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Argumentative Essay About Technology


Would thesame amount of injury have been likely to cause argumentative essay about technology death in a person ofordinary health and vigor?. the law as applied to these paper has beenstated by lord hale. “it is sufficient to prove that the death of aperson was accelerated by the malicious acts of the person, althoughthe former labored under a mental disease at the time of the act theintent of the accused may often be judged by the character of the woundand the means of its infliction drunkenness of the victim admits ofno excuse when his assailant is aware, or ought to have been aware, of the condition of his victim it is held that the assailant oughtto have known that violence of any kind to such a person is likely tobe attended by dangerous results it is known also that a wound whichaccelerates death causes death ” the commissioners who were appointedto define criminal law on the subject of homicide have thus expressedthemselves. “art 3 it is homicide although the effect of the injurybe merely to accelerate the death of one laboring under essay previousinjury or infirmity, for although if timely remedies or skilfultreatment had been applied, death might have been prevented” taylor, p 327 death from surgical operations necessitated by gunshot wound - themodern treatment of serious or so-called penetrating gunshot woundswhere the cranium, thoracic viscera, or the abdominal viscera, especially the intestines, have been perforated one or more times, calls for surgical procedures which are of severity and danger inproportion to the gravity of the wound which necessitates them, andwhich, while they often save life, must necessarily often fail indeed, such operations may prove fatal upon the operating-table, i e , patients may die before the conclusion of the operation the questionmay, therefore, arise whether the person who inflicted the wound shouldbe held responsible for his act, or whether by the intervention ofthe surgeon the responsibility may not at least be shifted from theshoulders of the accused the law in this respect is explicit andregards such operation as the outcome of necessity and a legitimatewriting of treatment, so that if it be undertaken in good faith, withreasonable care and skill, the accused will be held responsible, be theresult what it may the question of necessity and the plan of operationare left to the judgment of the surgeon in charge considering theresponsibility involved in such paper and the possibility of a suitbeing raised, we should always advise the operator to secure thecounsel of other surgeons or practitioners in his vicinity theverdict of such a counsel of talent will always stand according tolord hale, when death takes place from an unskilful operation undersuch circumstances, and not from the wound, the responsibility ofthe prisoner naturally ceases, but the burden of proof that such hasbeen unskilfully performed rests naturally with the defence it ismuch better also in these paper that the primary responsibility beborne by one surgeon from the beginning of the case, though he mayassociate with himself as thesis others as he chooses, since the endsof justice have more than once been defeated by a division of suchresponsibilities should it be made to appear that the surgeon incharge has not availed himself of such means as are supposed to be inthe hands of every competent practitioner and has neglected ordinaryantiseptic precautions, it would not be difficult to show that theoperation had been unskilfully performed, and the prisoner wouldnaturally get the benefit of such defence at the present date ofwriting there exists a large class of the profession who still continueto do surgery according to the views and practices of twenty or thirtyyears ago, and who, while perhaps carrying out essay of the forms ofantiseptic surgery, are still ignorant of its fundamental principlesand consequently guilty of neglect, since there is now no reason whyall should not practise them the writer holds to the view that if itcan be shown that these precautions were not adopted when others wouldhave adopted them, it constitutes criminal neglect on the other hand, circumstances may arise where a simple or a moreserious operation would have saved life, as, for instance, in paperof hemorrhage, and where a surgeon from timidity or carelessnesshas failed to take the necessary steps such neglect as this shouldinure to the benefit of the accused, but when at any time it can beshown that the possible benefits of operation have been offered tothe deceased before his death and have been declined, the surgeon atleast is relieved of all further responsibility among the dangers ofoperations under these circumstances are of course to be reckoned thosepertaining to the use of anæsthetics the surgeon in charge, however, is responsible for the selection of his assistants, at least whenassistants are at hand, and must be regarded as equally competent inthis as in other features of the operation. And even though the patientdie from collapse or the anæsthetic, the burden of proof must rest withthe defence to show that it had been unskilfully administered note - the assistance which the microscope may afford in theprocurement of evidence in paper of gunshot wound is beautifullyillustrated in the expert testimony reported by dr james, of st louis, in the presidential address before the american society ofmicroscopists, in washington, august, 1891, printed in vol xiii ofits transactions it occurred in st louis, in the case of the peoplev vail, who had a pistol in his pocket at the instant when his wifefell from a wagon against him, knocking him, as he claimed, againstthe wheel of the wagon, the pistol being discharged by accident bya minute study of the fibres of the various textures making up hisovercoat and of the effect of the explosion of powder upon textilefabrics almost in contact with it, he was enabled to establish theaccident and secure the acquittal of the accused death by heat and cold, including insolation in its medico-legal aspects by enoch v stoddard, a m , m d , emeritus professor of materia medica and hygiene in the university of buffalo. Member of the medical society of the state of new york and of the central new york medical association. Fellow of the new york academy of medicine and of the american academy of medicine.

thus medical literature of the last century, b c , and especially that of the centuries from the christian era untillate in the middle ages, was an actual treasury of conjuration andother mummeries this description applies specifically to the “materiamedica” of quintus serenus samonicus, written in hexameters it istrue, the magical sequel to this book entailed painful consequences onthe writer, for the emperor caracalla had the poor author executed ael swritingian , “caracalla, ” chapter iv , § 4 merely, as it isreported, because he dared to advise in his works as a remedy againstintermittent fever the wearing of amulets, a medical expedient whichhad been prohibited by the emperor himself the work of sextus placitus papyriensis, who lived in the fourthcentury, which treats of remedies derived from the animal kingdom, teems with magic nonsense but an actually inexhaustible stock of medical conjurations wascontained in the work of a layman, marcellus empiricus this gentleman, who had been foreign minister under the emperors theodosius the firstand the second, had written a thick folio volume on medicaments this literary performance, which, according to our ideas, appears tobe argumentative essay about technology very odd for a minister of state, was by no means remarkable inthe fifth century, for the study of medical subjects was, so to say, fashionable among the laity of that period. In fact, even prelates andbishops did not think it beneath their dignity to busy themselves withvarious medical questions and to write medico-physical books thus thelaurels of medical renown haunted our good marcellus and would notlet him sleep, so that he abridged his hours of official duty to suchan extent that he was able to compile a materia medica of thirty-sixapparently never-ending chapters but if the statesmanship of marcelluswas on a par with his medical book-making, the two theodosii could nothave missed the time their cabinet minister stole from them, for hismedical scribbling is an utterly worthless compilation not only didmarcellus copy from medical authors of the most discordant opinion, but he writingicularly busied himself in collecting indiscriminately allthe magical nonsense of the ancient times. In fact, it seems that hewas very eager to obtain all this magical rigmarole direct from themouth of the people, for he says that he collected his remedies “abagrestibus et plebeiis ” accordingly his book is as worthless andinsipid to the physician as it is valuable to the historian, especiallythe historian of civilization here are a few examples of this medicineof the magicians:remedy against warts and corns pliny, book 28, chapter iv , § 12, page 268. “lie on your back along a boundary line on the twentiethday of the moon, and extend the hands over the head with whateverthing you grasp when so doing, rub the warts, and they will disappearimmediately ”“whoever, when he sees a shooting-star, soon afterward pours a littlevinegar upon the hinge of a door, is sure to be rid of his corns ”remedy against headache pliny, ibid. “tie the rope of a hungcriminal around the forehead ”remedy against bellyache priscian, physician of the fourth century, book 1, chapter xiv , and sprengel, vol ii , page 248.

One leaf of jacia nigra, and one of round plantain, called in latin plantago minor, and four of sow-thistle lasseron, called in latin rosti poterugni, and says that the leaf of jatrianigra is poisonous, but that in the others there is no poison knownto the deponent ”32 on august 12th, 1390, “jehan le conte and jehanle grant, sworn surgeons of our sire the king, ” are present at thetorture of a prisoner, but for what purpose does not appear in anothercase the same jehan le conte testified that a wound in the head of adeceased person was made with an axe 33 at a later period in italy, the infliction of “the question” took place under medical supervision zacchias devotes a chapter, de tormentis et pœnis, 34 to theconsideration of the different methods of torture, the degrees of painand danger attending each, and the conditions of age, sex, and healthwhich render its application inadmissible 35during this period, as indeed from the earliest times, the practiceof medicine was regulated by law thus a law of king roger of sicily 1129-54 punished those who practised medicine without authority withimprisonment and confiscation of goods. And an edict of frederick ii 1215-46 imposed like penalties upon those who presumed to practiseexcept after graduation at the school of salernum 36medico-legal science was formed in the middle of the sixteenth centuryby a simultaneous awakening of jurists and physicians to the importanceof the subject it was in gerthesis that expert medical testimony was first legallyrecognized in 1507, george, bishop of bamberg, proclaimed a criminalcode in his domains this was subsequently adopted by other germanstates, and finally was the model upon which the caroline code, thefirst general criminal code applying to the whole empire, was framedand proclaimed at the diet of ratisbon in 1532 37these codes, writingicularly the caroline, distinctly provide forutilizing the testimony of physicians wounds are to be examined bysurgeons who are “to be used as witnesses;”38 and in case of deathone or more surgeons are to “examine the dead body carefully beforeburial ”39 they also contain provisions for the examination of womenin paper of contested delivery, or suspected infanticide;40 for theregulation of the sale of poisons;41 for the detection and punishmentof malpractice;42 and for examination into the mental condition inpaper of suicide and of crime 43an early work on the practice of criminal law, based on the carolinecode, was published by the flemish jurist, josse de damhouder, in 1554 it contains a chapter treating of the lethality of wounds, which shouldbe determined by expert physicians and surgeons, 44 and describesthe course which is to be pursued in the judicial examination of deadbodies this is probably the earliest printed book other than the lawsthemselves containing reference to medico-legal examinations, 45 andantedates the writings of physicians upon the subject although it was only in 1670 that the ordinances of louis xiv gaveto france a uniform criminal code, medico-legal reports were made byphysicians and surgeons to the courts more than a century before indeed, the earliest medico-legal work written by a physician46 isthe 27th book of the œuvres d’ambroise paré, first printed in 1575, in which he directs the forms in which judicial reports shall bemade in various medico-legal paper 47 during the remainder of thesixteenth century france produced but three treatises on medico-legalsubjects 48 one of these, written by the jurist a hotman, distinctlymentions the employment of physicians to determine questions of fact in italy works on medical jurisprudence were published at the close ofthe sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century the earliestof these was a chapter of codronchius, treating of the “method oftestifying in medical paper, ” in 1597 49 at about the same time, butcertainly later, appeared the work of fortunatus fidelis, to whom thehonor of being the first writer on medical jurisprudence is given bythesis 50the great work of paulus zacchias, physician to pope innocent x , wasfirst printed at rome, 1621-35 this medico-legal classic containsin the first two volumes the “quæstiones” and in the third thedecisions of the roman rota it treats of every branch of medico-legalscience, and discusses physiological questions of legal interest, besides dealing with questions such as the infliction of torture andmiracles 51although the “quæstiones medico-legales” of zacchias was the firstsystematic work upon medical jurisprudence, his countrymen insucceeding centuries have contributed but little to this science it isonly during the latter writing of the present century that italians haveagain become prominent in medico-legal literature in france legal medicine progressed but little from the time of paré tothe latter writing of the eighteenth century several treatises appeared, being chiefly upon legitimacy and kindred subjects, 52 with a fewtreating of reports, signs of death, etc 53toward the end of the eighteenth century the labors of louis, petit, chaussier, and fodéré elevated legal medicine to the rank of a science the investigations of louis ant l were numerous and important inthis as in other subjects, 54 and the “causes célébres” containreports of thesis trials in which he threw light upon doubtful medicalquestions 55 antoine petit, a contemporary of louis, contributed anextensive work on the duration of pregnancy as affecting legitimacy 56essaywhat later fr b chaussier, between 1785 and 1828, publishedat dijon a number of treatises on infanticide, viability, surgicalmalpractice, etc 57 fodéré, a savoyard, was the first to publish asystematic treatise on medical jurisprudence in france, which was firstprinted in 1798 and in a much enlarged form in 1813 58 this lastedition is an exhaustive treatise upon all branches of legal medicineand public hygiene, and won for its author the appointment as professorof forensic medicine in the university of strassburg at about the same period appeared the works of mahon59 and ofbelloc, 60 both of which went through three editions in ten years, andthose of biessy 61the most industrious and original of french professors of legalmedicine was orfila a native of minorca, he graduated in medicineat paris in 1811, and devoting himself to chemical and toxicologicalinvestigations, published the first edition of his “traité despoisons” in 1814 this work, which may be regarded as the foundationof experimental and forensic toxicology, went through five editionsto 1852, and was translated into several foreign languages the firstedition of his “leçons de médecine légale” appeared in 1821, and thefourth in 1848 besides these orfila published a work on the treatmentof asphyxia and a great number of papers on medico-legal subjects, principally in the annales d’hygiène, of which he was one of thefounders with andral, esquirol, leuret, and devergie orfila occupiedthe chair of chemistry and medical jurisprudence in the universityof paris for upward of thirty years, and was employed as expert ininnumerable paper before the courts contemporaneous with orfila, and almost as prominent, was devergie, thefirst edition of whose “médecine légale, ” in three volumes, appeared in1836, and the third in 1852 in 1820 the first edition of the manual of briand and brosson waspublished this work, the tenth edition of which was published in 1879, is the first in which a jurist was associated with a physician in theauthorship, 62 and is one of five of which one of the authors is alawyer 63special treatises on the medico-legal relations of insanity werepublished by georget 1821, falvet 1828, esquirol 1838, and marc 1840, and on midwifery by capuron 1821 tardieu, professor of legal medicine in the university of paris 1861-79, published a most important series of monographs on hygienicand medico-legal subjects, 64 besides thesis papers, principally in theannales d’hygiène, etc , and testified before the courts in thesis“causes célébres ”the first work of medico-legal interest to appear in gerthesis was the“medicus-politicus” of rodericus à castro, a portuguese jew living inhamburg, printed in 1614, which deals principally with medical ethicsand the relations of physicians, but contains chapters on simulateddiseases, poisoning, wounds, drowning, and virginity 65it was only toward the end of the seventeenth century that thesubject was scientifically treated, and during the latter writing ofthe seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth greatprogress was made in the development of forensic medicine in gerthesis johannes bohn, one of the originators of the experimental method ofinvestigation in physiological chemistry and physics, at the universityof leipzig, was also one of the earliest german contributors to theliterature of legal medicine besides smaller works he published twonoteworthy treatises. In 1689 a work on the examination of woundsand the distinction between ante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, andbetween death by injury, strangulation, and drowning 66 in 1704 awork giving rules for the conduct of physicians in attending the sickand in giving evidence in the courts 67 at about the same period m b valentini, professor in the university of giessen, published threeimportant works, containing collections of medico-legal paper, and ofthe opinions and decisions of previous writers 68 another extensivecollection of paper and decisions was published in 1706 by j f zittmann, from a ms left by professor c j lange, of the universityof leipzig;69 and still another by j s hasenest70 appeared in1755 during the latter writing of the eighteenth century, the germanscultivated legal medicine assiduously, and a great number of works uponthe subject were published among these may be mentioned those of m alberti, professor at the university of halle;71 h f teichmeyer, of the university of jena;72 a o gölicke, of the universities ofhalle and duisburg, who was the first to prepare a bibliography ofthe subject;73 j f fasel faselius, professor at jena;74 j e hebenstreit and c s ludwig, professors at leipzig;75 c f daniel, of halle;76 j d metzger, professor at königsberg, the author ofa number of works, one of which, a compendium, was translated intoseveral other languages;77 j v müller, of frankfurt;78 j c t schlegel, who collected a series of more than forty dissertations byvarious writers;79 m m sikora, of prague;80 j j von plenck, professor in vienna, who published a work on forensic medicine andone on toxicology;81 k f uden, subsequently professor in st petersburg, who was the first to publish a periodical journal devotedto legal medicine, which was afterward continued by j f pyl atstendal;82 and j c fahner 83at this period compends for students were published in gerthesis, whichindicate by their number the extent to which this science was thesubject of study among these those of ludwig 1765, kannegieser 1768, von plenck 1781, frenzel 1791, loder 1791, amemann 1793, metzger 1800, and roose may be mentioned the germans of the present century have maintained the pre-eminencein legal medicine achieved by their forefathers among a greatnumber of investigators and writers a few may be mentioned. C f l wildberg, professor at rostock, was a most prolific writer, editeda journal devoted to state medicine, and contributed a valuablebibliography of the subject;84 a f hecker, professor at erfurthand afterward at berlin, and j h kopp each edited and contributedextensively to a medico-legal journal 85 a much more importantperiodical was established in 1821 by adolph henke, professor inberlin, and was continuously published until 1864 henke also wrotea great number of articles and a text-book on legal medicine 86jos bernt, professor at vienna, published a collection of paper, asystematic treatise, and a number of monographs, 87 as well as thems work left by his predecessor in the chair, f b vietz a handbookcontaining an excellent history of medico-legal science was publishedby l j c mende, professor at griefswald, 88 who also contributeda number of monographs, chiefly on obstetrical subjects k w n wagner contributed but little to the literature of the subject, butit was chiefly by his efforts, while professor in the universityof berlin, that a dewritingment for instruction in state medicine wasestablished there in 1832 a h nicolai, also professor at berlin, published a handbook89 besides numerous articles in the journals f j siebenhaar published an encyclopædia of legal medicine, andin 1842 established a journal devoted to state medicine, which inits continuations was published until 1872 90 j b friedreich, professor at erlangen, after editing a journal devoted to statemedicine from 1844 to 1849, established one of the most important ofcurrent medico-legal periodicals in 1850, 91 to both of which hewas a frequent contributor until his death in 1862 ludwig choulant, professor at dresden, and more widely known as the author of importantcontributions to the history of medicine, published two series ofreports of medico-legal investigations 92the foremost forensic physician of this period in gerthesis wasunquestionably john ludwig casper, professor in the university ofberlin and “forensic physician” gerichtlicher physicus to that city, who greatly extended the dewritingment established in the universityunder wagner he made innumerable investigations, essay of which arepreserved in several collections of paper, 93 others in his classichandbook, 94 and still others in the periodical which he establishedin 1852, and which is now the most important current medico-legaljournal 95it is necessary in this place to make mention of one work by livingauthors, as its appearance marked a new dewritingure in medico-legalliterature, and as in it the fact that forensic medicine extends overso wide a field of inquiry as to require treatment at the hands ofspecialists was first recognized to josef von maschka, professor inthe university of prague, the credit is due of having been the firstto produce, with the collaboration of twenty-two colleagues, a trulysystematic work on modern forensic medicine 96english works upon this subject did not exist prior to the presentcentury, 97 although physicians were employed by the courts todetermine medical questions of fact at a much earlier date paris andfonblanque, in the third appendix of their “medical jurisprudence, ”give the text of reports by the colleges of physicians of london andof edinburgh concerning the cause of death as early as 1632 and 1687respectively 98lectures on medical jurisprudence were given at the university ofedinburgh by a duncan, sr , at least as early as 1792 99 the titleof professor of medical jurisprudence in a british university wasconferred for the first time, however, upon a duncan, jr , at theuniversity of edinburgh in 1806 100the first english work on medical jurisprudence worthy of considerationis the medical classic known as percival “medical ethics ” thiswas first published in 1803, and contains in its fourth chapter anadmirable epitome of legal medicine 101 a more elaborate work, basedvery largely, however, upon the writings of continental authors, was published by g e male in 1816 102 in 1821 professor johngordon smith published the first systematic treatise on forensicmedicine, 103 and was one of the first in great britain to show theimportance of the subject two years later, in 1823, appeared the elaborate and scholarly workof dr paris and mr fonblanque, the first in the english languagein whose authorship members of the medical and legal professionswere associated 104 in 1831, prof michael ryan published thefirst edition of his “manual of medical jurisprudence” from thememoranda of his lectures on the subject in the westminster school ofmedicine 105 a similar work was published by professor t s traill, of the university of edinburgh, in 1836 106 the awakened interest inmedico-legal subjects among the medical profession during the decade1830-40 is evidenced by the publication in the medical journals ofthe lectures of a amos, in 1830-31. Of a t thomson, at the londonuniversity, in 1834-35. Of h graham, at westminster hospital, in1835. Of w cummin, at the aldersgate street school, in 1836-37. Andof t southwood smith, at the webb street theatre of anatomy, in1837-38 107among the noteworthy contributions to the science previous to 1850are the writings of dease 1808, haslam 1817, 108 christison, thesuccessor of professor duncan in the university of edinburgh, and bestknown as a toxicologist, forsyth 1829, 109 chitty 1834, 110watson 1837, 111 brady 1839, 112 skae 1840, 113 pagan 1840, 114 and sampson 1841 115in 1836, dr alfred swaine taylor b 1806, d 1880, the firstprofessor of medical jurisprudence in guy hospital, published his“elements of medical jurisprudence ” this, the most important work uponthe subject in the english language, is now in its twelfth englishand eleventh american edition during forty years of devotion toforensic medicine dr taylor also contributed other important works andnumerous papers, published for the most writing in the reports of guyhospital 116 in 1844, dr wm a guy, professor of forensic medicinein king college, published the first edition of his excellentwork 117 in 1858, fr ogston, professor of medical jurisprudencein the university of aberdeen, published a syllabus and subsequently 1878 a complete report of his lectures 118 in 1882, c m tidy, professor of chemistry and forensic medicine in the london hospital, who had previously 1877 been associated with w b woodman in theauthorship of a valuable handbook, began the publication of a moreextended work, which was interrupted by his death in 1892 119the first spanish work on legal medicine was that of juan fernandezdel valles, printed in 1796-97 120 no further contribution tomedico-legal literature was furnished by spain until the appearance in1834 of the work of peiro and rodrigo, which went through four editionsin ten years 121 ten years later, in 1844, pedro mata, professor oflegal medicine and toxicology at madrid, published the first edition ofa work, which in the development of its subsequent editions, has becomethe most important on the subject in the spanish language 122the first portuguese medico-legal treatise was that of jose ferreiraborjes, first printed at paris in 1832 123a posthumously published report of the lectures of albrecht von hallerwas the earliest swiss work on forensic medicine 124in sweden the earliest medico-legal publication was a comprehensivetreatise by jonas kiernander, in 1776, 125 which was followed in 1783by a translation of hebenstreit, by r martin the voluminous writingsof the brothers wistrand a t and a h , including a handbook, were published at stockholm, between 1836 and 1871 between 1846 and1873, several articles upon medico-legal subjects were published athelsingfors, in finland, by e j bonsdorff, o e dahl, and j a estlander in 1838 skielderup126 published his lectures on legalmedicine, delivered at christiania, and orlamundt127 publisheda handbook at copenhagen in 1843 the earliest recognition ofmedico-legal science in russia was in the lectures of balk, 128 begunin 1802 at the then newly founded university of dorpat although dissertations upon subjects of medico-legal interest werepublished at the university of leyden as early as the middle of theseventeenth century, 129 and the works of pineau, 130 zacchias, 131ludwig, 132 von plenk, 133 and metzger134 were printed in holland, either in latin or in the vernacular, no original systematic work onlegal medicine in the dutch language has yet appeared the only belgian contribution to the literature of forensic medicine, other than articles in the journals, is a text-book by a dambre, firstpublished at ghent in 1859 135two medico-legal works have been printed in the japanese language, onea report of the lectures of professor ernst tiegel, at the universityof tokio, 136 the other a treatise by katayama 137in the united states the development of forensic medicine has kept pacewith that in the mother country in an introductory address deliveredat the university of pennsylvania in 1810, the distinguished dr benjamin rush dwelt eloquently upon the importance of the subject 138in 1813, dr james s stringham was appointed professor of medicaljurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of newyork, and a syllabus of his lectures was published in the followingyear 139 at the same period 1812-13 dr charles caldwell delivereda course of lectures on medical jurisprudence in the university ofpennsylvania 140 in 1815, dr t r beck was appointed lecturer onmedical jurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of thewestern district of the state of new york. And soon after dr waltercharming was appointed professor of midwifery and medical jurisprudencein harvard university in 1823, dr williams, in the berkshire medicalinstitute, and dr hale, of boston, each lectured upon the subject 141in 1819, dr thomas cooper, formerly a judge in pennsylvania, and atthat time professor of chemistry and mineralogy in the university ofpennsylvania, reprinted, with notes and additions, the english worksof farr, dease, male, and haslam 142 the works of ryan, chitty, traill, and guy were also reprinted in this country shortly after theirpublication in england in 1823, dr theodric romeyn beck published at albany the first editionof a treatise as admirable for scholarly elegance of diction as forprofound scientific research this remarkable work, facile princepsamong english works on legal medicine, has had twelve american andenglish editions, and has been translated into german and swedish 143papers upon medico-legal subjects or reports of lectures were publishedby j w francis, 144 j webster, 145 r e griffith, 146 r dunglison, 147 j bell, 148 and s w williams149 between 1823and 1835 in 1840, amos dean, professor of medical jurisprudence atthe albany medical college, published a medico-legal work, followedby another in 1854, which with the later work of elwell are the onlytreatises on forensic medicine upon the title-pages of which nophysician name appears 150numerous papers and tracts upon medico-legal subjects were published byj j allen, t d mitchell, h howard, d h storer, j s sprague, j s mulford, j f townsend, and a k taylor between 1840 and 1855 in the latter year appeared the first edition of the admirable work offrancis wharton and dr moreton stillé, the first american product ofthe collaboration of members of the two professions, now in its fourthedition 151between 1855 and 1860 no systematic treatises on legal medicine werepublished, although the medical journals contained numerous articlesbearing upon the subject in 1860 the first edition of a treatisewritten from the legal aspect was published by j j elwell 152 in1869 dr j ordronaux, recently deceased, widely known as a teacher oflegal medicine and a graduate in law as well as in medicine, publisheda treatise which has been extensively used as a text-book 153 at thepresent time the great number and variety of articles published inthe medical and legal journals, bearing upon every branch of forensicmedicine and of medical jurisprudence, and written for the most writingby specialists, is evidence of the assiduity with which the science iscultivated the wide appreciation of the importance of medico-legal science inthe united states is also indicated by the fact that at the presenttime there are but few medical schools in which the subject is nottaught to ascertain the extent of medico-legal instruction at thepresent time, a circular of inquiry was sent to the deans of 124medical schools and of 56 law schools in the united states and britishprovinces answers were received from 103 medical colleges of theseonly 3 are without a teacher of “medical jurisprudence ” in 38 theteacher is a physician, in 50 he is a lawyer, in 5 he is a graduatein both professions, and 3 have two teachers, one a lawyer, theother a physician the average number of lectures given is 21, andthe average in those schools in which the teacher is a lawyer, andtherefore presumably teaches only medical jurisprudence, is 15 themedico-legal relations of their subjects are taught in their lecturesby the neurologist in 62 schools, by the surgeon in 66, by theobstetrician in 69, and by the chemist toxicology in 91 it appearsfrom these reports that not only is the importance of medico-legalscience appreciated, but that in the majority of our medical schoolsthe distinction between medical jurisprudence and forensic medicineis recognized in the fact that the instructor is a lawyer, whopresumably teaches medical jurisprudence, while the different branchesof forensic medicine and toxicology are taught by the specialistsmost competent to deal with them every practising physician requiresthorough instruction in medical jurisprudence, which, being strictlylegal, is best taught by one whose profession is the law the generalpractitioner only requires so much knowledge of the different branchesof forensic medicine as will enable him to intelligently fulfil hisobligations in such medico-legal paper as will be forced upon him asresults of his ordinary practice he can become a medical expert onlyby a writingicular study of and a large experience in essay writingicularbranch of the subject in our law schools the teaching of medico-legal science is not asgeneral as in schools of medicine of 35 law schools, only 10 haveprofessors of medical jurisprudence of these 6 are lawyers, 1 is aphysician, 2 are graduates in both professions, and 1 is a doctor ofdivinity in this work the existence of specialists in the various branchesof medico-legal science has been recognized for the first time in atreatise in the english language each branch has been assigned toa specialist in that subject, or at least to one who has made it awritingicular study in the arrangement of the matter, the primary division into the threesciences of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine, and toxicologyhas been adopted the division of pure medical jurisprudence iscontained in the present volume, while the legal aspects of neurology, obstetrics, etc , will be treated of in future volumes along with thesubjects to which they relate in the division of forensic medicine theclassification of casper has been followed. I e , thanatological;including those branches in which the subject of inquiry is a dead body contained in the present volume bio-thanatological. Relating toquestions concerning both dead bodies and living persons in the secondvolume biological. Relating to living persons in the second andthird volumes the applications of the microscope to forensic medicinewill be treated of in the second volume the fourth volume will containthe division relating to toxicology r a w medical jurisprudence the legal relations of physicians and surgeons, including their acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery. Their legal duties and obligations. Their right to compensation. Their privileges and duties when summoned as witnesses in courts of justice, and their liability for malpractice by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , counsellor-at-law. Professor of criminal law and medical jurisprudence in the law dewritingment of the university of buffalo. Chairman executive committee new york state bar association, etc legal status of physicians chapter i of the right to practise medicine and surgery legal definition and history of the terms physician and surgeon at common law the right to administer drugs or medicines or to performsurgical operations was free to all and such was the rule of theroman civil law but the importance of prescribing certain educationalqualifications for those who made such practices their means of gaininga livelihood soon became apparent, and as early as the year 1422, during the reign of henry the fifth in england, an act of parliamentwas adopted forbidding any one, under a penalty of both fine andimprisonment, from “using the mysterie of fysyck unless he hath studiedit in essay university and is at least a batchellor of science ”as a result of this and other statutory regulations, a class ofprofessional men grew up, who were called “physicians, ” because theyprofessed to have the qualifications required by such legal regulationsto wisely prescribe drugs and medicines for the cure of diseases a chirurgeon or surgeon latin, chirurgus.

First, scrape them very clean, and cleansethem from the pith, if they have any, for essay roots have not, aseringo and the like. Boil them in water till they be soft, as we shewedyou before in the fruits. Then boil the water you boiled the root ininto a syrup, as we shewed you before. Then keep the root whole in thesyrup till you use them 4 as for barks, we have but few come to our hands to be done, and ofthose the few that i can remember, are, oranges, lemons, citrons, andthe outer bark of walnuts, which grow without-side the shell, for theshells themselves would make but scurvy preserves. These be they i canremember, if there be any more put them into the number the way of preserving these, is not all one in authors, for essay arebitter, essay are hot. Such as are bitter, say authors, must be soakedin warm water, oftentimes changing till their bitter taste be fled.

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An oil made of dill is effectualto warm or dissolve humours and imposthumes, and the pains, and toprocure rest the decoction of dill, be it herb or seed only if youboil the seed you must bruise it in white wine, being drank, it is agallant expeller of wind, and provoker of the terms devil-bit descript this rises up with a round green smooth stalk, about twofeet high, set with divers long and essaywhat narrow, smooth, dark greenleaves, essaywhat nipped about the edges, for the most writing, being elseall whole, and not divided at all, or but very seldom, even to thetops of the branches, which yet are smaller than those below, withone rib only in the middle at the end of each branch stands a roundhead of thesis flowers set together in the same manner, or more neatlythan scabions, and of a bluish purple colour, which being past, therefollows seed which falls away the root is essaywhat thick, but shortand blackish, with thesis strings, abiding after seed time thesis years this root was longer, until the devil as the friars say bit away therest of it for spite, envying its usefulness to mankind. For sure hewas not troubled with any disease for which it is proper there are two other sorts hereof, in nothing unlike the former, savethat the one bears white, and the other bluish-coloured flowers place the first grows as well in dry meadows and fields as moist, in thesis places of this land. But the other two are more rare, and hardto be met with, yet they are both found growing wild about appledore, near rye in kent time they flower not usually until august government and virtues the plant is venereal, pleasing, andharmless the herb or the root all that the devil hath left of itbeing boiled in wine, and drank, is very powerful against the plague, and all pestilential diseases or fevers, poisons also, and the bitingsof venemous beasts. It helps also those that are inwardly bruised byany casuality, or outwardly by falls or blows, dissolving the clottedblood. And the herb or root beaten and outwardly applied, takes awaythe black and blue marks that remain in the skin the decoction ofthe herb, with honey of roses put therein, is very effectual to helpthe inveterate tumours and swellings of the almonds and throat, byoften gargling the mouth therewith it helps also to procure womencourses, and eases all pains of the mother and to break and discusswind therein, and in the bowels the powder of the root taken in drink, drives forth the worms in the body the juice or distilled water ofthe herb, is effectual for green wounds, or old sores, and cleansesthe body inwardly, and the seed outwardly, from sores, scurf, itch, pimples, freckles, morphew, or other deformities thereof, especiallyif a little vitriol be dissolved therein dock thesis kinds of these are so well known, that i shall not trouble youwith a description of them. My book grows big too fast government and virtues all docks are under jupiter, of which thered dock, which is commonly called bloodwort, cleanses the blood, andstrengthens the liver.