate 110 three other tilden products have been the subject of deservedand unfavorable comment in the j a m a. “narkine” in the issue ofoct 24, 1908, “hydrocyanate of iron-tilden” in the issue of june 19, 1909, and “febrisol, ” in the issue of june 29, 1912 the first twoarticles are reprinted in the latest 9th edition of “the propagandafor reform ”if we are accused of exhibiting undue levity in discussing atherapeutic problem, we can only answer that it is impossible toconsider seriously the charlie chaplins of the nostrum world -- fromthe journal a m a , feb 17, 1917 biniodol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin accordance with the usages of the council, the report whichappears below along with the reports of the clinical investigationby drs cole and keidel upon which the recommendations of thereferee were based were sent to the manufacturer for comment thereply of the manufacturer contained no evidence which justified thecouncil in modifying the action already taken publication of thereport was therefore authorized w a puckner, secretary biniodol was submitted to the council by the manufacturer, charles c yarbrough, memphis, tenn the manufacturer claims the product is asolution of 1 per cent of red mercuric iodid and 2 75 per cent ofguaiacol in bland vegetable oil it is marketed with the implicationthat it is new and superior to other oil solutions of mercuric iodid for instance. “ it is a straight solution of this mercurial compound, as no alkaline iodide or other chemical is used to bring about the solution ” “ it is probably the first and only one-percent oil solution of straight mercury biniodide made in america ” the manufacturer, in a letter addressed to the secretary of the council, explains. “by straight solution, i mean that the solution of the red mercuric iodid is effected without the aid of any alkaline iodid or other chemicals biniodol was first offered early in 1912 ” “biniodol is, therefore, superior and much to be preferred to other mercurials used for like purposes it is highly active therapeutically, producing the desired effects, usually without the inevitable disadvantages of other mercurials it rarely causes salivation, diarrhea, or other symptoms of mercurial intolerance, even when pushed to full therapeutic effect and when given for a considerable period of time nor does it produce anemia ”the chemical laboratory of the american medical association found thatbiniodol contained 1 per cent of mercuric iodid and 2 5 per cent of guaiacol.

“because of the greatly increased potency of mercury and iodine when combined, as in pil mixed treatment chichester, the foremost syphilologists are now agreed that the employment of these assignment help website review drugs in such form should be enjoined as soon as the disease develops, and should be thus continued until a cure has been effected. In other words, pil mixed treatment chichester should be made the sole antisyphilitic medication throughout all stages of the disease ”the circular illustrates the extent to which our knowledge of drugs maybe distorted and misrepresented and the public health jeopardized inthe exploitation of a proprietary medicine illustration. One reason scientific medicine lags uncritical medicaljournals perpetuate-- for a price-- the use of nostrums proprietary claimsin its advertising, the hillside chemical co claims that pil mixed treatment chichester both as to formula and method ofpreparation “in the incapsulated powder form” was “brought to thenotice of the profession by dr w r chichester of new york, aneminent syphilographer and recognized authority in the therapeuticsof syphilis ” it is claimed that this pill “is perfectly soluble, tasteless, nonirritant, and therefore well adapted to a sensitivestomach ” it is claimed that the pill “is always preferable to oneextemporaneously prepared, which, even if identical in composition, often gives negative results ”an examination made in the chemical laboratory of the association todetermine if the product now marketed contains the claimed amount ofpotassium iodid indicated that this was the case the chemist who madethis examination commented as follows on the claim that in this pill, potassium iodid is rendered tasteless, that the pill is “perfectlysoluble” and that extemporaneous pills of “identical compositionoften give negative results ”“that the potassium iodid has been rendered tasteless is false, naturally. The pills when placed in the mouth, after removal of thecoating, have the characteristic taste of alkali iodids the claimthat the pills are entirely soluble is incorrect. They contain a largeamount of insoluble material, probably kaolin the assertion that anextemporaneous compound prescription even if identical in compositionwith the chichester pill is often inert, is absurd and a reprehensibleattack by suggestion of the ideal that the physician shall write hisprescription to meet the individual needs of his patient and that thepharmacist shall compound the prescriptions of the physician as theyare required it should also be pointed out that while much is saidabout the potassium iodid in the chichester pill being in powderedform, the pill mass is solid and very slowly soluble and the claim ofbeing in powdered form is, if immaterial, also incorrect ”as to the asserted standing of the alleged discoverer of the formulafor pil mixed treatment. Dr william r chichester appears to havelived and practiced in new york since 1886 or longer, but the claimthat he is an “eminent syphilographer” seems to have originated withthe exploiters of “pil mixed treatment ” search failed to show thename of w r chichester among authors of textbooks of syphilis or anyother branch of medicine or among authors of contemporary literature inthe index medicus from 1907 down to the present. Nor did a search ofthe catalogue to the surgeon-general library reveal w r chichesteras ever having published anything on syphilis or any other subject pil mixed treatment chichester is sold under therapeutic claimswhich are unwarranted and misleading the preparation well illustratesthe abuses which are connected with the exploitation as proprietariesof established drugs or mixtures of established drugs -- from thejournal a m a , oct 22, 1921 atophan omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportexplaining why atophan has been omitted from new and nonofficialremedies schering and glatz, inc , the firm which markets thisbrand of cinchophen in the united states, has refused to placeeither the u s pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” or the n n r name, “cinchophen, ” on the labeland in the advertising matter so as to make the identity of the productclear to physicians furthermore, the product is sold under therapeuticclaims which the council holds to be exaggerated and unwarranted w a puckner, secretary commercial history of cinchophenthe substance, 2-phenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid, was described bydoebner and gieseke in 1887 ann d chem liebig 242:291 thetherapeutic properties of this compound were described by nicolaier anddohrn in 1908 deutsch arch f klin med 93:331 subsequentlythe product was placed on the market and extensively advertised by thechemische fabrik auf actien vorm e schering, berlin, gerthesis thisfirm also took out a patent in the united states on its productionand in 1911 secured a u s trademark on the name “atophan ” in1912 atophan was passed on by the council and admitted to new andnonofficial remedies when the government of the united states took charge of german-ownedpatents during the world war, the federal trade commission, andlater the chemical foundation, inc , issued licenses to americanfirms whereby these were authorized to manufacture the compound in the meantime, schering and glatz, inc , who had been the u s representatives for the chemische fabrik auf actien, also undertook tosupply the drug, but did not obtain a license from the boards in chargeof german patents also, this firm secured, in 1919, a trademark of theword “atophan, ” apparently after the german-owned trademark had beencanceled the drug “atophan” was admitted to the u s pharmacopeia as“phenylcinchoninic acid acidum phenylcinchoninicum ” as this nameproved too cumberessay, the council on pharmacy and chemistry coined theabbreviated name “cinchophen” for it, and this name is now used by allthe firms which are marketing the product in the united states, withthe exception of schering and glatz, inc , who use the term “atophan, ”first owned by the chemische fabrik auf actien atophan, a brand of cinchophenbecause of the confusion which is bound to arise from giving variousnames to one drug, the council selects a common name and providesstandards of identity, purity and strength for any drug which, byreason of the absence or lapse of patent rights or for other reason, is open to manufacture by more than one firm the council, then, willaccept such article only if it is marketed under the title adoptedfor new and nonofficial remedies the rules provide, however, thatwhen the council adopts a common name for an article that has beenadmitted under another name, such article will be retained in new andnonofficial remedies under the older name if the council name is givenprominence on the label and in the circulars and advertisements, inorder to avoid confusion accordingly, when the period of acceptancefor atophan in new and nonofficial remedies was about to expire, schering and glatz were notified that atophan could be retained inthat publication only on condition that the name, “cinchophen, ”or else the pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” be placed on the label and used in the circularsand advertising unwarranted therapeutic claims for atophanat the time that the council asked schering and glatz to adoptcinchophen or phenylcinchoninic acid as a synonym for atophan, thefirm was also requested to omit from future advertising a number oftherapeutic claims to which the council was obliged to take exception schering and glatz refused the first request and made no definitepromise with regard to the second the council, therefore, directed theomission of atophan from new and nonofficial remedies, 1921 the advertising to which the council took exception does not appear tobe distributed at present a pamphlet has been sent out, however, whichis equally objectionable it contains unwarranted therapeutic claimsand suggests that atophan be used in conditions in which it is notindicated for instance. “no longer the vague, hypothetical, ‘test-tube demonstrated’ principle of uric acid elimination by solution, but a definite, scientifically and clinically established, physiologic stimulation of the uric acid excretion performed innocuously and controllable to a nicety by dosage and by urine and blood tests ”the “innocuousness” of atophan has not been proved. On the otherhand there is evidence that it is not innocuous, as the recentinvestigations of hanzlik and scott and their collaborators cinchophen, neocinchophen and novaspirin in rheumatic fever, j a m a 76. 1728 june 18 1921 show that it may injure thekidney the circular also contains the following.

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The whole being explained on the suppositionthat it was made by a pruning-knife but it is in punctured wounds especially that we are enabled mostoften and most accurately to determine the kind of a weapon used here from the form of the wound we may judge of the form and size ofthe weapon in speaking of punctured wounds in a former section wedivided them into four groups, reference to which may here be made inthe first group, or those caused by cylindrical or conical weapons, when the weapon is very fine it may leave no track at all. If a littlelarger, we may infer from a linear bloody track that the weapon wasneedle-like in shape the length of the instrument or the depth towhich it penetrated may be found, as a rule, only by dissection if theweapon were larger and conical, we have seen that the wounds would belinear with two angles, the length of the wound being parallel to thedirection of the fibres in the skin here we may judge of the form of the weapon from the followingcircumstances. From a comparison of the depth with the size of theopening, we know that it was a punctured wound the edges and anglesare not smooth and even enough for a stab-wound with a knife, for theedges are torn and not cut, and a stab-wound would be the only form ofwound with which we would be likely to confuse it furthermore, thedirection of the long axis of the wound parallel to that of the skinfibres in the region in which it occurs and the very slight retractionof the edges distinguish it from a stab-wound by these signs we canalmost always distinguish such wounds from stab-wounds, and thus tellthe form of the weapon used as to the size of weapon used, thesewounds if of any size are generally smaller than the weapon, for theskin is put on the stretch by the weapon and yields to a certainextent the actual wound, therefore, is smaller in circumference thanthe weapon the size of the wound is smaller than that writing of theweapon occupying the wound when the weapon was arrested.