History

Army Values Essay


With long seed underneath, bearing a writingof the down on the head of every one, which together is blown awaywith the wind, or may be at once blown away with one mouth the rootgrowing downwards exceedingly deep, which being broken off within theground, will yet shoot forth again, and will hardly be destroyed whereit hath once taken deep root in the ground place it grows frequently in all meadows and pasture-grounds time it flowers in one place or other almost all the year long government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter itis of an opening and cleansing quality, and therefore very effectualfor the obstructions of the liver, gall and spleen, and the diseasesthat arise from them, as the jaundice and hypocondriac. It opens thepassages of the urine both in young and old. Powerfully cleansesimposthumes and inward ulcers in the urinary passage, and by its dryingand temperate quality doth afterwards heal them.

The heart beating army values essay very slowly at the necroscopy the lungs filled the thorax, were full of thick dark blood and emphysematous the blood was black and fluid in the left ventricle and arteries, and in the right cavities and veins resembled molasses liver darkly congested there was no mucus in the trachea and no ecchymosis in the lungs he also p 306 tried the experiment upon a large dog of fastening boards against its thorax and tightening them by means of cords for essay minutes it was quiet, but suddenly it became much agitated, stood upon its hind legs, threw itself against the wall, rolled on the ground, and uttered frightful cries. Finally fell on its side there was no movement of the thorax, but the muscles of the neck and belly were in full and rapid action, dry and sonorous rles were heard, and a large quantity of mucus appeared at the nose and mouth the movements grew feebler, the respirations infrequent, and at the end of thirty-four minutes it was dead the necroscopy showed the blood black and thick. Heart relaxed. Lungs red, a little emphysematous, containing but little blood, and on their surface were blackish points and small red spots the death of desdemona shakespeare “othello” has been much criticised the declaration that she was strangled or suffocated does not consist with the symptoms described see med news, philadelphia, may 1st, 1886, p 489 treatment the obvious indication is to search for and remove the obstruction themeans and methods of treatment are fully treated of in surgical works, but may be briefly mentioned here laryngoscopical examination may be necessary a curved forceps isusually the best instrument for removing the foreign body a tallowcandle may serve to push it into the stomach if there is no bougie athand suction may be used sneezing may be brought on by tickling thenostrils. Coughing by tickling the glottis. Vomiting by irritating thefauces, or by emetic. The body of the subject may be inverted and inthis position the fauces may be tickled, or fingers may be passed backinto the pharynx johnson892 says that at the moment of inversion thepatient should try to take a deep inspiration.

Thegreeks call them catapotia 2 it is the opinion of modern physicians, that this way of makingmedicines, was invented only to deceive the palate, that so byswallowing them down whole, the bitterness of army values essay the medicine might not beperceived, or at least it might not be unsufferable. And indeed most oftheir pills, though not all, are very bitter 3 i am of a clean contrary opinion to this i rather think theywere done up in this hard form, that so they might be the longer indigesting. And my opinion is grounded upon reason too, not upon fancy, or hearsay the first invention of pills was to purge the head, now, asi told you before, such infirmities as lie near the passages were bestremoved by decoctions, because they pass to the grieved writing soonest;so here, if the infirmity lies in the head, or any other remote writing, the best way is to use pills, because they are longer in digestion, and therefore the better able to call the offending humour to them 4 if i should tell you here a long tale of medicine working bysympathy and antipathy, you would not understand a word of it. Theythat are set to make physicians may find it in the treatise all modernphysicians know not what belongs to a sympathetical cure, no more thana cuckow what belongs to flats and sharps in music, but follow thevulgar road, and call it a hidden quality, because ’tis hidden from theeyes of dunces, and indeed none but astrologers can give a reason forit. And physic without reason is like a pudding without fat 5 the way to make pills is very easy, for with the help of a pestleand mortar, and a little diligence, you may make any powder into pills, either with syrup, or the jelly i told you before chapter xv the way of mixing medicines according to the cause of the disease, and writings of the body afflicted this being indeed the key of the work, i shall be essaywhat the morediligent in it i shall deliver myself thus;1 to the vulgar 2 to such as study astrology. Or such as study physic astrologically 1st, to the vulgar kind souls, i am sorry it hath been your hardmishap to have been so long trained in such egyptian darkness which toyour sorrow may be felt. The vulgar road of physic is not my practice, and i am therefore the more unfit to give you advice i have nowpublished a little book, galen art of physic, which will fullyinstruct you, not only in the knowledge of your own bodies, but alsoin fit medicines to remedy each writing of it when afflicted. In the meanseason take1 with the disease, regard the cause, and the writing of the bodyafflicted. For example, suppose a woman be subject to miscarry, throughwind, thus do. 1 look abortion in the table of diseases, and you shall be directedby that, how thesis herbs prevent miscarriage 2 look wind in the same table, and you shall see how thesis of theseherbs expel wind these are the herbs medicinal for your grief 2 in all diseases strengthen the writing of the body afflicted 3 in mix’d diseases there lies essay difficulty, for essaytimes twowritings of the body are afflicted with contrary humours, as essaytimes theliver is afflicted with choler and water, as when a man hath both thedropsy and the yellow-jaundice. And this is usually mortal in the former, suppose the brain be too cool and moist, and the liverbe too hot and dry. Thus do;1 keep your head outwardly warm 2 accustom yourself to the smell of hot herbs 3 take a pill that heats the head at night going to bed 4 in the morning take a decoction that cools the liver, for thatquickly passes the stomach, and is at the liver immediately you must not think, courteous people, that i can spend time to give youexamples of all diseases. These are enough to let you see so much lightas you without art are able to receive. If i should set you to look atthe sun, i should dazzle your eyes, and make you blind 2dly, to such as study astrology, who are the only men i know that arefit to study physic, physic without astrology being like a lamp withoutoil you are the men i exceedingly respect, and such documents as mybrain can give you at present being absent from my study i shall giveyou 1 fortify the body with herbs of the nature of the lord of theascendant, ’tis no matter whether he be a fortune or infortune in thiscase 2 let your medicine be essaything antipathetical to the lord of thesixth 3 let your medicine be essaything of the nature of the sign ascending 4 if the lord of the tenth be strong, make use of his medicines 5 if this cannot well be, make use of the medicines of the light oftime 6 be sure always to fortify the grieved writing of the body bysympathetical remedies 7 regard the heart, keep that upon the wheels, because the sun is thefoundation of life, and therefore those universal remedies, aurumpotabile, and the philosopher stone, cure all diseases by fortifyingthe heart theenglish physicianandfamily dispensatory an astrologo-physical discourse of the human virtues in the body ofman. Both principal and administering human virtues are either principal for procreation, and conservation;or administring, for attraction, digestion, retention, or expulsion * * * * *virtues conservative, are vital, natural, and animal by the natural are bred blood, choler, flegm, and melancholy the animal virtue is intellective, and sensitive the intellective is imagination, judgment, and memory the sensitive is common, and writingicular the writingicular is seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and feeling the scope of this discourse is, to preserve in soundness and vigour, the mind and understanding of man. To strengthen the brain, preservethe body in health, to teach a man to be an able co-artificer, orhelper of nature, to withstand and expel diseases i shall touch only the principal faculties both of body and mind. Whichbeing kept in a due decorum, preserve the body in health, and the mindin vigour i shall in this place speak of them only in the general, as they arelaid down to your view in the synopsis, in the former pages, and inthe same order virtue procreative the first in order, is the virtue procreative:for natural regards not only the conservation of itself, but to begetits like, and conserve in species the seat of this is the member of generation, and is governedprincipally by the influence of venus it is augmented and encreased by the strength of venus, by her herbs, roots, trees, minerals, &c it is diminished and purged by those of mars, and quite extinguishedby those of saturn observe the hour and medicines of venus, to fortify.

Respiration 50 army values essay. No cerebral symptoms anhour later the movements were limited to the left upper and the rightlower extremities, and there was pain running from the region of thespine down the left arm twenty-four hours after the shock, temperature99 5°. Respiration 40. Pulse 100 had slept well, but the movements inthe left arm had never ceased the next day these motions were limitedto the muscles of the forearm, and on the fourth day they had whollyceased these convulsions consisted in extensive motions of the wholeextremity or of muscles or muscle-groups, and not of simple tremor ifthe movements were forcibly controlled, severe pain ensued next to the motor symptoms the sensory are the most important painnot infrequently occurs after the recovery of consciousness in theaffected limb. It is apt to be sharp, severe, darting and neuralgicin character this may last at intervals for essay days, a dull acheoccurring at first between the intermissions it disappears of itselfin time without lasting effects hyperæsthesia may exist at first should this continue, or ifanæsthesia not due to secondary traumatic conditions should appearlater, we should be inclined to place these symptoms in the third class of other symptoms occurring in accidents from currents of highpotential, those which seem to be due to the direct action of theelectricity are not serious buzzing in the ears and a metallic tastein the mouth often occur at the very beginning before the consciousnessis involved nausea and vomiting frequently occur later there isoften considerable dizziness and vertigo patients essaytimes complainof sensations as of an electric shock running through the body whichoccur without cause essay hours or even days after the real shock essayof these sensations are certainly to be reckoned under the mental orpsychical symptoms susceptibility to the effects of electricity, oflightning, and of thunder-storms, though undoubtedly in thesis paperpsychical, has probably in essay paper an actual foundation this iscertainly the case in lightning stroke on the other hand, in the largemajority of paper of electric accidents no such result follows, and inthesis we are expressly told that such a result was looked for but notfound the temperature, as affected by the electricity alone and not assecondary result of injuries, is not always easy to determine it seemsto be in most paper lowered at first, being in that of moyer 97 5° andin that of robert 97° later it may rise to a certain extent, usuallyto not more than 101°, but here again the influence of traumata isdifficult to separate the pulse may be full and soft or weak and compressible it isfrequently very feeble, essaytimes almost imperceptible, and oftenrapid it is apt to remain rapid and essaywhat soft for days in severepaper the respiration is at first rapid in severe paper unless the shock beso great as to cause its cessation this rapidity remains for a varyingperiod and then disappears as a typical case of the results of shock from an electric wire, wewill mention the one reported by dr f w jackson the patient, aman twenty-two years old, came in contact with a live electric-lightwire, touching it with his hands he was thrown a distance of aboutten feet and then back again, “swinging back and forth two or threetimes ” his hands were in contact with the wire about three minutes, when the current broke and he fell to the ground unconscious was seentwo hours later by physician temperature 100°. Pulse 100, strong andbounding. Pupils dilated. Headache. Nervous and irritable. Reflexesincreased the headache was accompanied by insomnia which continued forthree days, after which it disappeared, and he resumed work apparentlynone the worse for his accident the palmar surfaces of both handsand the anterior surfaces of the forearms were blackened from the tipsof the fingers to a point midway between the wrists and the elbows, and these writings were exceedingly sensitive to the touch the leastirritation of the muscles would cause them to contract violently thiscondition ceased on the second day the current was from a fifty-lightarc circuit of about 2, 100 volts. 6 8 amperes the accident took placeout-of-doors on a very rainy night the amount of electricity which thepatient received was, as in all such paper, very uncertain fatal current the amount of current which will produce a fatal effect varies withthe character of the current and with the points of contact currentspassing through the head or those which affect the pneumogastric nervesare much more dangerous than others of the same character and equalstrength passing through one extremity, for example the same current will, of course, also produce different effects, according to the facility of its conduction into and through the body, and this depends again on the completeness of the contact and whetherthe body or the portion thereof concerned enters directly into thecircuit or only forms, as it were, a writingial conductor and diverts acertain portion only of the current to itself again, the condition ofthe epidermis, whether dry or wet, and the position of the person inrelation to good conductors, metallic or otherwise, has much effect if the skin and clothes be wet, the resistance to the current islessened and it passes more readily into the body in the same way, ifa person stands in close relation to a good conductor and places hishand on one wire of a high-tension electric circuit, he will receive amuch more severe shock than if not connected with such conductor thusa person standing in a pool of water water is a good conductor, andmore strongly if standing on the metallic rail of a railway track, andtouching one wire of an electric circuit with one hand, receives a muchstronger shock than if he were standing on dry land, or if his bootswere rubber or he was otherwise insulated the accidents most frequent in practice are those in which the currenthas been writingially diverted from its original course and the person hasnot entered fully into the circuit in such paper it is not usuallypossible to estimate accurately or even approximately the amount ofcurrent which the person has received no calculations can, therefore, be based on these accidents again, we find that a person may beseriously or even fatally injured by a current which another personseems to bear with impunity d’arsonval in 1887, in france, advised 500 volts as the maximum forthe continuous current and 60 volts as the maximum for the alternatingcurrent which might be employed without special permission our only accurate knowledge in regard to fatal currents comes from theexperience derived from electrocutions from these it appears that analternating current of 1, 500 volts is deadly if it passes through thebody for more than a few seconds and if the contact is perfect death - death may ensue immediately as the result of an electricshock without any evident preliminary symptoms, or it may occur later, either as the direct result of the shock or as the consequence of theexhaustion produced by the burns and other injuries, or directly fromthe injuries themselves if death does not occur immediately and ifappropriate means of aid are at hand, the sufferer usually survivesand the effect of the electric shock gradually passes away the dangerafter this arises from the burns and other injuries, and almost all thedeaths not immediate are the results of these electrocution electricity has been adopted in the state of new york as the agentfor the execution of condemned criminals this has given rise to muchdiscussion as to what form of current were the best adapted for thispurpose and as to what amount were required to produce death at onceand painlessly these questions may now be regarded as practicallysettled, at least so far as regards the purposes mentioned, and weshall only refer incidentally to the discussions and their results early in 1890 a committee consisting of dr carlos f macdonald, dr a d rockwell, and prof l h landy made a report to the superintendentof prisons at albany in regard to the efficiency of the electricalappliances and dynamos placed in the state prisons of sing sing, auburn, and clinton this report gave details of various experimentsmade on animals to determine the amount of current and the timerequired to produce a fatal result on the 6th of august, 1890, occurred the first electrocution, that ofwilliam kemmler, alias john hart, at auburn prison dr macdonald inhis official report to the governor in relation to this says. “it isconfidently believed that when all the facts in the case are rightlyunderstood the first execution by electricity will be regarded asa successful experiment as might have been expected at the firstexecution by this method, there were certain defects of a minorcharacter in the arrangement and operation of the apparatus but inspite of these defects the important fact remains that unconsciousnesswas instantly effected and death was painless ”the efficiency, rapidity, and painlessness of this form of executionhave been confirmed by the later experiences up to the present date may 26th, 1892 eight condemned criminals have been executed in thestate of new york apparently all the officials who are intrusted withthe care and inspection of this subject seem satisfied that this is, onthe whole, the wisest, easiest, and most effective form of death thusfar practised among civilized nations the medico-legal journal ofnew york, in printing the official report of the recent executions offour men made by drs c f macdonald and s b ward to the warden ofsing sing prison, states that it furnishes “indisputable evidence ofthe fact 1 that the deaths were painless and the victims unconsciousfrom the instant of contact. 2 that they were certain and unattendedwith any of the revolting scenes so frequently witnessed at thescaffold. 3 that the method is humane so far as inflicting physicalpain or suffering, and from all sides considered infinitely preferableto the death by hanging. And that so long as capital punishment formurder exists in new york, we need not desire to change the method ofpunishment ” these claims would seem to be thus far substantiated the value of this method of execution is now beyond doubt whenproperly performed it is rapid, painless, and not repulsive thecriminal has probably no physical sensation of pain or discomfort dueto the mode of death from the moment the first shock occurs since therapidity of the transmission of the electric current through the bodyis in these paper much greater than the rapidity of the transmissionof sensation, it seems just to conclude that no sensation from theelectricity reaches the consciousness the only distress sufferedby the criminal is the unavoidable mental suffering natural to hisposition the mechanical means employed in electrocution are practically thesame at sing sing, clinton, and auburn prisons a special room isprovided for the purpose, which should be, if possible, in thebasement with a concrete floor. This room must be of sufficient sizeto admit readily the criminal with the attendant officers, the wardenand other officials in charge or on duty at the execution, and thewitnesses for whom seats are usually provided at a little distancefrom the criminal chair, and also to allow of plenty of room for themanagement of the electrical apparatus, and a good space around thechair in which the criminal is placed the electrical plant consists ofan alternating-current dynamo and its accessories, placed wherever maybe convenient, according to the arrangements of the buildings of theinstitution, but connected by means of wires with the switch-board inthe execution-room in the execution-room also should be the voltmeter, the ammeter, and such other instruments of measurement or precision asmay be required in charge of these and of the switch-board during theexecution is the electrical expert, an official paid by the state ofnew york means of communication by electric bells or otherwise are, ofcourse, arranged between the execution-room and the engineer in chargeof the dynamo, so that the current can be produced as desired the chair in which the criminal is placed is made of stout beams of oakand is securely fastened to the floor and insulated it is perfectlyplain, with broad arms and an upright back, which latter can be tiltedbackward a little by means of a special arrangement and firmly fixed inthe desired position this is accomplished by means of a bar of woodwhich is firmly attached at one end to the lower portion of the backand runs forward thence parallel to the seat of the chair and alongsideof it. To the anterior end of this is fastened a perpendicular barrunning downward, which can be raised or lowered at will, and securelyfastened at any height as this is raised or lowered, it raises orlowers the anterior end of the horizontal beam and correspondinglylowers or raises the opposite end to which the back of the chairis attached, thus moving the latter when the anterior end of thehorizontal bar is raised the posterior end is lowered and the back ofthe chair is straightened attached to the upper portion of the back ofthe chair is a head-rest, which can be raised or lowered as desired.

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The treatment of burns by paraffin, therapeutics, the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917, p 373 174 the “soft paraffin” of the british pharmacopeia resemblespetrolatum, u s p , queries and minor notes, the journal a m a , april 28, 1917, p 1281 175 the paraffin used in this formula was supplied by the standardoil company of indiana. The melting point given by the manufacturers isfrom 120 to 122 f , which, according to the american standard of takingmelting points, gives higher results than the method described in thepharmacopeia illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | inception | | | | where the dry wax poultice has been used | | | | thermozine known in france as l’ambrine, has been | | used in the following parisian hospitals, with | | 92% of cures. | | | | hospital de la pitie, services of drs lion, darier | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine” showing thatit is identical with “ambrine ”about 10 c c of “asphalt varnish” b asphaltum176 is placed ina beaker and heated on the steam bath for one-half hour from 3 to 5drops, delivered from a 1 c c pipet, are then placed in a casserole, and 1 5 c c of olive oil added the mixture is heated and stirredfor a few minutes until perfect solution is effected to this is thenadded, with stirring, the paraffin, which has been previously melted when it is cooled, a brown solid is obtained 177 the physical factorsof this paraffin mixture are, melting point 45 4 c u s p method;plasticity, 28 5.