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Argumentative Essay Animal Testing


And the juice gargled in themouth, helps the sores therein the leaves wrapt in a colewort leaf androasted in the embers, and applied to a hard imposthume, botch, boil, or plague sore, doth both ripen and break it the distilled water ofthe herb is of much good use for all the purposes aforesaid wood sorrel descript this grows upon the ground, having a number of leavescoming from the root made of three leaves, like a trefoil, but broadat the ends, and cut in the middle, of a yellowish green colour, everyone standing on a long foot-stalk, which at their first coming up areclose folded together to the stalk, but opening themselves afterwards, and are of a fine sour relish, and yielding a juice which will turnred when it is clarified, and makes a most dainty clear syrup amongthese leaves rise up divers slender, weak foot-stalks, with every oneof them a flower at the top, consisting of five small pointed leaves, star-fashion, of a white colour, in most places, and in essay dashedover with a small show of blueish, on the back side only after theflowers are past, follow small round heads, with small yellowish seedin them the roots are nothing but small strings fastened to the end ofa small long piece. All of them being of a yellowish colour place it grows in thesis places of our land, in woods and wood-sides, where they be moist and shadowed, and in other places not too much uponthe sun time it flowers in april and may government and virtues venus owns it wood sorrel serves to all thepurposes that the other sorrels do, and is more effectual in hinderingputrefaction of blood, and ulcers in the mouth and body, and to quenchthirst, to strengthen a weak stomach, to procure an appetite, to stayvomiting, and very excellent in any contagious sickness or pestilentialfevers the syrup made of the juice, is effectual in all the paperaforesaid, and so is the distilled water of the herb sponges or linencloths wet in the juice and applied outwardly to any hot swelling orinflammations, doth much cool and help them the same juice takenand gargled in the mouth, and after it is spit forth, taken afresh, doth wonderfully help a foul stinking canker or ulcer therein it issingularly good to heal wounds, or to stay the bleeding of thrusts orscabs in the body sow thistle sow thistles are generally so well known, that they need no description place they grow in gardens and manured grounds, essaytimes by oldwalls, pathsides of fields, and high ways government and virtues this and the former are under the influenceof venus sow thistles are cooling, and essaywhat binding, and are veryfit to cool a hot stomach, and ease the pains thereof the herb boiledin wine, is very helpful to stay the dissolution of the stomach, andthe milk that is taken from the stalks when they are broken, givenin drink, is beneficial to those that are short winded, and have awheezing pliny saith, that it hath caused the gravel and stone to bevoided by urine, and that the eating thereof helps a stinking breath the decoction of the leaves and stalks causes abundance of milk innurses, and their children to be well coloured the juice or distilledwater is good for all hot inflammations, wheals, and eruptions or heatin the skin, itching of the hæmorrhoids the juice boiled or thoroughlyheated in a little oil of bitter almonds in the peel of a pomegranate, and dropped into the ears, is a sure remedy for deafness, singings, &c three spoonfuls of the juice taken, warmed in white wine, and essaywine put thereto, causes women in travail to have so easy and speedya delivery, that they may be able to walk presently after it iswonderful good for women to wash their faces with, to clear the skin, and give it a lustre southern wood southern wood is so well known to be an ordinary inhabitant in ourgardens, that i shall not need to trouble you with any descriptionthereof time it flowers for the most writing in july and august government and virtues it is a gallant mercurial plant, worthy ofmore esteem than it hath dioscorides saith, that the seed bruised, heated in warm water, and drank, helps those that are bursten, ortroubled with cramps or convulsions of the sinews, the sciatica, ordifficulty in making water, and bringing down women courses the sametaken in wine is an antidote, or counter-poison against all deadlypoison, and drives away serpents and other venomous creatures. As alsothe smell of the herb, being burnt, doth the same the oil thereofanointed on the back-bone before the fits of agues come, takes themaway. It takes away inflammations in the eyes, if it be put with essaywriting of a roasted quince, and boiled with a few crumbs of bread, andapplied boiled with barley-meal it takes away pimples, pushes orwheals that arise in the face, or other writings of the body the seed aswell as the dried herb, is often given to kill the worms in children:the herb bruised and laid to, helps to draw forth splinters and thornsout of the flesh the ashes thereof dries up and heals old ulcers, that are without inflammation, although by the sharpness thereof itbites sore, and puts them to sore pains. As also the sores in the privywritings of man or woman the ashes mingled with old sallad oil, helpsthose that have hair fallen, and are bald, causing the hair to growagain either on the head or beard daranters saith, that the oil madeof southern-wood, and put among the ointments that are used againstthe french disease, is very effectual, and likewise kills lice in thehead the distilled water of the herb is said to help them much thatare troubled with the stone, as also for the diseases of the spleen andmother the germans commend it for a singular wound herb, and thereforecall it stabwort it is held by all writers, ancient and modern, to bemore offensive to the stomach than worm-wood spignel, or spikenard descript the roots of common spignel do spread much and deep inthe ground, thesis strings or branches growing from one head, which ishairy at the top, of a blackish brown colour on the outside, and whitewithin, smelling well, and of an aromatical taste from whence risesundry long stalks of most fine cut leaves like hair, smaller thandill, set thick on both sides of the stalks, and of a good scent amongthese leaves rise up round stiff stalks, with a few joints and leaveson them, and at the tops an umbel of pure white flowers. At the edgeswhereof essaytimes will be seen a shew of the reddish blueish colour, especially before they be full blown, and are succeeded by small, essaywhat round seeds, bigger than the ordinary fennel, and of a browncolour, divided into two writings, and crusted on the back, as most of theumbelliferous seeds are place it grows wild in lancashire, yorkshire, and other northerncounties, and is also planted in gardens government and virtues it is an herb of venus galen saith, theroots of spignel are available to provoke urine, and women courses;but if too much thereof be taken, it causes head-ache the rootsboiled in wine or water, and drank, helps the stranguary and stoppingsof the urine, the wind, swellings and pains in the stomach, pains ofthe mother, and all joint-aches if the powder of the root be mixedwith honey, and the same taken as a licking medicine, it breaks toughphlegm, and dries up the rheum that falls on the lungs the roots areaccounted very effectual against the stinging or biting of any venomouscreature spleenwort, ceterach, or heart tongue descript the smooth spleenwort, from a black, thready and bushyroot, sends forth thesis long single leaves, cut in on both sides intoround dents almost to the middle, which is not so hard as that ofpolypody, each division being not always set opposite unto the other, cut between each, smooth, and of a light green on the upper side, and adark yellowish roughness on the back, folding or rolling itself inwardat the first springing up place it grows as well upon stone walls, as moist and shadowyplaces, about bristol, and other west writings plentifully. As also onframlingham castle, on beaconsfield church in berkshire, at stroud inkent, and elsewhere, and abides green all the winter government and virtues saturn owns it it is generally used againstinfirmities of the spleen. It helps the stranguary, and wasteth thestone in the bladder, and is good against the yellow jaundice and thehiccough.

Your best way in my opinion, to take it is tomix it with conserve of roses, and take it in the morning fasting tachamacha is seldom taken inwardly, outwardly spread upon leather, and applied to the navel. It stays the fits of the mother, applied tothe side, it mitigates speedily, and in little time quite takes awaythe pain and windiness of the spleen. The truth is, whatsoever acheor swelling proceeds of wind or cold raw humours, i know no betterplaister coming from beyond sea than this gum it strengthens thebrain and memory exceedingly, and stops all such defluctions thence astrouble the eyes, ears, or teeth, it helps the gout and sciatica gum coopal, and gum anime, are very like one another both in body andoperation, the former is hard to come by, the last not very easy itstops defluctions from the head, if you perfume your cap with the smokeof it, it helps the headache and megrim, strengthens the brain, andtherefore the sinews gum tragaganth, which the vulgar call gum dragon, being mixed withpectoral syrups, which you shall find noted in their proper placesit helps coughs and hoarseness, salt and sharp distillations upon thelungs, being taken with a liquorice stick, being dissolved in sweetwine, it helps being drank gnawing in the bowels, sharpness andfreetings of the urine, which causes excoriations either in the reinsor bladder, being dissolved in milk and the eyes washed with it, ittakes away weals and scabs that grow on the eyelids, it is excellentlygood to be put in poultice to fodder wounds, especially if the nervesor sinews be hurt sagapen, dissolved in juice of rue and taken, wonderfully breaks thestone in the bladder, expels the dead child and afterbirth, clearsthe sight. Dissolved in wine and drank, it helps the cough, anddistillation upon the lungs, and the fits of the mother. Outwardlyin oils or ointments, it helps such members as are out of joint orover-stretched galbanum is of the same operation, and also taken from the sameplant, viz fennel, giant gum arabic, thickens and cools, and corrects choleric sharp humoursin the body, being dissolved in the white of an egg, well beaten, ithelps burnings, and keeps the place from blistering mastich stays fluxes, being taken inwardly any way three or foursmall grains of mastich, swallowed at night going to bed, is a remedyfor pains in the stomach, being beaten into powder, and mixed withconserve of roses, it strengthens the stomach, stops distillationsupon the lungs, stay, vomiting, and causes a sweet breath.

1to ascertain whether a person has died from violence or poison. 2 toestablish the cause of death, especially if it has been sudden. And 3to ascertain the lesion of a disease, or to confirm a diagnosis the only difference between a medico-legal and pathological autopsyis that in the former case everything which might subserve the endsof justice should be carefully noted, and the changes found mostaccurately described. Especially any abnormalities found on theexternal examination of the body a photograph should be taken of thebody the head should be opened and the brain examined first, and not last, as is often done in the ordinary autopsy careful notes should be taken during each step of the examination, tobe reread, verified, and signed at the completion of the autopsy it must be remembered that most of the lesions of disease which arefound, indicate the disease rather than the cause of death. That oftenthe lesion found will seem hardly extensive enough to cause death, andthat from accidents and injuries apparently trivial, death may result it must often be acknowledged that no sufficient cause of death can befound, but the more accurate and careful the examinations especiallywhen a microscopical examination of the organs is made the fewer willbe the number of such paper if no apparent lesion is found, it mustnot be forgotten that thesis poisons destroy life and leave no trace thatthe pathologist can discover care should always be exercised not to mistake the ordinary post-mortemappearance which we find at autopsies for the lesions of disease the examination of the human body, whether it be made from amedico-legal or pathological standpoint, is divided into two maindivisions. 1 the external examination, and 2 the internal examination external examination its minuteness will depend on the character of the case, as when theperson is unknown, or when suspected to have died from unnaturalcauses in such paper the external examination is very important the following are the steps to be followed. 1 give a general description of the body. Apparent age, height, andweight of the individual. Color of the hair and eyes. Condition of theteeth. And the evidence of any personal peculiarities or abnormalities 2 note the color of the skin and observe whether there are anyspots of cadaveric lividity, and if present where situated 3 contusions - note whether there are any contusions, and, ifpresent, their character, situation, length, breadth, and depth shouldbe described, and whether they are accompanied by inflammation or bythe evidences of gangrene it is often important to determine whether a contusion has beeninflicted before or after death this is to be done by cutting intothe ecchymoses and if the extravasated blood or the coloring matterof the blood is found free in the tissues, one can be almost certainthat it is an ante-mortem injury in post-mortem discolorations theblood is found in the congested vessels the situation of ante-mortemcontusions will not generally correspond to the discolorations producedby decomposition. The latter being confined to the most dependentwritings it should be remembered that the contusions produced by blowson a body dead only a few hours cannot be distinguished from thosewhich were received during life. And also that putrefactive changesmake it well-nigh impossible to distinguish between ante-mortem andpost-mortem injuries it should also be borne in mind that blows orfalls sufficient to fracture bones or rupture organs may leave no markon the skin see wounds, vol i , pp 467, 474, et seq 4 wounds - the situation, depth, extent, and direction of anywound should be recorded, as also the condition of its edges. Thechanges in the surrounding tissues, and whether inflicted by a cutting, pointed, or rounded instrument. Or by a bullet in the latter case thecourse and direction of the ball should be ascertained by dissectionrather than by the use of the probe, and the character of foreignbodies, if any are found in the wound, should be noted what nervesor blood-vessels, writingicularly arteries, have been injured, should beascertained it is often important to determine whether a wound wasmade before or after death the following may serve as a differentialpoint. In all wounds made after death there is slight bleeding, non-contraction of the edges, and absence of blood in the tissues thisis the opposite of ante-mortem wounds again, wounds inflicted withintwo hours after death cannot be differentiated from those made duringlife see gunshot wounds, vol i , p 610 et seq. Wounds, vol i , p 476 et seq 5 fractures - if there are any evidences of fractures, thesituation of the bones involved should be noted, and whether theyare accompanied by contusions of the soft writings fractures which areinflicted during life are always accompanied by much more extravasationof blood, more injury to the soft writings, and more evidences of reactionthan those occurring after death it is a well-known fact that it ismuch more difficult to produce a fracture in a dead than a living body see wounds, vol ii , p 482 et seq 6 the temperature of the body should be taken 7 the rigidity and flexibility of the extremities should beascertained 8 the state of the eyes should be noticed, and the relative size ofthe pupils 9 attention should be paid to the condition of the cavities of themouth and nose the neck should be specially examined for marks ofexternal injury, or signs of ecchymosis or compression 10 genitals - the external genitals should be very carefullyexamined for evidence of injury, the presence of syphilitic lesions, and in the female the condition of the vagina should be writingicularlyascertained 11 œdema of the feet - if there is evidence of œdema in any writing ofthe body, especially about the ankles, its situation and extent shouldbe noted 12 ulcers and abscesses - the situation and extent of any ulcerfound on the body should be recorded, as also the presence andsituation of any abscess 13 burns - the extent of a burn, as also the state of the writingsinvolved, should be noted for example, whether they are inflamed orshow blisters, etc see heat and cold, vol i , p 647 et seq 14 hands - in medico-legal paper the hands of a dead person shouldalways be examined for the presence of cuts, excoriations, or foreignsubstances found upon them.

And that the reason, if ina nativity the moon be stronger than mercury, sense thesis timesover-powers reason. But if mercury be strong, and the moon weak, reason will be master ordinarily in despite of sense it is divided into intellective, and sensitive 1 intellective the intellectual resides in the brain, within thepia mater, is governed generally by mercury it is divided into imagination, judgment, and memory imagination is seated in the forewriting of the brain. It is hot anddry in quality, quick, active, always working. It receives vapoursfrom the heart, and coins them into thoughts. It never sleeps, butalways is working, both when the man is sleeping and waking. Only whenjudgment is awake it regulates the imagination, which runs at randomwhen judgment is asleep, and forms any thought according to the natureof the vapour sent up to it mercury is out of question the disposerof it a man may easily perceive his judgment asleep before himself thesistimes, and then he shall perceive his thoughts run at random judgment always sleeps when men do, imagination never sleeps. Memoryessaytimes sleeps when men sleep, and essaytimes it doth not. So thenwhen memory is awake, and the man asleep, then memory remembers whatapprehension coins, and that is a dream. The thoughts would have beenthe same, if memory had not been awake to remember it these thoughts are commonly i mean in sleep, when they are purelynatural, framed according to the nature of the humour, calledcomplexion, which is predominate in the body. And if the humour bepeccant it is always so so that it is one of the surest rules to know a man own complexion, by his dreams, i mean a man void of distractions, or deep studies. This most assuredly shews mercury to dispose of the imagination, as also because it is mutable, applying itself to any object, asmercury nature is to do.

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The council on pharmacy and chemistry and thepatriotic medical league in italy, ibid 71:918 sept 14 1918 as secretary of the council almost from the time of its organizationin 1905, 4 and knowing the work of its members and its collaborators, i am firmly convinced that this body has deserved the endorsement andsupport given it by the american medical profession i welcome thisopportunity to present an outline of the council past activities andto speak of essay of the problems of the future, because i feel assuredthat a knowledge of its endeavor to improve drug therapy will increasethe profession confidence in the council and add to the number of itssupporters 4 although the council on pharmacy and chemistry was established in1905, it is likely that only a small percentage argumentative essay animal testing of physicians knowjust what the council is, or have any conception as to its personneland its ability to judge the available evidence for proprietarymedicaments the personnel has changed from time to time since 1905 at present its membership is. C l alsberg, a m , m d , chief of thebureau of chemistry, u s dewritingment of agriculture, washington, d c. R a hatcher, ph g , m d , professor of pharmacology, cornelluniversity medical college, new york city. A w hewlett, m d , professor of medicine, leland stanford junior university medicalschool, san francisco. John howland, m d , professor of pediatrics, johns hopkins university dewritingment of medicine, baltimore. Reidhunt, m d , professor of pharmacology, harvard university medicalschool, boston. Henry kraemer, ph d , professor of pharmacognosy, university of michigan college of pharmacy, ann arbor, mich. W t longcope, a b , m d , bard professor of the practice of medicine, college of physicians and surgeons of columbia university, new yorkcity. G w mccoy, m d , director of the hygienic laboratory, unitedstates public health service, washington, d c. Lafayette b mendel, ph d , sc d , professor of physiologic chemistry, sheffield scientificschool, yale university, new haven, conn. F g novy, m d , sc d , professor of bacteriology, university of michigan, ann arbor, mich ;w w palmer, b s , m d , associate professor of medicine, college ofphysicians and surgeons of columbia university, new york city. L g rowntree, m d , professor of medicine, university of minnesota medicalschool, minneapolis.