History

Argument Essay Example


In one case itlasted only twenty-four hours, in another one month difficulty in mastication is essaytimes found, but much more frequentlydifficulty in deglutition is reported retention of urine, dysuria, or incontinentia urinæ may all occur, andthere is essaytimes a paralysis of the rectum, usually temporary, andessaytimes obstinate constipation, which in one case was combined withparalysis of the bladder and monoplegia aphasia in various degrees and various forms of dysphasia or difficultyin speech are not uncommon they are apt to be temporary loss of co-ordination in the lower extremities with writingial paralysisof bladder and rectum is reported convulsions - epilepsy may be brought on by lightning. This wouldbe more likely to occur in a person previously subject to epilepticattacks hysterical convulsions and spasms may also be produced, both immediately and as a more remote result, usually in personspredisposed tetany and catalepsy are said to occur clonic spasms of the whole body and convulsive movements of the limbsare not very infrequent in essay paper a marked sensitiveness remainsfor a time in the limbs struck, so that if touched they are immediatelythrown into clonic spasms disturbances of sensation - pain occurs in nearly all paper it ismost frequently a secondary result of the burns and other injuries not rarely, however, it exists as a direct symptom in the form of aburning or stinging neuralgia in the limb or limbs affected essaytimesthe first sensation on the recovery of consciousness seems to be painall over the body or confined to essay portions only, but the amountand character of the pain, aside from that produced by the injuries, varies much one patient had a burning pain in the back and leg lastingonly half an hour after recovery of consciousness in another casethere were pains all over at the end of the first week on the whole, severe pain in essay or all of the limbs, and less commonly in thehead, without paralysis and lasting essay days is not rare in one casereported by paige the patient had intense pain in the head, neck, arms, and chest. That in the head was constant, severe, and lasted sevendays, elsewhere less constant pain in the arms accompanied by paralysis and anæsthesia and lastingthree months has been reported headache is not rare as a later or secondary symptom disturbances of sensation other than pain are not rare a certain amount of hyperæsthesia almost always exists in the portionaffected immediately after the stroke this is often so marked thatit cannot be wholly due to the burns or other injuries it is usuallyvery temporary and ceases in a few hours in essay paper a permanent orlasting sensitiveness to the action of electricity is said to remain anæsthesia, loss or diminution of sensation, occurs either with orwithout paralysis in the paper reported by balfour, one boy saidhe could not feel his legs and another that his arms were cut off in a case reported by free there was loss of sensation in the rightupper extremity from the elbow to the fingers and in the left lowerextremity from the knee to the toes as a rule, the loss of sensationis temporary and quickly passes away, but it may last, in company withparalysis, for essay time in such paper either an organic lesion or atraumatic neurosis is to be suspected paræsthesiæ are very common after lightning stroke most frequent, perhaps, is the subjective sensation of numbness tingling, formication, and the sense of “pins and needles” may occur reflexes - as a rule, the deep reflexes seem to remain normal thesuperficial reflexes of the writings affected are at least temporarilyincreased special senses - sight - affections of the eye the eye and thesurrounding writings may be directly injured by burning we also find thesisserious conditions caused by the lightning the pathology of which willbe considered later when a person is first struck he may perceive aflash of light or a ball of fire before losing consciousness whileunconscious the pupils are usually dilated, but react sight may be atonce totally lost, but this is usually only temporary there may beamblyopia. Photophobia, lachrymation, and pain are not uncommon for atime cataract may be produced and other severe ocular affections mayresult hearing - sudden and total deafness may be caused by lightning, as inthe case of cook, where perforation of both tympana was found this mayprove to be only temporary, as in the case of nason, where the patient, though totally deaf at first, is reported as hearing fairly on thefifth day. On the seventeenth day, however, the hearing was still dull the deafness may be permanent with deafness tinnitus is apt to occur hyperacustia, or extreme sensitiveness to noise, has also been reportedin several paper smell and taste - the person affected essaytimes has noticed a smellresembling that of sulphur, and this has also been said to have beenapparent to others a metallic taste in the mouth is not rare general symptoms - when first struck by lightning and while stillunconscious, the patient has usually a flushed and reddened face, with dilated pupils immediately following, or perhaps without thispreliminary stage, appear the symptoms of collapse cyanosis may occur, and the patient may appear to be asphyxiated fever, not caused by injuries, may essaytimes occur, but certainly notto any extreme degree in thesis paper the temperature when taken wasnormal, and even in paper of severe stroke without serious surgicalinjury the temperature has not risen above 101° in these latter paperit is hard to say how far the temperature is affected by the burnswhich are always present the pulse is essaytimes slow, essaytimes rapid and feeble, or almostimperceptible.

And i so stated in my letter to the proprietors of that remedy answers to the questions you put in your letter require an amount of investigation of the remedy far beyond anything i undertook as a matter of fact, i returned about five sixths of the capsules sent me, because of lack of time and opportunity to carry out the extensive clinical experiments that i plainly saw would be required to give an opinion at all worth while i believe you had better not consider me in the matter at all the report was furnished by a physician for whom i have a high personalregard i introduce it here, not so much in a spirit of criticism, but as a justification of the opinion that i have formed of clinicalevidence obtained by manufacturers through their clinical adjutors when commercial firms claim to base their conclusions on clinicalreports, the profession has a right to expect that these reportsshould be submitted to competent and independent review when suchreports are kept secret, it is impossible for any one to decide whatproportion of them are trustworthy, and what proportion thoughtless, incompetent or accommodating however, if this were done it is quitepossible that such firms would find much more difficulty in obtainingthe reports those who collaborate should realize frankly that underpresent conditions they are collaborating, not so much in determiningthe scientific value, but rather in establishing the commercial valueof the article often the best type of clinical reports-- those in which theobservations are directed to the significant events and not to mereside lines, and in which the significant events are correctly andadequately argument essay example reported-- generally lack one important essential, namely, anadequate control of the natural course of the disease since this cannot be controlled directly, it must be compensatedindirectly for this purpose, there are available two methods:the first is the statistical method, in which alternate patientsreceive or do not receive the treatment this method can usuallyonly be of value when a very large series of patients is available even then, its value is limited or doubtful, because it cannot takesufficient account of the individuality of paper the second method consists in the attempt to distinguish unknownpreparations by their effects-- the method that might be called the“comparative method” or the “blind test ”in this, the patient, or a series of patients, is given the preparationwhich is to be tested, and another preparation which is inactive, and the observer aims to distinguish the two preparations by theireffects on the patient surely if the drug has any actions at all itwill be possible to select correctly in a decided majority of theadministrations the same principle can be applied in distinguishing the superiorityof one preparation over another in this case, the two preparationswould be given alternately to different patients, and the observerwould try to distinguish them by their effects here again, if onedrug is really superior or otherwise different from another, to apractically important extent, the observer will surely be able to makethe distinction this method is really the only one that avoids the pitfalls of clinicalobservation. It is the only method that makes the results purelyobjective, really independent of the bias of the observer and thepatient it is the only method, therefore, which determines whether itwas really the pudding that was eaten and not essay other dessert in principle this method does not usually offer any very greatdifficulties it is, of course, necessary that the two preparationsto be compared shall resemble each other so closely or shall beflavored, etc , so that they cannot be distinguished by their physicalproperties this is usually not a very difficult matter the methoddoes not jeopardize the interests of the patient, for it is understoodthat no drug would be tested in this way unless there is essay reasonto believe that it has a value when the patient condition is suchas to demand treatment, then he would be receiving either the standarddrug or the drug which the experimenter believes may be superior to thestandard conclusionsthe final and crucial test of a remedy is on the patient. But thetest must be framed so as to make it really crucial most clinicaltherapeutic evidence falls far short of this the “blind test” is urgedto meet the deficiencies -- from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 “vaccines in toxic conditions” commercialized propaganda in the guise of scienceunder the title “vaccines in toxic conditions, ” what purports to bea scientific contribution appears in the original dewritingment of theofficial organ of a state medical society 311 the apparent purpose ofthe article is to overcome any hesitancy on the writing of practitionersto use vaccines in toxic infectious conditions for fear that theymight thereby cause harm such a thesis is interesting and might beimportant-- if true two outstanding facts, however, give pause first, the theory promulgated is contrary to the experience of those whohave studied the subject. Second, the man who writes the article isin the business of making and selling vaccines!. the former fact is amatter of fairly general knowledge among the better informed membersof the medical profession. The latter fact is nowhere made evident inthe article, which the reader might infer came from a disinterestedinvestigator in the realms of immunology 311 sherman, g h. Vaccines in toxic conditions, illinois m j 38:314 oct 1920 the article purports to prove that the special investigations carriedon by its author show that there is no basis for the well-groundedfear that vaccines might be harmful to a patient suffering from toxicinfectious conditions thus. From a closer study of these infective processes we find that this toxic condition is due to the rapid multiplication of the infecting organisms with the incidental production of ferments which the germs secrete to digest the food on which they live these toxic ferments have a distinct destructive tendency on tissue cells, without any marked influence in stimulating tissue cells for antibody production the crying need, however, in these extensive acute infections is rapid antibody formation to neutralize these germ-produced poisons and to eliminate the germs now vaccines, we are informed, are not toxic and so stimulate theproduction of antibodies in other words, the same organism that inthe body is toxic and without marked antigenic properties becomesnontoxic and actively antigenic when converted into a vaccine thedetails of the experiments of the “closer study” made by the author ofthis paper and the manufacturer of vaccines which give such definiteand convincing results are not published possibly the article is apreliminary contribution, and future issues of the same publicationwill carry further articles on the same subject the follow-up systemis well recognized in the advertising world at all events, this“closer study” has convinced the author of the article that. even in extreme toxic conditions, in acute infections, bacterial vaccines may be employed without the least fear of doing any harm in fact, we find that in extreme acute infections, bacterial vaccines not only give the best clinical results, but they may also be given in larger doses at shorter intervals with less reactions than in minor or chronic infections and the earlier they are given the better the results here again no details are given. There are no comparative results ofthe careful study of a series of paper the sum and substance of thisremarkable contribution to a scientific publication is to the effect 1 that the organism that in the body is toxic becomes nontoxic whenintroduced in vaccine form. 2 that the organism that in the body isbut little antigenic becomes when introduced in vaccine form activelyantigenic, and 3 that “in extreme acute infections” when the bodyis affected profoundly by the infectious agent and its product, theoftener and the more one injects of these very materials, the betterthe results!. And this astounding plea for the use of vaccines in conditions in whichvaccines are generally held to be contraindicated, or even injurious, is made by one whose business is the manufacture of vaccines andselling them to the medical profession!. -- editorial from the journala m a , oct 23, 1920 vitamins. Their distributionour knowledge of the accessory food factors, commonly spoken ofas vitamins, is so recent, comparatively speaking, and the exactnature of these factors still so enveloped in mystery, that it wasinevitable that the public lack of knowledge on the subject should becapitalized it is not surprising that there are on the market a numberof preparations of the “patent medicine” type that are being sold underthe claim that they are rich in vitamins-- although the exploitersof these fail to explain which, if any, of the three accessoryfood factors their products contain the renaissance of yeast as atherapeutic agent has given an opportunity to the manufacturers of thisproduct of unduly stressing the fact that yeast is writingicularly rich inthe antineuritic vitamin water-soluble b because milk and certainmilk products are rich in the fat-soluble a factor, the dairy interestswould apparently have the public believe that this writingicular vitaminis to be obtained only from their products thus, a journal devoted tothe dairy interests recently claimed that those who want vitamins mustget them in their milk, butter, cheese and other milk products thetruth is, the accessory food factors are so well distributed throughoutthe dietary of modern man that, generally speaking, the individualwho uses ordinary judgment in selecting his food is in no danger ofsuffering from a deficiency of any of these three factors it wouldbe well if every physician might read the excellent monograph on thepresent state of knowledge concerning accessory food factors writtenby a committee appointed jointly by the lister institute and medicalresearch committee in this report the distribution of the vitamins inour common foodstuffs is thus briefly summarized.

Another person is seen to ignite thebuilding, which thereupon burns down, and the charred remains of ahuman argument essay example body are found in the ruins. The proof of identity from the bodyitself might be dispensed with in view of the substantial general factof a homicide having been committed in a delicate case where the manof art hesitates and finds no corpus delicti, the investigation ofimprints and stains may give a clew of great value to the expert yetit is only upon absolute evidence, and in the strongest possible case, that the fundamental principle of the corpus delicti is disregarded in the case of ruloff, the child body was not produced and no traceof it could be alleged to have been found. Nevertheless the prisonerwas found guilty of murder this case was speedily overruled 18 n y , 179, on the ground that a dangerous precedent had been pronounced so indispensable is the showing of the corpus delicti in paperof recognition that lawyers have come to regard even the judicialconfession of an accused as often the flimsiest and most unsatisfactorykind of evidence numerous paper of demonstrated fallibility ofconfessions are cited in the books, where the statement was utterlylacking in anything except motive or hallucination in the proceedingsof the new york medico-legal society, december 6th, 1876, mr jamesappleton morgan mentions the case of a german servant-girl whoassured her mistress, whose little boy, a child of seven, had justdied and been buried, that she the servant had poisoned the boy the servant swore to her crime and was taken into custody, and it wasonly when no poison was discovered upon exhuming the child body andexamining its stomach that against her own protest she was acquittedof the possibility of the crime another case of the kind that hashad medico-legal notoriety was tried a few years ago before a courtin brittany the accused declared that he had killed his servant andthrown the body in a pond his guilt seemed certain, when the allegedvictim put in an appearance, thus reducing the evidence to the strangehallucination that had prompted the confession but the most wonderful of these is the celebrated case of boorn, inwhich medico-legal evidence took no writing in view of the seeminghopelessness of his case, the accused confessed to murder inexpectation of mercy from the court, but was finally acquitted on thealleged victim walking into court and confronting the man who had swornto having killed him although wisdom and experience point to the necessity of showingessaything corporal and material in paper involving questions of lifeand death, yet very small traces or minute remains of a human body may, in certain circumstances, constitute a corpus delicti that may leadto trial if not to conviction in 1868 the lambert case, for murder onthe high seas, was tried before judge benedict in the united statescourt, the only corpus delicti alleged being a large pool of bloodand brains found on the forecastle of a ship at sea, out of sight ofland or other vessel circumstances, acts, and words pointed stronglyto the murder of one of the crew, who was believed to have been brainedwith an axe and thrown overboard notwithstanding the fact thatanimosity was known to exist between the accused and the missing man, it further appeared that the accused, in a state of great excitement, had followed the missing man forward and returned alone with a hatchetin his hand, yet the jury in this instance were not satisfied as tothe establishment of a corpus delicti beyond a reasonable doubt andaccordingly failed to convict two classical paper, that of gardelle and of dr webster, mentionedin thesis of the books, stand forth as instances of conviction wherefragments of the human body were recognized after attempts to destroythem by intense heat the conviction of dr webster rested almostentirely upon medico-legal evidence. But it is probable that upon thesame circumstantial evidence the increased industry of counsel wouldhave so rung the changes in regard to its uncertain and unsafe nature, and would have so used the knowledge gained from advanced discoveriesin the regions of the probabilities of science, as to have secured theacquittal of the prisoner had the trial taken place at the present time a similar affair of great medico-legal interest is the goss-udderzooktragedy, already referred to, an account of which is given by drs lewis and bombaugh among the “remarkable stratagems and conspiraciesfor defrauding life insurance companies, ” new york and london, 1878 identity of burnt remains the medical jurist will no doubt find cremation a formidable barrier inelucidating the question of identity, although the entire destructionof a dead body is a matter of extreme difficulty in the case of calcination chemical analysis of the ash would detectthe phosphate of lime, but this would throw no light upon thesubject, since the ash of human bones and that of the lower animalsis identical if the burnt bone is entire, the state of the epiphysesmay enlighten the question of the determination of age the followingtwo paper, in which fragments or portions of bone had been submittedto the action of fire, show how medical training and essay knowledge ofcomparative anatomy may contribute to the establishment of guilt or mayattest innocence in the case of the queen vs john henry wilson, for murder, theaccused burnt his step-father in a lime-kiln for over a week, and onstrewing ashes from the kiln fine fragments of bone picked up wereafterward identified as human at the trial identity rested on the factof finding two buttons and a buckle, which were recognized as writing ofthe deceased wearing apparel when last seen in the second case, that of a young woman supposed to be in the familyway who should not have been, it was thought that she had been confinedand made away with the infant under this supposition the premiseswhere she lived were searched by the chief constable, who found inthe stove essay bones and fragments of bones that had been burnt onexamination by a qualified medical man, the fragments turned out to benot human bones, but those of essay other animal, presumably those of apig and of a chicken, which the family, who lived in a tenement-housewithout a back yard, had put in the stove to get rid of the refuse 570identification of human bones in deciding whether certain bones are human or not, the medical juristshould exercise great caution in venturing an opinion as to the preciseanimal of which he may believe they formed a writing there is no greatdifficulty in detecting the smallest fragments of bone by means ofthe microscope, but we cannot say with safety whether the fragmentsbelonged to a mouse, a man, or an elephant a real difficulty occurs inrecognizing the nature and origin of the bony remains when only a smallfragment or a single bone is submitted for report if a sufficientportion of the skeleton be submitted it can be easily recognized ashuman, as in the imbedded remains of the troglodyte found in thelimestone deposit of luray cave, virginia, and only in the exceptionalcase of the bones of one of the manlike apes could a difficulty ofdistinction arise the characteristic signs that distinguish a gorillaskeleton, for instance, are the smaller thumb. Notable length of tibiaand of radius, although this relative length of extremities has beenremarked in negroes. Small facial angle, 30° to 40° in the monkey, 70°to 80° in man. Very inferior cranial capacity, the maximum in a gorillabeing 550 cubic centimetres, while the minimum in the human species isfrom 970 with a maximum of 1, 500 to 1, 900 centimetres. A low index ofthe foramen magnum. Convexity of the squamo-parietal suture, and largerand more salient canines and incisors the volume of the endocraniumin the female gorilla, like that of the human species, is smallerthan that of the male. This difference being almost 80 c c for theanthropoid female in studying the osseous system it should be remembered that certainmodifying elements, as artificial compression, pathologicaldeformities, posthumous distortions, and hygrometric conditions, mayaffect writingicularly the skull, and if due allowance be not made forthese the study may lead to glaring absurdities not longer ago than1725 there was found in a quarry at œningen the skull of a fossilbatrachian compressed into rude resemblance to the human cranium, whichwas announced to the world as scheuchzer “homo diluvii testis ettheoscopos, ” and as the remains of one of the sinful antediluvians whoperished in the noachic deluge are the bones old or recent?. An important point may arise in questions of identification of bones asto the oldness. Whether they are old or recent the first indicationis furnished by the presence or by the absence of the soft writings the existence of the periosteum and of the spinal marrow is the mostpersistent proof of a recent state. But these alone with the soft writingsare usually destroyed in two or three years in ordinary circumstancesa body becomes skeletonized in about ten years, although in exceptionalpaper the cadaver may resist decomposition after thesis years 571this summer in transferring an old cemetery in georgetown, d c , theremains of the grandmother of one of the writer patients were foundin such a state of preservation as to be easily recognized after fiftyyears of burial more recently, in unearthing the remains of an oldgraveyard in east washington, a striking peculiarity was noticed in thefact that thesis bodies of young people buried in recent years when takenup consisted of a few blackened bones and shreds of grave-clothes while the remains of thesis older people buried long before the civil warwere found in an excellent state of preservation one of these was amr fullin, who died from the effects of a sunstroke forty years agoand was buried in a metallic case an old lady who attended his funeralwas present when his remains were unearthed and said they looked asnatural as when he was laid away in 1852 the features were wellpreserved and even the white linen of the shroud was unsoiled alterations in the texture of the bone, such as that caused bydryness and by diminution in the proportion of organic matter, may beascertained by histological examination, and one of the characters ofage may be furnished by taking into consideration the specific weight placing the skull at an average density of 1, 649, that of an infantwould be 1, 515, an adult 1, 726, and that of old age 1, 636 ascertaining the proportion of organic and inorganic matter, thephosphates and carbonates, by chemical means may furnish an additionalhelp in the interpretation of the remains with all these diagnostic methods it may still be impossible toestablish identity either absolute or relative, even where a wholeskeleton is in question the evidence may, however, be of greatjuridical use to the accused, as in the case of van solen, tried forthe murder of dr henry harcourt, where the collective facts pointed tothe identification of a body dead two years the jury, however, after asecond trial, were instructed to acquit unless they were certain thatthe remains were harcourt they acquitted, as no one decided andapparent feature was known to have existed by which the remains couldbe identified beyond a doubt 572identity in case of entire skeleton or in case of isolated bones where an entire human skeleton has been discovered, the objects ofinquiry here, as in the case of fragments or remains, are to establishthe identity of the victim and that of the author of the act, and tocollect all available information relative to the nature of the deathand to the diverse circumstances attending the commission of the deed in gathering evidence from the examination of the skeleton or ofisolated bones, with a view to find out the probable cause of deathof the person of whom they form a writing, a great variety of questionswill arise for consideration, such as those relating to race, stature, age, sex, and trade or occupation. The exterior signs furnished bydentition.

One by bagsof grain 48 feulard. Bull soc anat , 1883, viii , pp 384-386 - woman, age79 piece of beef in larynx necroscopy showed hematoma in dura mater 49 poupon. Bull soc clin , paris 1882, 1883, vi , pp 236-238 - boy, age 5½ years death from cheesy gland in trachea 50 pons. Jour méd , bordeaux, 1889-1890, xix , pp 57-61 - woman, age 24 death from œdema of larynx from presence of writingicles of food 51 kemény.

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Gutenberg org/donatesection 5 general information about project gutenberg-tm electronicworks professor michael s hart was the originator of the project gutenberg-tmconcept of a library of electronic works that could be freely sharedwith anyone for forty years, he produced and distributed projectgutenberg-tm ebooks with only a loose network of volunteer support project gutenberg-tm ebooks are often created from several printededitions, all of which are confirmed as public domain in the u s unless a copyright notice is included thus, we do not necessarilykeep ebooks in compliance with any writingicular paper edition most people start at our web site which has the main pg search facility:the project gutenberg ebook of the complete herbal, by nicholas culpeperthis ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the united states and mostother writings of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictionswhatsoever you may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms ofthe project gutenberg license included with this ebook or online atgutenberg org if you are not located in the united states, you'll haveto check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook title. The complete herbal to which is now added, upwards of one hundred additional herbs, with a display of their medicinal and occult qualities physically applied to the cure of all disorders incident to mankind. To which are now first annexed, the english physician enlarged, and key to physic author. Nicholas culpeperrelease date. July 24, 2015 ebook #49513language. Englishcharacter set encoding.