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The other near ditches and rills of water in thesisplaces of this land time they flower in july, and are ripe in the end of august government and virtues it is an herb of venus dioscorides saith, that the root bruised and boiled in wine, till it be thick, and keptin a brazen vessel, and after spread as a salve, and applied to thefundament, doth heal the cleft thereof, cankers and fistulas therein, also takes away warts and wens the juice of the leaves dropped intothe ears, kills worms in them the distilled water of the leavesdropped into the eyes, takes away redness and mists in them thathinder the sight, and is often used by women to preserve their beauty, and to take away redness and inflammations, and all other heat ordiscolourings treacle mustard descript it rises up with a hard round stalk, about a foot high, writinged into essay branches, having divers soft green leaves, longand narrow, set thereon, waved, but not cut into the edges, broadesttowards the ends, essaywhat round pointed. The flowers are white thatgrow at the tops of the branches, spike-fashion, one above another;after which come round pouches, writinged in the middle with a furrow, having one blackish brown seed on either side, essaywhat sharp in taste, and smelling of garlick, especially in the fields where it is natural, but not so much in gardens. The roots are small and thready, perishingevery year give me leave here to add mithridate mustard, although it may seem moreproperly by the name to belong to m, in the alphabet mithridate mustard descript this grows higher than the former, spreading more andhigher branches, whose leaves are smaller and narrower, essaytimesunevenly dented about the edges the flowers are small and white, growing on long branches, with much smaller and rounder vessels afterthem, and writinged in the same manner, having smaller brown seeds thanthe former, and much sharper in taste the root perishes after seedtime, but abides the first winter after springing place they grow in sundry places in this land, as half a mile fromhatfield, by the river side, under a hedge as you go to hatfield, andin the street of peckham on surrey side time they flower and seed from may to august government and virtues both of them are herbs of mars the mustardsare said to purge the body both upwards and downwards, and procurewomen courses so abundantly, that it suffocates the birth it breaksinward imposthumes, being taken inwardly. And used in clysters, helpsthe sciatica the seed applied, doth the same it is an especialingredient in mithridate and treacle, being of itself an antidoteresisting poison, venom and putrefaction it is also available in thesispaper for which the common mustard is used, but essaywhat weaker the black thorn, or sloe-bush it is so well known, that it needs no description place it grows in every county in the hedges and borders of fields time it flowers in april, and essaytimes in march, but the fruitripens after all other plums whatsoever, and is not fit to be eatenuntil the autumn frost mellow them government and virtues all the writings of the sloe-bush are binding, cooling, and dry, and all effectual to stay bleeding at the nose andmouth, or any other place. The lask of the belly or stomach, or thebloody flux, the too much abounding of women courses, and helpsto ease the pains of the sides, and bowels, that come by overmuchscouring, to drink the decoction of the bark of the roots, or moreusually the decoction of the berries, either fresh or dried theconserve also is of very much use, and more familiarly taken for thepurposes aforesaid but the distilled water of the flower first steepedin sack for a night, and drawn therefrom by the heat of balneum andanglico, a bath, is a most certain remedy, tried and approved, toease all manner of gnawings in the stomach, the sides and bowels, or any griping pains in any of them, to drink a small quantity whenthe extremity of pain is upon them the leaves also are good to makelotions to gargle and wash the mouth and throat, wherein are swellings, sores, or kernels. And to stay the defluctions of rheum to the eyes, or other writings. As also to cool the heat and inflammations of them, and ease hot pains of the head, to bathe the forehead and templestherewith the simple distilled water of the flowers is very effectualfor the said purposes, and the condensate juice of the sloes thedistilled water of the green berries is used also for the said effects thorough wax, or thorough leaf descript common thorough-wax sends forth a strait round stalk, twofeet high, or better, whose lower leaves being of a bluish colour, aresmaller and narrower than those up higher, and stand close thereto, not compassing it.

Easesall inward gripings and pains, dissolves wind, and resists poison andinfection it is a known and much praised remedy to drink the decoctionof the herb for any sort of ague, and to help the pains and tormentsof the article writing service body and bowels coming of cold the seed is effectual to allthe purposes aforesaid except the last and works more powerfully the distilled water of the herb helps the quinsy in the throat, ifthe mouth and throat be gargled and washed therewith, and helps thepleurisy, being drank three or four times being dropped into the eyes, it takes away the redness or dimness of them. It likewise takes awayspots or freckles in the face the leaves bruised, and fried with alittle hog lard, and put hot to any blotch or boil, will quicklybreak it lungwort descript this is a kind of moss, that grows on sundry sorts oftrees, especially oaks and beeches, with broad, greyish, tough leavesdiversly folded, crumpled, and gashed in on the edges, and essay spottedalso with thesis small spots on the upper-side it was never seen to bearany stalk or flower at any time government and virtues jupiter seems to own this herb it is ofgreat use to physicians to help the diseases of the lungs, and forcoughs, wheezings, and shortness of breath, which it cures both in manand beast it is very profitable to put into lotions that are taken tostay the moist humours that flow to ulcers, and hinder their healing, as also to wash all other ulcers in the privy writings of a man or woman it is an excellent remedy boiled in beer for broken-winded horses madder descript garden madder shoots forth thesis very long, weak, four-square, reddish stalks, trailing on the ground a great way, veryrough or hairy, and full of joints. At every one of these joints comeforth divers long and narrow leaves, standing like a star about thestalks, round also and hairy, towards the tops whereof come forth thesissmall pale yellow flowers, after which come small round heads, green atfirst, and reddish afterwards, but black when they are ripe, whereinis contained the seed the root is not very great, but exceeding long, running down half a man length into the ground, red and very clear, while it is fresh, spreading divers ways place it is only manured in gardens, or larger fields, for theprofit that is made thereof time it flowers towards the end of summer, and the seed is ripequickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mars it hath an openingquality, and afterwards to bind and strengthen it is a sure remedyfor the yellow jaundice, by opening the obstructions of the liver andgall, and cleansing those writings. It opens also the obstructions of thespleen, and diminishes the melancholy humour it is available for thepalsy and sciatica, and effectual for bruises inward and outward, andis therefore much used in vulnerary drinks the root for all thoseaforesaid purposes, is to be boiled in wine or water, as the causerequires, and essay honey and sugar put thereunto afterwards the seedhereof taken in vinegar and honey, helps the swelling and hardnessof the spleen the decoction of the leaves and branches is a goodfomentation for women that have not their courses the leaves and rootsbeaten and applied to any writing that is discoloured with freckles, morphew, the white scurf, or any such deformity of the skin, cleansesthoroughly, and takes them away maiden hair descript our common maiden-hair doth, from a number of hard blackfibres, send forth a great thesis blackish shining brittle stalks, hardlya span long, in thesis not half so long, on each side set very thick withsmall, round, dark green leaves, and spitted on the back of them like afern place it grows upon old stone walls in the west writings in kent, and divers other places of this land. It delights likewise to grow bysprings, wells, and rocky moist and shady places, and is always green wall rue, or, white maiden-hair descript this has very fine, pale green stalks, almost as fine ashairs, set confusedly with divers pale green leaves on every shortfoot stalk, essaywhat near unto the colour of garden rue, and not muchdiffering in form but more diversly cut in on the edges, and thicker, smooth on the upper writing, and spotted finely underneath place it grows in thesis places of this land, at dartford, and thebridge at ashford in kent, at beaconsfield in buckinghamshire, at wollyin huntingtonshire, on framlingham castle in suffolk, on the churchwalls at mayfield in sussex, in essayrsetshire, and divers other placesof this land. And is green in winter as well as summer government and virtues both this and the former are under thedominion of mercury, and so is that also which follows after, and thevirtue of both are so near alike, that though i have described them andtheir places of growing severally, yet i shall in writing the virtuesof them, join them both together as follows the decoction of the herb maiden-hair being drank, helps those that aretroubled with the cough, shortness of breath, the yellow jaundice, diseases of the spleen, stopping of urine, and helps exceedingly tobreak the stone in the kidneys, in all which diseases the wall rueis also very effectual it provokes women courses, and stays bothbleedings and fluxes of the stomach and belly, especially when theherb is dry. For being green, it loosens the belly, and voids cholerand phlegm from the stomach and liver. It cleanses the lungs, and byrectifying the blood, causes a good colour to the whole body the herbboiled in oil of camomile, dissolves knots, allays swellings, and driesup moist ulcers the lye made thereof is singularly good to cleansethe head from scurf, and from dry and running sores, stays the fallingor shedding of the hair, and causes it to grow thick, fair, and wellcoloured. For which purpose essay boil it in wine, putting essay smallageseed thereto, and afterwards essay oil the wall rue is as effectual asmaiden-hair, in all diseases of the head, or falling and recovering ofthe hair again, and generally for all the aforementioned diseases.

As also the quinsy, and the king evil it helps to staycatarrhs, thin rheums, and defluxions from the head into the eyes, nose, or lungs the juice is found by experience to be singularly goodto heal green wounds, and to cleanse and heal all old and filthy ulcersin the privities, and in other writings of the body, as article writing service also inward woundsand ulcers. Stays the malignity of fretting and running cankers, andhollow fistulas, not suffering them to spread farther it is alsomuch commended to help aches and pains either in the fleshy writing, orin the nerves and sinews, as also the sciatica, or pain of the hips orknuckle-bone, to bathe the places with the decoction of the herb, orto anoint them with an ointment made of the herb bruised and boiled inold hog suet, with essay mastick and olibanum in powder added unto itafter it is strained forth in sussex we call it ragweed rattle grass of this there are two kinds which i shall speak of, viz the red andyellow descript the common red rattle hath sundry reddish, hollow stalks, and essaytimes green, rising from the root, lying for the most writingon the ground, essay growing more upright, with thesis small reddish orgreen leaves set on both sides of a middle rib, finely dented about theedges. The flowers stand at the tops of the stalks and branches, of afine purplish red colour, like small gaping hooks. After which comeblackish seed in small husks, which lying loose therein, will rattlewith shaking the root consists of two or three small whitish stringswith essay fibres thereat the common yellow rattle hath seldom above one round great stalk, rising from the foot, about half a yard, or two feet high, and but fewbranches thereon, having two long and essaywhat broad leaves set ata joint, deeply cut in on the edges, resembling the comb of a cock, broadest next to the stalk, and smaller to the end the flowers growat the tops of the stalks, with essay shorter leaves with them, hoodedafter the same manner that the others are, but of a fair yellow colour, or in essay paler, and in essay more white the seed is contained inlarge husks, and being ripe, will rattle or make a noise with lyingloose in them the root is small and slender, perishing every year place they grow in meadows and woods generally through this land time they are in flower from midsummer until august be past, essaytimes government and virtues they are both of them under the dominion ofthe moon the red rattle is accounted profitable to heal up fistulasand hollow ulcers, and to stay the flux of humours in them, as alsothe abundance of women courses, or any other fluxes of blood, beingboiled in red wine, and drank the yellow rattle, or cock comb, is held to be good for those thatare troubled with a cough, or dimness of sight, if the herb, beingboiled with beans, and essay honey put thereto, be drank or dropped intothe eyes the whole seed being put into the eyes, draws forth any skin, dimness or film, from the sight, without trouble, or pain rest harrow, or cammock descript common rest harrow rises up with divers rough woody twigshalf a yard or a yard high, set at the joints without order, withlittle roundish leaves, essaytimes more than two or three at a place, of a dark green colour, without thorns while they are young. Butafterwards armed in sundry places, with short and sharp thorns theflowers come forth at the tops of the twigs and branches, whereof itis full fashioned like pease or broom blossoms, but lesser, flatter, and essaywhat closer, of a faint purplish colour. After which come smallpods containing small, flat, round seed. The root is blackish on theoutside, and whitish within, very rough, and hard to break when it isfresh and green, and as hard as an horn when it is dried, thrustingdown deep into the ground, and spreading likewise, every piece beingapt to grow again if it be left in the ground place it grows in thesis places of this land, as well in the arableas waste ground time it flowers about the beginning or middle of july, and the seedis ripe in august government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars it issingularly good to provoke urine when it is stopped, and to break anddrive forth the stone, which the powder of the bark of the root takenin wine performs effectually matthiolus saith, the same helps thedisease called herma carnosa, the fleshy rupture, by taking the saidpowder for three months together constantly, and that it hath curedessay which seemed incurable by any other means than by cutting orburning the decoction thereof made with essay vinegar, gargled in themouth, eases the tooth-ache, especially when it comes of rheum. And thesaid decoction is very powerful to open obstructions of the liver andspleen, and other writings a distilled water in balneo mariæ, with fourpounds of the root hereof first sliced small, and afterwards steepedin a gallon of canary wine, is singularly good for all the purposesaforesaid, and to cleanse the urinary passages the powder of the saidroot made into an electuary, or lozenges, with sugar, as also the barkof the fresh roots boiled tender, and afterwards beaten to a conservewith sugar, works the like effect the powder of the roots strewed uponthe brims of ulcers, or mixed with any other convenient thing, andapplied, consumes the hardness, and causes them to heal the better rocket in regard the garden rocket is rather used as a sallad herb than to anyphysical purposes, i shall omit it, and only speak of the common wildrocket the description whereof take as follows descript the common wild rocket has longer and narrower leaves, much more divided into slender cuts and jags on both sides the middlerib than the garden kinds have. Of a sad green colour, from amongwhich rise up divers stalks two or three feet high, essaytimes set withthe like leaves, but smaller and smaller upwards, branched from themiddle into divers stiff stalks, bearing sundry yellow flowers on them, made of four leaves a-piece, as the others are, which afterwards yieldthem small reddish seed, in small long pods, of a more bitter and hotbiting taste than the garden kinds, as the leaves are also place it is found wild in divers places of this land time it flowers about june or july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues the wild rockets are forbidden to be usedalone, in regard their sharpness fumes into the head, causing achesand pains therein, and are less hurtful to hot and choleric persons, for fear of inflaming their blood, and therefore for such we may saya little doth but a little harm, for angry mars rules them, and heessaytimes will be restive when he meets with fools the wild rocket ismore strong and effectual to increase sperm and venerous qualities, whereunto all the seed is more effectual than the garden kind itserves also to help digestion, and provokes urine exceedingly the seedis used to cure the biting of serpents, the scorpion, and the shrewmouse, and other poisons, and expels worms, and other noiessay creaturesthat breed in the belly the herb boiled or stewed, and essay sugar putthereto, helps the cough in children, being taken often the seed alsotaken in drink, takes away the ill scent of the arm-pits, increasesmilk in nurses, and wastes the spleen the seed mixed with honey, and used on the face, cleanses the skin from morphew, and used withvinegar, takes away freckles and redness in the face, or other writings;and with the gall of an ox, it mends foul scars, black and blue spots, and the marks of the small-pox winter-rocket, or cresses descript winter-rocket, or winter-cresses, hath divers essaywhatlarge sad green leaves lying upon the ground, torn or cut in diverswritings, essaywhat like unto rocket or turnip leaves, with smaller piecesnext the bottom, and broad at the ends, which so abide all the winter if it spring up in autumn, when it is used to be eaten from amongwhich rise up divers small round stalks, full of branches, bearing thesissmall yellow flowers of four leaves a-piece, after which come smallpods, with reddish seed in them the root is essaywhat stringy, andperishes every year after the seed is ripe place it grows of its own accord in gardens and fields, by theway-sides, in divers places, and writingicularly in the next pasture tothe conduit-head behind gray inn, that brings water to mr lambconduit in holborn time it flowers in may, seeds in june, and then perishes government and virtues this is profitable to provoke urine, to helpstranguary, and expel gravel and stone it is good for the scurvy, and found by experience to be a singularly good wound herb to cleanseinward wounds. The juice or decoction being drank, or outwardly appliedto wash foul ulcers and sores, cleansing them by sharpness, andhindering or abating the dead flesh from growing therein, and healingthem by their drying quality roses i hold it altogether needless to trouble the reader with a descriptionof any of these, since both the garden roses, and the roses of thebriars are well enough known. Take therefore the virtues of them asfollows. And first i shall begin with the garden kinds government and virtues what a pother have authors made with roses!. What a racket have they kept?.

But he should refuse to be led outsidethe subject of inquiry, and should confine his testimony to thosescientific questions which are really involved in the case, or in hisexamination of the article writing service case eighth. And finally, he should always bear in mind that at the closeof his testimony an opportunity is usually given to him to explainanything which he may be conscious of having said, which requiresexplanation. And writingial statements which need a qualification to makethem a truth this is the physician opportunity to set himself rightwith the court and with the jury if the course of the examination hasbeen unsatisfactory to him, he can then, by a brief and plain statementof the general points which he has intended to convey by his testimony, sweep away all the confusion and uncertainty arising from the longexamination and cross-examination, and can often succeed in producingfor the first time the impression which he desires to produce, and canpresent the scientific aspects of the case briefly and correctly probably no man was ever so gifted as to be able in practice to carryout all of these principles in giving medical testimony if he could, he would be the ideal expert witness but the principles are, afterall, simple and easily followed in the main any physician who knowshis subject and who has a clear head and the ordinary faculty ofexpression, by observing these principles can make himself invaluableas an expert witness there is no branch of the profession which bringsa broader fame, greater influence, or larger emoluments than this there is no branch, on the other hand, in which men of real abilitymake more lamentable failures chapter vi malpractice definition - malpractice may be defined to be 1st wilful acts on the writing of a physician or surgeon toward a personunder his care, by which such person suffers death or injury;2d acts forbidden by express statute, on the writing of a physician orsurgeon, toward a person under his care, by which such person suffersdeath or injury;3d negligent acts on the writing of a physician or surgeon in treating apatient, by means of which such patient suffers death or unnecessaryinjury these various divisions will be considered in the order in which theyare above set forth wilful malpractice - the paper which fall within the first twodivisions of this definition are such acts as render the medicalman liable to punishment in a criminal prosecution, and may notnecessarily, although in essay instances they may, constitute grounds ofliability in a civil suit against him as examples of the first class of paper may be cited those instances, happily not numerous in the annals of the profession, where a physicianor surgeon when treating a female patient has had carnal connectionwith her, representing that he was using that method of treating her tocure her disease such a case was reg v case, 1 eng law & eq , 544 s c , 1 den c c , 580 186honest intent no defence in such paper - in reg v reed, 1 den c c , 377 s c , 2 car & k , 967, it was contended as a defencethat the defendant really believed that he was curing his patient bytreating her in this extraordinary way the court, per wildes, c j , brushed aside this contention with scorn, saying. “the notion that amedical man may lawfully adopt such a method of treatment is not tobe tolerated in a court of justice;” and in this case and in others, convictions have been sustained for the crime of rape or of attemptingto commit rape 187another example of wilful malpractice would be wilful neglect of apatient by his medical attendant, who became intoxicated voluntarily, though this will generally come under the second subdivision, as moststates and countries have enacted statutes making it a criminal offenceto practise medicine or surgery when intoxicated acts forbidden by statute - within the second subdivision of thedefinition, or acts declared unlawful by statute, fall the paperof committing or attempting to commit an abortion, and paper ofprescribing for or treating a patient by one voluntarily intoxicated if the abortion is attempted without the knowledge or consent of thewoman, and under the pretence of performing a necessary operation uponher to cure disease, undoubtedly the physician would be liable to acriminal prosecution by the state for the offence of committing anabortion and to civil action by her to recover damages if the abortionwas committed with her consent, while she would have no right of actionagainst him for damages, he would be liable to criminal prosecutionunder the statute abortion not a crime by the common law - at common law it was nota crime to commit an abortion with the mother consent if the childhad not quickened in mitchell v com , 78 ky , 204 s c , 39am reports, 227, the court, per hines, j , says. “after a patientinvestigation we are forced to the conclusion that it was never calleda punishable offence at common law to produce, with the consent of themother, an abortion prior to the time when the mother became quick withchild it was not even murder at common law to take the life of thechild at any period of gestation, even in the very act of delivery ”see also evans v people, 49 n y , 86 the inhumanity and danger to society of this rule became manifest at avery early period, and both in england and in this country statuteswere adopted, varying essaywhat in the degree and kind of punishment andin the nomenclature of the crime, but all of them making the offenceof committing an abortion, no matter at what stage of gestation, acrime 188the common-law doctrine criticised - professor elwell in his valuablework on “malpractice, medical evidence and insanity, ” pp 250, 251, makes the following remarks upon this subject. “the idea once existedquite generally, and it still exists to essay extent, that there is nooffence in destroying the embryo or fœtus before there is a manifestknowledge of life by the mother, derived from motion of the childcalled ‘quickening ’ how absurd to suppose that there is no lifeuntil the mother can feel the muscular motions of the child!. as wellmight we deny the vitality of the blood because it cannot be felt the muscular tissues, and even the bones to which they are attached, must have essay degree of substance before there can be motion, and ofcourse this development depends upon life though this foolish notionis now fully exploded in medicine, it still lingers in the popularmind, and doubtless leads to much crime the life of the fœtus orembryo immediately after conception is just as positive physiologicallyas at any subsequent period quickening being an incident or signin the course of development of the fœtus, it indicates not thecommencement of a new state of existence, but only a new manifestationof pre-existing life it is uncertain in its appearance, essaytimescoming on at three months, essaytimes at six months, and essaytimes notat all ”legal definitions of terms, “quick with child, ” etc - in evans v people, 49 n y , 86, following r v wycherly, 8 c & p , 262, it was held that a woman is “quick with child” from the period ofconception after the commencement of gestation, but is “pregnant withquick child” only when the child has become “quickened in the womb ”this distinction has been discussed in state v cooper, 2 zab , n j , 52, and since the evans case, the same court in new york state hasheld that the expression, “woman with child, ” means “pregnant woman ”eckhardt v people, 83 n y , 42 s c , 38 am rep , 462 death of child by abortion - if, in attempting to produce anabortion, the child is caused to be born alive but before the end ofthe period of gestation, and when it is not capable of sustaining life, and it dies, the person producing the abortion and bringing the childinto the world at this time and in this manner is guilty of murder wharton crim law, sec 942. Rex v west, 2 cox crim paper, 500;com v brown, 14 gray, mass , 419 death of mother by abortion - so also where in consequence ofproducing an abortion the death of the mother occurs, the personproducing the abortion is guilty of murder at common law 4blackstone com , 201. 1 bishop crim law, 328 in essay of thestates, however, these offences are declared to be only manslaughter further consideration of the subject of abortion will be had under thattitle in another writing of this work statutes generally except abortions necessary to save life - itshould be noted here, however, that nearly all the statutes whichdefine and punish the crime of abortion, or the crime of manslaughteror murder committed in consequence of abortion, declare that when it isnecessary to produce a miscarriage in order to save life, the act ofdoing so is excepted from the effect of the statute negligent malpractice - under the third subdivision of thedefinition, viz , when by reason of the negligent acts on the writingof the physician or surgeon the patient suffers death or unnecessaryinjury, may be placed the most numerous paper of malpractice, accordingto the generally accepted meaning of the term criminal liability for negligent malpractice - it is manifest thatnot every degree of negligence which causes death or injury ought torender the physician or surgeon liable to indictment and punishmentfor a crime the general theory of the criminal law is based upon thedoctrine that in order to constitute a crime there must be eitheran intent to do the wrong, or such a degree of negligence in theperformance of a given act as to supply the place of the intent to dowrong, and require punishment for the protection of society, upon theground that the carelessness of the defendant is so great as to makeit necessary and proper to punish him, in order to deter others fromfollowing his example doctrine of leading case of com v thompson - in com v thompson 6 mass , 134, parsons, c j , observes. “there was no evidence toinduce the belief that the prisoner by his treatment intended tokill or injure the deceased and the ground of express malice mustfall it has been said that implied malice may be inferred from therash and presumptuous conduct of the prisoner in administering suchviolent medicines before implied malice can be inferred, the judgesmust be satisfied that the prisoner by his treatment of his patientwas wilfully regardless of his social duties, being determined onmischief to constitute manslaughter, the killing must have been theconsequence of essay unlawful act now there is no law which prohibitsany man from prescribing for a sick person with his consent. And it isnot a felony, if through his ignorance of the quality of the medicineprescribed, or of the nature of the disease, or of both, the patient, contrary to his expectations, should die the death of a man killed byvoluntarily following a medical prescription cannot be adjudged felonyin the writingy prescribing unless he, however ignorant of medical sciencein general, had so much knowledge or probable information of the fataltendency of the prescription that it may be reasonably presumed bythe jury to be an act of wilful rashness at least, and not of honestintention and expectation to cure ”the doctrine of the thompson case too broad - this lax statementof the law, made by the learned chief justice in this case, has beenmuch doubted and criticised it appears to be unsound in the length towhich it goes in requiring, in order to constitute criminal liability, what may be termed excessive gross carelessness or wilful grosscarelessness it apparently runs counter to the prevailing opinions ofthe english judges, and to the later decisions of the courts in theunited states, although it is followed and approved in rice v thestate, 8 mo , 561 in rex v long 4 car & p , 308-310, park, j , said. “i call itacting wickedly when a man is grossly ignorant and yet affects to curepeople, or when he is grossly inattentive to their safety ”so in rex v spiller 5 car & p , 353, the court said. “if aperson, whether a medical man or not, professes to deal with thelife and health of another, he is bound to use competent skill andsufficient attention. And if he causes the death of another throughgross want of either he will be guilty of manslaughter ”bishop, in his work on criminal law, lays down the rule that not everydegree of carelessness renders a practitioner liable to criminalprosecution, and that it must be gross, or, as more strongly expressed, “the grossest ignorance or most criminal inattention ”189nevertheless he quotes with approval 2 bishop crim law, 264 theremark of willes, j , that a medical man is taking a leap in the darkif he knew he was using medicines beyond his knowledge. And also theremarks of bayley, j , in rex v simpson 1 lewin, 172, who said inthat case. “i am clear that if a person not having a medical education, and in a place where a person of a medical education might be obtained, takes it upon himself to administer medicines which may have aninjurious effect, and such medicines destroy the life of the person towhom they are administered, it is manslaughter the writingy may not meanto cause death, or the medicine may produce beneficent effects, but hehas no right to hazard medicine of a dangerous tendency when medicalassistance can be obtained if he does, he does it at his peril ”190gross negligence defined - in general it may be stated that grossnegligence is necessary to constitute criminal liability, but this maybe predicated upon, or inferred from, such want of ordinary care andskill as shows gross ignorance, or such want of attention as indicateswilful disregard of the well-known laws of life and health 191gross negligence resulting in injury a misdemeanor - it has also beenheld that although death does not but injury does ensue, as the resultof gross negligence or inattention, that constitutes a misdemeanorpunishable criminally 192in determining degree of negligence circumstances and conditionsgovern - it should be noted, however, that the circumstances andconditions attending the act of alleged criminal malpractice shouldbe given much weight so also should due weight be given to theadvancement of knowledge and education in the world in general, andin the medical profession in writingicular in an early english case, one of the judges remarked that not as much knowledge and skill couldbe expected of a surgeon or physician in a sparsely settled countrydistrict as in a city, and that he was at a loss to know what degreeof knowledge and skill should be required of such a person but ingram v boener, 56 ind , 447, worden, j , said. “it seems to us thatphysicians or surgeons practising in small towns, or in poorly orsparsely settled country districts, are bound to possess and exerciseat least the average degree of skill possessed and exercised by theprofession in such localities generally it is not true, as we think, to say that if a physician and surgeon has exercised such a degreeof skill as is ordinarily exercised in the writingicular locality inwhich he practises, that would be sufficient there might be but fewpractising in the given locality, all of whom might be quacks, ignorantpretenders to knowledge not possessed by them, and it would not doto say that because one possessed and exercised as much skill as theother, he could not be chargeable with the want of reasonable care andskill ”193unlicensed practitioner causing death guilty of manslaughter - sincethe adoption by most civilized states and countries of the salutarypractice of regulating by statute the practice of medicine and surgery, and forbidding persons not duly licensed from practising, and making ita misdemeanor to violate any of these statutes, it is clear that anyperson not having the requisite medical education and a license, whoattempted to administer drugs and medicines or to perform operations, and through want of ordinary knowledge and skill caused the death ofanother, would be held guilty of manslaughter, because he brought aboutthe death while he himself was engaged in a violation of the law inessay states where no discrimination in this respect is made betweenmisdemeanors and felonies, the crime would be murder, punishable bydeath.

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La cuprase et le cancer, paris, 1913 inasmuch as this new type of cancer therapy derives its origin, its justification and its support, in very large measure, from thelaboratory results obtained in animals, it is a matter of considerableimportance to examine those results with care, in order to determinewhether they furnish a satisfactory basis for human therapy, andwhether they justify the hopes to which they have given rise it is safe to assert that the application of chemotherapy to thetreatment of tumors practically dates from the publications ofwassermann he stated the principle that a rational therapy of tumorsmust be based on constitutional treatment it appears evident thatlocal treatment can have only local effects the lymphatic extensionsof tumorous growths, and the often unsuspected metastases in distantorgans must of necessity escape the effects of purely local treatment hence, wassermann reached the conclusion that all treatment of cancerwhich was to be effective, and not merely palliative, must be carriedto all writings of the body by means of the blood stream he thereforeintroduced the use of intravenous injections in the experimentaltherapy of rat and mouse tumors an accidental observation led himto believe that selenium was a substance possessing a high degree ofaffinity for article writing service tumor cells in order to insure the penetration of the tumor in the live animal bythis substance, however, he considered it essential to combine it withessay other highly diffusible substance this type of substance, whichwas to act as a carrier of the selenium, he described under the name“cytotrochin, ” from the greek word τροχιά {trochia}, meaning road forthis purpose he selected eosin the eosin and the selenium were thencombined by a method and in a form the details of which have neverbeen published all that we know of this preparation is contained inthe statement that it is very difficult to produce, and that it isextremely unstable and difficult to keep mice can be given amounts offrom 2 to 3 mg of this substance in solution wassermann experimentedwith mice inoculated with transplanted tumors of the types of carcinomaand sarcoma after from three to five intravenous injections of thedrug, he noted that the tumors become softer and fluctuate after stillfurther injections the fluid mass undergoes absorption, and the tumorgives the impression of an empty sac if it is possible to carry theinjections up to the number of ten or twelve, recovery ensues in suchcured animals there remain only the unabsorbed portions of the fibrouscapsule recurrences were not observed in the cured animals wassermannfurther stated that two spontaneous tumors in mice which had beentreated by this method presented favorable results wassermann original presentation gave few experimental details, andhas not been followed by the promised scientific report from hisarticle it is impossible to determine what proportion of his animalswere cured and what proportion failed to survive the treatment from alater paper by keysser270 we learn that by far the larger portion ofthe animals perished during the treatment in the stage of softening, so that a cure was accomplished in from only 3 to 5 per cent of theanimals this is a point of great importance, inasmuch as it furnishesan indication of the highly dangerous character of this mode oftreatment fatal results are attributed by keysser to the absorption oftoxic products from the tumor this contention, however, is supportedby no observations, and it is certainly equally fair to assume thatdeath results from the toxic effects of the compound a microscopicstudy of tumors taken from animals undergoing treatment was made byhansemann he found that the death of the cells was the result ofnuclear destruction 270 keysser. Wien klin wchnschr 26:1664, 1913 within a very few months after wassermann publication, neubergand caspari268 published a paper which was the first of a seriesof studies on the therapeutic effects of the heavy metals on theanimal tumors they used zinc, platinum, tin, selenium, copper, silver and cobalt in the form of certain complex organic compounds, the composition of which is not revealed owing to the fact thatintravenous injections of these compounds produced a specific effect onthe tumors, they are described as “tumoraffin” substances immediatelyafter the intravenous injection of these preparations, there followeda marked hyperemia of the tumor, whereas the remainder of the mousebody appeared markedly anemic the hyperemia was often attendedby hemorrhage into the tumor this first stage was succeeded byliquefaction and absorption followed by recovery in favorable paper the authors failed to state in what proportion of their experiments theanimals died, and in what proportion recovery ensued the second paper on this subject is by neuberg, caspari and löhe, 268in which further details are vouchsafed they state that with thecompounds used by them the toxic and the therapeutic doses approximatevery closely, from which it follows that the treatment, as with thewassermann method, results in a very high mortality smaller dosesproduce no therapeutic effect. On the contrary, they seem to act asa stimulus to the tumor, accelerating the normal rate of growth spontaneous tumors show similar effects, but no cures are recorded only in tumors in which autolysis is active intra vitam does themethod exert any effect consequently the benign primary tumors ofanimals, such as fibromas, are not influenced by it neuberg and caspari are to a great extent responsible for the colloidaltheory of treatment in tumors accepting the observations of petri andothers that the autolytic ferments in tumors are quantitatively greaterand qualitatively different from those present in the normal tissuesof the body, they venture the assumption that the process of recoveryin the experimental tumors of animals is due to the self-digestion ofthe tumor by these ferments ascoli and izar271 had shown that suchferments are materially stimulated by the presence of metals, and moreespecially of metals in colloidal form this contention is apparentlyin harmony with the well-established fact that certain colloidal metalsof themselves are capable of acting under certain circumstances asferments neuberg and caspari were at first of the belief that thecompounds produced by them circulate in colloidal form subsequentlythey stated that these compounds were crystalline substances, but theyassumed, under the influence of the theoretical consideration mentionedabove, that these substances are broken up in the tumor and thereundergo transformation into the colloid state 271 izar. Ztschr f immunitätsforsch , 1913 izar and basile. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 1312 in connection with the preceding observations there are certain otherexperimental results which require mention izar271 succeeded incuring rat tumors by means of injection of colloidal sulphur c lewin272 cured subcutaneous mouse tumors with various preparationsof gold werner and szécsi273 produced similar results througha combination of selenium-vanadium with cholin-borate. In theseexperiments the selenium-vanadium was supposed to be present incolloidal form 272 lewin, carl. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 147.