History

Arguementative Essay


As also arguementative essay to assuage the swellings andinflammations. And applied with honey, boiled in wine, it takes awayall blue spots or marks that happen therein whey or white wine are thebest liquors to steep it in, and thereby it works more effectual inopening obstructions, and purging the stomach and liver thesis do use alittle indian spikenard as the best corrector thereof meadow-rue descript meadow-rue rises up with a yellow stringy root, muchspreading in the ground, shooting forth new sprouts round about, withthesis herby green stalks, two feet high, crested all the length of them, set with joints here and there, and thesis large leaves on them, aboveas well as below, being divided into smaller leaves, nicked or dentedin the fore writing of them, of a red green colour on the upper-side, andpale green underneath. Toward the top of the stalk there shoots forthdivers short branches, on every one whereof stand two, three or foursmall heads, or buttons, which breaking the skin that incloses them, shoots forth a tuft of pale greenish yellow threads, which fallingaway, there come in their places small three-cornered cods, whereinis contained small, long and round seed the whole plant has a strongunpleasant scent place it grows in thesis places of this land, in the borders of moistmeadows, and ditch-sides time it flowers about july, or the beginning of august government and virtues dioscorides saith, that this herb bruisedand applied, perfectly heals old sores, and the distilled water ofthe herb and flowers doth the like it is used by essay among otherpot-herbs to open the body, and make it soluble. But the roots washedclean, and boiled in ale and drank, provokes to stool more than theleaves, but yet very gently the root boiled in water, and the placesof the body most troubled with vermin and lice washed therewith whileit is warm, destroys them utterly in italy it is good against theplague, and in saxony against the jaundice, as camerarius saith garden-rue garden-rue is so well known by this name, and the name herb of grace, that i shall not need to write any farther description of it, but shallshew you the virtue of it, as follows government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and under leo it provokes urine and women courses, being taken either in meator drink the seed thereof taken in wine, is an antidote againstall dangerous medicines or deadly poisons the leaves taken eitherby themselves, or with figs and walnuts, is called mithridatecounter-poison against the plague, and causes all venomous thingsto become harmless. Being often taken in meat and drink, it abatesvenery a decoction thereof with essay dried dill leaves and flowers, eases all pains and torments, inwardly to be drank, and outwardly tobe applied warm to the place grieved the same being drank, helps thepains both of the chest and sides, as also coughs and hardness ofbreathing, the inflammations of the lungs, and the tormenting pains ofthe sciatica and the joints, being anointed, or laid to the places;as also the shaking fits of agues, to take a draught before the fitcomes being boiled or infused in oil, it is good to help the windcholic, the hardness and windiness of the mother, and frees women fromthe strangling or suffocation thereof, if the share and the writingsthereabouts be anointed therewith it kills and drives forth the wormsof the belly, if it be drank after it is boiled in wine to the half, with a little honey. It helps the gout or pains in the joints, hands, feet or knees, applied thereunto. And with figs it helps the dropsy, being bathed therewith. Being bruised and put into the nostrils, itstays the bleeding thereof it takes away wheals and pimples, if beingbruised with a few myrtle leaves, it be made up with wax, and applied it cures the morphew, and takes away all sorts of warts, if boiled inwine with essay pepper and nitre, and the place rubbed therewith, andwith almond and honey helps the dry scabs, or any tetter or ringworm the juice thereof warmed in a pomegranate shell or rind, and droppedinto the ears, helps the pains of them the juice of it and fennel, with a little honey, and the gall of a cock put thereunto, helps thedimness of the eye-sight an ointment made of the juice thereof withoil of roses, ceruse, and a little vinegar, and anointed, cures st anthony fire, and all running sores in the head.

For thenew law which goes into effect hereafter, see below qualification - the standard of a practitioner of medicine, surgery, orobstetrics consists of a good moral character, a thorough elementaryeducation, a comprehensive knowledge of human anatomy, humanphysiology, pathology, chemistry, materia medica, obstetrics, andpractice of medicine and surgery and public hygiene act march 24th, 1877, s 1 it is unlawful for any person to announce himself as a practitionerof medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to practise as such, who hasnot received in a regular manner a diploma from a chartered medicalschool, duly authorized to confer upon its alumni the degree of doctorof medicine the act does not apply to a resident practitioner who hasbeen in continuous practice in the commonwealth for not less than fiveyears prior to its passage 2 before any person can lawfully engage in the practice of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or who has not a diploma as provided in sec 2, he must make an affidavit under oath, or affirm before the prothonotaryof the county in which he intends to practise, setting forth the timeof continuous practice and the place or places where such practice waspursued in the commonwealth, and it shall be entered of record s 3 transient practitioner - any person attempting to practise medicineor surgery for a valuable consideration by opening a transient officewithin the commonwealth, or by handbill or other form of written orprinted advertisement, assigning such transient office or other placeto persons seeking medical or surgical advice, or prescribing oritinerating from place to place or from house to house and proposing tocure any person sick or afflicted, by the use of any medicine, means, or agency whatsoever, for a valuable consideration, shall before beingallowed to practise in this manner appear before the clerk of thecourt of quarter sessions of the county where he desires to practiseand furnish satisfactory evidence to such clerk that this act has beencomplied with, and shall take out a license for one year and pay $50therefor 4 penalty - to violate this act is a misdemeanor punishable with a fineof from $200 to $400 for each offence 5 qualification - every person who shall practise medicine or surgery, or any of their branches, for gain, or shall receive or accept for hisservices any fee or reward directly or indirectly, shall be a graduateof a legally chartered medical college or university having authorityto confer the degree of doctor of medicine except as provided insec 5, and shall present to the prothonotary of the county in whichhe resides or sojourns his medical diploma as well as a true copyof the same, including any indorsements thereon, and make affidavitbefore him that the diploma and indorsements are genuine. Thereuponthe prothonotary shall enter in the register the name in full of thepractitioner, his place of nativity, place of residence, the name ofthe college or university that has conferred the degree of doctor ofmedicine, the year when it was conferred, and in like manner any otherdegree or degrees that the practitioner may desire to place on record;to all of which the practitioner shall make affidavit before theprothonotary and the prothonotary shall place the copy of the diplomaand indorsements on file act june 8th, 1881, s 2 any person whose medical diploma has been destroyed or lost shallpresent to the prothonotary of the county in which he resides orsojourns a duly certified copy of his diploma, but if the same isnot obtainable a statement of this fact, with the names of theprofessors whose lectures he attended and the branches of study uponwhich each professor lectured, to all of which the practitioner shallmake affidavit before the prothonotary. After which the practitionershall be allowed to register and the prothonotary shall place suchcertificate or statement on file 3 any person desiring to commence the practice of medicine or surgery, having a medical diploma issued by any college, university, society, or association in another state or foreign country, shall lay the samebefore the faculty of one of the medical colleges or universities ofthis commonwealth for inspection, and the faculty being satisfiedas to the qualifications of the applicant and the genuineness of thediploma shall direct the dean of the faculty to indorse the same, afterwhich such person shall be allowed to register as required by sec 24 the act extends the privilege of continuing to practise to those whohave been in the continuous practice of medicine or surgery in thecommonwealth since 1871, but such a person must make affidavit to awritten statement of the facts before the prothonotary of the countyin which he resides. And the prothonotary shall enter in the registerthe name in full of the practitioner, his place of nativity, place ofresidence, the time of continuous practice in the commonwealth, and theplace or places where such practice was pursued, to all of which thepractitioner shall make affidavit, and the prothonotary shall place thecertificate or statement on file in his office 5 penalty - presenting to the faculty of an institution for indorsementor to the prothonotary a diploma which has been obtained by fraud, or in whole or in writing a forgery, or making an affidavit to a falsestatement, or practising without conforming with the act, or otherwiseviolating or neglecting to comply with the act, is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of $100 or imprisonment in the county jail fornot more than one year, or both, for each offence 7 exception - the act does not prevent any physician or surgeon, legallyqualified to practise medicine or surgery in the state where heresides, from practising in the commonwealth, but a person opening anoffice or appointing a place to meet patients or receive calls is asojourner and must conform to its requirements 8 fees - to the prothonotary, for affidavit of continuous practice, $2 act march 24th, 1877, s 3 to county treasurer, for transient license, $50 to clerk of the court of quarter sessions, for issuing transientlicense, $5 4 to the prothonotary, for registration, $1 act june 8th, 1881, s 6 new law - the following law has been enacted whose practicalapplication does not begin until march 1st, 1894:medical council - the law provides for a medical council of the state act of may 18th, 1893, s 1 the council is to supervise the examinations conducted by the stateboards of medical examiners for licenses to practise medicine andsurgery, and issue licenses to applicants who shall have presentedsatisfactory and properly certified copies of licenses from the stateboards of medical examiners or state boards of health of other states, or who shall have successfully passed the examination of one of thestate boards established by this act 5 medical boards - from and after march 1st, 1894, there are to be threeseparate boards of medical examiners, one representing the medicalsociety of the state, one representing the homœopathic medical societyof the state, and one representing the eclectic medical society ofthe state each board is to consist of seven members appointed bythe governor from the full lists of the members of the said medicalsocieties, and is to be composed exclusively of members of the samemedical society each appointee must be a registered physician in goodstanding, and shall have practised medicine or surgery under the lawsof the state for not less than ten years prior to his appointment the governor is to fill vacancies and may remove a member for continualneglect of duties or on the recommendation of the medical society withwhich he may be in affiliation, for unprofessional or dishonorableconduct 6 examinations - for the purpose of examining applicants each board isto hold two or more stated or special meetings in each year after duepublic notice a majority constitutes a quorum, but the examination maybe conducted by a committee of one or more members authorized by theboard 9 the boards not less than one week prior to each examination mustsubmit to the council questions for thorough examination in anatomy, physiology, hygiene, chemistry, surgery, obstetrics, pathology, diagnosis, therapeutics, practice of medicine, and materia medica. Andthe council must select therefrom the questions for each examination, and such questions for each examination shall be the same for allcandidates, except that in the dewritingments of therapeutics, practice ofmedicine, and materia medica the questions shall be in harmony with theteachings of the school selected by the candidate 10 the examinations are to be in writing under rules prescribed by thecouncil after an examination the board must act on it withoutunnecessary delay and transmit to the council an official report ofits action stating the examination average of each candidate in eachbranch, the general average, and the result, and whether successfulor unsuccessful the report must embrace all the examination papers, questions, and answers, which shall be kept for reference andinspection for not less than five years 11 qualification - the council must forthwith issue to each applicantreturned as having successfully passed said examination, and adjudgedby the council to be duly qualified, a license to practise medicine andsurgery the council must require the same standard of qualificationsfrom all candidates except in therapeutics, practice of medicine, andmateria medica, in which the standard shall be determined by the boardsrespectively before the license is issued, it must be recorded in abook in the office of the council, and the number of the book and pagecontaining the record noted on the face of the license. The recordsshall have the same weight as evidence as that given to conveyance ofland 12 on and after july 1st, 1894, any person not theretofore authorized topractise medicine and surgery in the state may deliver to the secretaryof the council a written application for a license with satisfactoryproof that the applicant is more than twenty-one years of age, is ofgood moral character, has obtained a competent common-school education, and has received a diploma conferring the degree of medicine fromessay legally incorporated medical college of the united states, ora diploma or license conferring the full right to practise all thebranches of medicine and surgery in essay foreign country applicantswho have received their degree in medicine after july 1st, 1894, musthave pursued the study of medicine for at least three years, includingthree regular courses of lectures in different years in essay legallyincorporated medical college or colleges prior to the granting of saiddiploma or foreign license such proof shall be made, if required, upon affidavit, and if the council is satisfied with the same it shallissue to the applicant an order for examination before such one of theboards of examiners as the applicant may select in case of failure atthe examination the candidate, after the expiration of six months andwithin two years, shall have the privilege of a second examination bythe same board without additional fee applicants examined and licensedby state boards of medical examiners or state boards of health of otherstates, on filing in the office of the medical council a copy of saidlicense certified by the affidavit of the president and secretary ofsuch board, showing also that the standard of acquirements adopted bysaid board is substantially the same as is provided by secs 11, 12, and 13 of this act, shall without further examination receive a licenseconferring on the holder all the rights and privileges provided bysecs 14 and 15 13 from and after march 1st, 1894, no person shall enter upon the practiceof medicine or surgery unless he has complied with this act and shallhave exhibited to the prothonotary of the court of common pleas ofthe county in which he desires to practise a license duly granted, which shall entitle him to be duly registered in the office of suchprothonotary penalty - violating the provisions of this act shall be a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of not more than $500 for each offence s 14 exceptions - the act does not interfere with or punish commissionedmedical officers serving in the army or navy of the united states, or its marine hospital service, while so commissioned, or medicalexaminers of relief dewritingments of railroad companies, while soemployed, or any one while actually serving as a member of the residentmedical staff of any legally incorporated hospital, or any legallyqualified and registered dentist exclusively engaged in the practiceof dentistry, nor interfere with or prevent the dispensing and saleof medicine or medical appliances by apothecaries or pharmacists, nor interfere with the manufacture of artificial eyes, limbs, ororthopædical instruments or trusses of any kind for sic fittingsuch instruments on persons in need thereof, or any lawfully qualifiedphysicians and surgeons residing in other states or countries meetingregistered physicians of this state in consultation, or any physicianor surgeon residing on the border of a neighboring state and dulyauthorized under the laws thereof to practise medicine and surgerytherein, whose practice extends into the limits of this state, providedsuch practitioner shall not open an office or appoint a place tomeet patients or receive calls within the limits of pennsylvania, orphysicians duly registered in one county of this state called toattend paper in another, but not residing or opening an office therein the act does not prohibit the practice of medicine and surgery by anypractitioner who shall have been duly registered before march 1st, 1894, according to the act of june 8th, 1881, and one such registrationshall be sufficient warrant to practise medicine and surgery in anycounty 15 former laws - all acts or writings of acts inconsistent with this arerepealed 17 fees - to the secretary of the council, upon application for a license, $25 to the secretary of the county, upon application for a license bylicensees in other states, $15 13 to the prothonotary, upon exhibition of a license, for registry, $114 rhode island registration - every physician must cause his name and residence tobe recorded in the town clerk office of the town where he resides public statutes, 1882, c 85, s 12 penalty - wilful neglect or refusal to perform this duty is punishablewith a fine not exceeding $20 11 south carolina qualification - all physicians engaging in the practice of medicineor surgery, before doing so, must submit their diplomas to a boardconsisting of three reputable physicians in each county the boardis appointed by the governor on the recommendation of the medicalsocieties of the counties, and where no medical society exists, upon the recommendation of the senator and members of the house ofrepresentatives for such counties act of 1890, c 454, s 1 the said board must examine said diploma, when submitted, and if theholder is a bona fide holder, and if the college issuing said diplomais a reputable medical college, and if he also submits a certificate ofgood moral character, the board must certify to the fact, and upon suchcertificate the diploma shall be registered by the clerk of the courtof the county in which the applicant resides 2 exception - the act does not apply to physicians and surgeons alreadyregistered under former laws 4 south dakota prohibition - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in any of their dewritingments without havingreceived a license to practise medicine from the board of health, andhaving it recorded in the office of the register of deeds in the countywhere such person resides act february 16th, 1893, s 1 exceptions - the act does not affect those in the lawful practice ofmedicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this state at the time of itspassage 2 nor does it prohibit students from prescribing under the supervisionof a preceptor, nor prohibit gratuitous services in case of emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons in the united states army and navy3 penalty - violation of the act or practising without the license is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $25 to $100 or imprisonmentin the county jail not more than thirty days or both 4 qualification - the state board of health is constituted a board ofpublic examiners ex-officio to examine and license physicians topractise medicine any person who is a graduate of a lawful medicalcollege, who has attended three full courses of medical lectures ofsix months each, no two full courses within the same year, and who isof good moral character, and is not an habitual drunkard, shall, uponproof of such facts to the superintendent of the state board of health, as the board shall require, receive from said superintendent a license;which shall be recorded as above the requirement of three courses oflectures does not apply to those who had graduated prior to the passageof the act 5 cancellation of license - the state board of health, upon complaintmade to it on oath by one responsible person, has power to cancel anylicense that may have been fraudulently obtained or when the person towhom such license was issued is an habitual drunkard, or is guilty ofimmoral practices or gross unprofessional conduct such license shallnot be cancelled except after a hearing before such board of health, at which a majority of such board shall be present, and of which theperson holding the license to be cancelled shall have had at leastten days’ notice, and only upon due proof of the facts stated in thecomplaint an appeal may be taken to the circuit court of the countyin which the person whose license is cancelled lives by any personaggrieved, in the same manner as now provided by law in case of appealfrom the decisions of the county commissioners 6 fee - to the superintendent of the state board of health, for alicense, $5 5 tennessee qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any of itsdewritingments, except dentistry, unless he possesses the qualificationsrequired by the act if a graduate in medicine, he must present hisdiploma to the state board of medical examiners for verification asto its genuineness if found genuine and from a legally charteredallopathic, homœopathic, or eclectic medical college in good standingwith the school of medicine in which said college is classed, of whichthe state board of medical examiners shall be the judge, and the personnamed therein be the person claiming and presenting it, the board mustissue a certificate to that effect, conclusive as to the rights of thelawful holder to practise medicine act of 1889, c 178, s 1 persons in actual practice at the time of the passage of the act wereallowed till july 1st, 1891, to comply with the provisions of the actrespecting them 2, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 1 a person wishing to enter upon the practice of medicine must presentto the board of medical examiners a diploma from essay medical collegein good standing as provided by sec 1, or shall present himself tothe said board for examination upon anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and therapeutics if the diploma befound genuine, or if the applicant for examination be found worthy andcompetent, the board shall issue a certificate which shall entitlethe lawful holder to all the privileges of this act 3, asamended act 1891, c 109, s 2 the governor appoints six graduate physicians as a state board ofmedical examiners. The three schools allopathic, homœopathic, andeclectic must be represented on the board. Five constitute a quorumand a majority of those present are necessary to reject an applicant, but such rejection shall not bar a re-examination after the lapse ofthree months. Provided the members representing each school shall havethe right to examine all applicants of that school, and the boardshall issue the certificate to applicants who are recommended by themember or members of the board who belong to said school after suchexamination 4 to prevent delay and inconvenience two members of the board may granta temporary license to any applicant if the applicant has not beenrefused a license by the board within six months, which shall be inforce till the next regular meeting of the board 5 the members of the board shall not be members of the state board ofhealth, nor any medical faculty 6 the regular meeting of the board shall be once in each year at suchtime and place as the board may decide, but the president of the boardmay call a special meeting when demanded by public necessity s 7 every person holding a certificate must have it recorded in the officeof the county court clerk where he resides, and the date of record mustbe indorsed thereon until such record is made the holder shall notexercise any of the rights and privileges conferred a person removingto another county to practise shall record his certificate in likemanner in the county to which he removes practitioners may go fromone county to another on professional business, without being requiredto register, if they have done so in the county in which they reside9 itinerant physician or vender - it is unlawful for an itinerantphysician or vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance of anykind intended for the treatment of disease or injury to sell or applythe same, or by writing, printing, or other method to profess to cureor treat disease or deformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, orother expedient a violation of this section is punishable with a fine of $100 to $400, but this section does not apply to merchants and druggists, and thisact does not apply to veterinary surgeons and stock doctors s 13, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 3 penalty, exception - to practise medicine or surgery without acertificate is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $25 to file or attempt to file as his own the diploma or certificate ofanother or a forged affidavit of identification is a felony punishablesame as forgery the act does not apply to women who pursue theavocation of midwife 14, as amended act 1891, c 109, s 4 fees - to the county court clerk, for recording certificate, the usualfee 9 to the board of examiners, for issuing a certificate, $1 to the board of examiners, for examination of non-graduate, $10 if applicant fails to pass a satisfactory examination, and nocertificate or license is issued to him, $5 only is retained for a certificate of temporary license, $1, which is to be credited tothe applicant when he applies for a permanent license 12, asamended act 1891, c 109, s 2 texas constitutional provision - the legislature may pass laws prescribingthe qualifications of practitioners of medicine, but no preferenceshall ever be given by law to any schools of medicine const 1876, art xiv , s 31 in writing boards of examiners - a board of medical examiners for each judicialdistrict is appointed by the judge of the district court r s , art 3, 625 each board is composed of not less than three practising physiciansof known ability, graduates of essay medical college recognized by theamerican medical association, residents of the district from which theyare appointed art 3, 626 the boards are required to meet regularly semi-annually at essaycentral point in their districts to conduct examinations and grantcertificates, and after at least one month public notice of the timeand place of meeting by publication in at least one newspaper publishedin the district art 3, 629 qualification - the board is required to examine thoroughly allapplicants for a certificate of qualification to practise medicine inany of its branches or dewritingments, whether furnished with medicaldiplomas or not, upon anatomy, physiology, pathological anatomy andpathology, surgery, obstetrics, and chemistry.

The truth is, it is under thecommand of venus, and cures the head by antipathy to mars, and theprivities by sympathy to venus. Neither is there hardly a martialdisease but it cures the juice of plantain clarified and drank for divers days together, either of itself, or in other drink, prevails wonderfully againstall torments or excoriations in the intestines or bowels, helps thedistillations of rheum from the head, and stays all manner of fluxes, even women courses, when they flow too abundantly it is good to stayspitting of blood and other bleedings at the mouth, or the making offoul and bloody water, by reason of any ulcer in the reins or bladder, and also stays the too free bleeding of wounds it is held an especialremedy for those that are troubled with the phthisic, or consumptionof the lungs, or ulcers of the lungs, or coughs that come of heat the decoction or powder of the roots or seeds, is much more bindingfor all the purposes aforesaid than the leaves dioscorides saith, that three roots boiled in wine and taken, helps the tertain agues, and for the quartan agues, but letting the number pass as fabulousi conceive the decoction of divers roots may be effectual the herb but especially the seed is held to be profitable against the dropsy, the falling-sickness, the yellow jaundice, and stoppings of the liverand reins the roots of plantain, and pellitory of spain, beaten intopowder, and put into the hollow teeth, takes away the pains of them the clarified juice, or distilled water, dropped into the eyes, coolsthe inflammations in them, and takes away the pin and web. And droppedinto the ears, eases the pains in them, and heals and removes the heat the same also with the juice of houseleek is profitable against allinflammations and breakings out of the skin, and against burnings andscaldings by fire and water the juice or decoction made either ofitself, or other things of the like nature, is of much use and goodeffect for old and hollow ulcers that are hard to be cured, and forcankers and sores in the mouth or privy writings of man or woman. Andhelps also the pains of the piles in the fundament the juice mixedwith oil of roses, and the temples and forehead anointed therewith, eases the pains of the head proceeding from heat, and helps lunatic andfrantic persons very much. As also the biting of serpents, or a maddog the same also is profitably applied to all hot gouts in the feetor hands, especially in the beginning it is also good to be appliedwhere any bone is out of joint, to hinder inflammations, swellings, andpains that presently rise thereupon the powder of the dried leavestaken in drink, kills worms of the belly. And boiled in wine, killsworms that breed in old and foul ulcers one writing of plantain water, and two writings of the brine of powdered beef, boiled together andclarified, is a most sure remedy to heal all spreading scabs or itchin the head and body, all manner of tetters, ringworms, the shingles, and all other running and fretting sores briefly, the plantains aresingularly good wound herbs, to heal fresh or old wounds or sores, either inward or outward plums are so well known that they need no description government and virtues all plums are under venus, and are likewomen, essay better, and essay worse as there is great diversity ofkinds, so there is in the operation of plums, for essay that are sweetmoisten the stomach, and make the belly soluble. Those that are sourquench thirst more, and bind the belly. The moist and waterish dosooner corrupt in the stomach, but the firm do nourish more, and offendless the dried fruit sold by the grocers under the names of damaskprunes, do essaywhat loosen the belly, and being stewed, are oftenused, both in health and sickness, to relish the mouth and stomach, to procure appetite, and a little to open the body, allay choler, andcool the stomach plum-tree leaves boiled in wine, are good to washand gargle the mouth and throat, to dry the flux of rheum coming tothe palate, gums, or almonds of the ear the gum of the tree is goodto break the stone the gum or leaves boiled in vinegar, and applied, kills tetters and ringworms matthiolus saith, the oil preserved out ofthe kernels of the stones, as oil of almonds is made, is good againstthe inflamed piles, the tumours or swellings of ulcers, hoarseness ofthe voice, roughness of the tongue and throat, and likewise the painsin the ears and that five ounces of the said oil taken with one ounceof muskadel, drives forth the stone, and helps the cholic polypody of the oak descript this is a small herb consisting of nothing but roots andleaves, bearing neither stalk, flower, nor seed, as it is thought ithath three or four leaves rising from the root, every one single byitself, of about a hand length, are winged, consisting of thesis smallnarrow leaves cut into the middle rib, standing on each side of thestalk, large below, and smaller up to the top, not dented nor notchedat the edges at all, as the male fern hath, of sad green colour, andsmooth on the upper side, but on the other side essaywhat rough byreason of essay yellowish flowers set thereon the root is smaller thanone little finger, lying aslope, or creeping along under the uppercrust of the earth, brownish on the outside and greenish within, of asweetish harshness in taste, set with certain rough knags on each sidethereof, having also much mossiness or yellow hairiness upon it, andessay fibres underneath it, whereby it is nourished place it grows as well upon old rotten stumps, or trunks of trees, asoak, beech, hazel, willow, or any other, as in the woods under them, and upon old mud walls, as also in mossy, stony, and gravelly placesnear unto wood that which grows upon oak is accounted the best. Butthe quantity thereof is scarce sufficient for the common use time it being always green, may be gathered for use at any time government and virtues polypodium of the oak, that which growsupon the earth is best. It is an herb of saturn, to purge melancholy;if the humour be otherwise, chuse your polypodium accordingly meuse who is called the physician evangelist for the certainty of hismedicines, and the truth of his opinion saith, that it dries upthin humours, digests thick and tough, and purges burnt choler, andespecially tough and thick phlegm, and thin phlegm also, even from thejoints, and therefore good for those that are troubled with melancholy, or quartan agues, especially if it be taken in whey or honied water, or in barley-water, or the broth of a chicken with epithymum, or withbeets and mallows it is good for the hardness of the spleen, and forpricking or stitches in the sides, as also for the cholic. Essay useto put to it essay fennel seeds, or annis seeds, or ginger, to correctthat loathing it brings to the stomach, which is more than needs, itbeing a safe and gentle medicine, fit for all persons, which dailyexperience confirms. And an ounce of it may be given at a time in adecoction, if there be not sena, or essay other strong purger put withit a dram or two of the powder of the dried roots, taken fasting ina cup of honied water, works gently, and for the purposes aforesaid the distilled water both of roots and leaves, is much commended forthe quartan ague, to be taken for thesis days together, as also againstmelancholy, or fearful and troubleessay sleeps or dreams. And with essaysugar-candy dissolved therein, is good against the cough, shortness ofbreath, and wheezings, and those distillations of thin rheum upon thelungs, which cause phthisicks, and oftentimes consumptions the freshroots beaten small, or the powder of the dried roots mixed with honey, and applied to the member that is out of joint, doth much help it.

W a puckner, secretary toxicide toxicide laboratories, chicago is alleged to be a remedywhich “increases systemic resistance, ” is “used for immunizing againstseptic infections” and “is indicated in any case of septic infection, capable of inducing inflammation and pus formation, regardless oflocation or kind of tissue involved ” the following statementsbearing on the composition of the preparation are arguementative essay furnished by themanufacturers. “toxicide contains lachesis 12x, tarantula 6x, psorinum special 15x, silicia 6x and excipient q s the excipient is sweet milk “these remedies are combined in the sweet milk and put through a process of development, which produces the curative agent which we call ‘toxicide’ “put up in tablet form, sugar coated and colored red ”no information is given as to the proportions, either relative oractual, of the ingredients neither is any information given regardingthe “process of development” to which the mixture is subjected, nor theamount of the finished mixture which is contained in toxicide tablets the toxicide laboratories present the following “theory”. “in combining these remedies and processing with milk, we develop a latent immunizing active principle, which usually controls the most virulently, active, septic infections promptly ”illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of an advertisementof the “originator” of toxicide. It ran for thesis months in the programof a burlesque theater located in ruckel neighborhood there is no evidence, however, that any effort has been made todemonstrate the presence of a “latent immunizing active principle” byscientific methods of modern immunology the following claims for theuse of toxicide appear on the label. “acne, boils, carbuncles, furuncles and abscesses of the most virulent types usually begin to show improvement within 4 to 12 hours after beginning administration “in badly infected wounds, toxicide will check the further destruction of live tissue and should always be given for a few days before and after operations on pus paper “for gunshot wounds and other conditions difficult to sterilize or drain, toxicide is the ideal remedy “for abscesses existing or threatened in any obscure location, the middle ear, the mastoid, the frontal or any accessory sinuses, toxicide is of inestimable value “if administered early, in fractures, compound or simple, or for laceration and other injuries, inflammation, swelling, soreness and destruction of tissue will be greatly mitigated ”in support of these claims there are offered letters from physicianswho have used toxicide with good results none of these testimonialspresent evidence that the reported effects were due to toxicide the asserted-- and highly improbable-- action of toxicide could bedetermined only by an extensive series of carefully controlled clinicaltrials-- and such evidence is entirely lacking in fact, the claimsappear to have no better basis than the coincidence which is stated tohave led to the discovery of the “remedy”. Namely, that a boil on theneck disappeared shortly after the administration of toxicide!. The council finds toxicide inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause 1 the identity and amount of the potent constituent orconstituents have not been furnished. 2 the preparation is advertisedindirectly to the public. 3 the name “toxicide” is therapeuticallysuggestive, and 4 the therapeutic claims, being unsubstantiated byevidence, are unwarranted illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of anadvertising circular used essay time ago describing the marvels alleged of toxicide editorial comment -- it seems rather preposterous that a scientificbody, such as the council on pharmacy and chemistry, should have towaste its time in investigating and reporting on such an obviouslyunscientific product as “toxicide ” so long, however, as there arephysicians who will take preparations of this sort seriously, thecouncil feels that it is its duty to report on such products theproblem, in fact, was well stated in a letter addressed to theeditor essay months ago by the secretary of a county medical societywho had just received a visit from a representative of the toxicidelaboratories and who sent to the journal essay of the advertising matterthat he had received from the same source this physician wrote. “i do not wish to trouble you with this kind of material, usually deposited safely in my waste paper basket, but the enclosed was handed to me today by a ‘bird’ who is calling on all the doctors and making strong statements when he claimed that ‘toxicide’ is being used in the presbyterian hospital, chicago, and that the council on pharmacy and chemistry is considering it seriously, etc , etc , i wish to know whether i am missing any real good thing if it has any real virtue, i would like to know about it, but if it has not, it seems to me that essaything ought to be done to head him off as essay doctors are sure to fall for essay of it ”the toxicide laboratories is, apparently, merely a trade name used bythe alleged originator of “toxicide, ” j f ruckel, m d according toour records, ruckel was born in 1860 and was graduated by the chicagohomeopathic medical college in 1886 he claims to have originatedtoxicide about twenty years ago and to have prescribed it “in over3, 000 paper ” in addition to toxicide, the toxicide laboratories alsoput out “dianasiac for nymphomania and satyriasis” and “somnosine forinsomnia ”-- from the journal a m a , oct 8, 1921 pil mixed treatment chichester report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report. W a puckner, secretary “pil mixed treatment chichester” is a proprietary preparation ofthe hillside chemical co , newburgh, n y it is sold in the form ofpills, each said to contain 1/20 grain of mercuric iodid and 5 grainsof potassium iodid in 1907 the council examined the therapeutic claims advanced for thispreparation and found that they were unwarranted, exaggerated andmisleading it found, also, thesis misleading statements in regard to theproduct itself furthermore, the a m a chemical laboratory found thepills to be “short weight” in potassium iodid content at the time that the council examined pil mixed treatment chichester, a dermatologist of recognized standing, to whom the“literature” for this product had been submitted for an opinion, madethe following report:“assuming that this pill contains what is claimed for it, one-twentieth 1/20 of a grain of biniodid of mercury and five 5 grains ofpotassium iodid, it presents neither an original nor a very usefulformula “the literature furnished by the company abounds in suggestions thatthe mixture, as they prepare it, represents essay unusual potency whichis not possessed by the ordinary mixture of these same drugs in thesame proportion these suggestions may of course be dismissed withoutconsideration there is nothing mysterious in a mixture of potassiumiodid and biniodid of mercury and this formula is no more entitledto special consideration than any other pill or tablet of the samecomposition prepared by any reputable pharmaceutical firm “the formula of this pill, however, does not represent a goodcombination it is offered for use both during the active secondaryperiod of syphilis and for tertiary lesions the pill does not containenough mercury to be an efficient remedy for secondary syphilis and notenough potassium iodid to be satisfactory in the treatment of tertiarylesions it is neither fish, flesh, fowl, nor good red herring apatient with secondary syphilis should not be dosed all the time withpotassium iodid and for the treatment of tertiary lesions he shouldhave a very much larger quantity of potassium iodid than can be givenin these pills without giving toxic doses of mercury “the statement that this pill ‘does not impair the appetite nor disturbdigestion and is well borne by patients who cannot tolerate iodidsotherwise administered’ is a bald claim which cannot be justified byexperience the most unsatisfactory way of administering potassiumiodid is in solid form a patient who can stand potassium iodid in pillform, as it is furnished in this preparation, can stand it in any formin which it is ever administered “in short this preparation is neither agreeable nor efficient thegreatest objection to it is its inefficiency, for it is offered asan adequate preparation for the treatment of syphilis in all of itsstages, whereas it is neither satisfactory for the treatment ofsecondary syphilis nor of tertiary lesions ”during the fourteen years which have elapsed since the council firstexamination of pil mixed treatment chichester, arsphenamin hasbeen added to the syphilographer armamentarium and much has beenlearned about syphilis and its treatment while there exist differencesof opinion as to the exact value of arsphenamin in the treatment ofsyphilis and there are even essay who desist from the use of arseniccompounds of any kind, no syphilographer of standing countenances theroutine treatment of syphilis with a fixed combination of mercuriciodid and potassium iodid the use of pil mixed treatment chichesteris on a par with the use of certain “blood purifiers” which wereadvocated at a time when the treatment of syphilis was a bafflingproblem present day claimsthe present advertising, which reads as if it had been written in theheyday of proprietary license, is, in effect, an invitation to treatsyphilis in its various stages and manifestations with pil mixedtreatment chichester if heeded by those who read the advertising ofthe hillside chemical co , it will result in much harm to the publicand the profession for this reason, the present report of the councilis published as a protest against any advertising propaganda advocatingthe routine treatment of a disease which requires that each case bestudied carefully so that prompt and efficient measures may be appliedto the various manifestations of the disease the following advertisement appeared recently in several medicaljournals. “medicine is an exact science-- on paper only!. ” every general practitioner of medicine is called upon to treat syphilis occasionally he cannot depend upon the use of arsenicals alone in most paper, “mixed treatment” the giving of mercury and iodides is required to get satisfactory results pil mixed treatment chichester accurately and successfully meets the indications and assures definite action important advantages.

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Hence the smallness of the hole as glass is made itvaries in elasticity. Essay writings which are to be cut into panes coolfaster than others a bullet striking the portion of the glass whichhas cooled quickly strikes an object which will yield essaywhat to theforce. In doing this a hole will be made smaller than if that morebrittle had been struck furthermore, all rifles taper more or lessfrom breech to muzzle, that is, the muzzle will measure one or morethousandths or hundredths less than the breech the bullet being forcedthrough the narrow aperture yields to the pressure and becomes smaller the gun under consideration was measured at the new york armory, andfound to be 44 at the breech or chamber and 423 at the muzzle considering these various facts, statements that a ball of known sizewill make a hole through glass smaller than the size of the ball whenfired do not admit of doubt as to their verity essay statements bearingon this same point contained in a recent letter from captain shaler, ofthe united states army, deserve mention here the following experimentwas made in washington by captain lyon in october, 1880:“noticing a statement in a newspaper to the effect that a ball firedfrom a rifle would, in passing through glass, make a round hole smallerthan the diameter of the ball used, the following experiment was made:“service ammunition used, in a calibre 45 springfield rifle topenetrate glass ═════════════════════╤═══════════════════╤════════════════════════ time fired │ size of hole made │ remarks │ in glass, inches │ ─────────────────────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────── 1 │ 0 570 │ 2 │ 0 550 │ 3 │ 0 600 │ 4 │ 0 600 │ 5 │ 0 575 │ 6 │ 0 575 │ the frame holding the 7 │ 0 590 │ glass was placed 25 8 │ 0 620 │ yards from the muzzle 9 │ 0 600 │ of the gun │ │ average size of hole │ 0 586 │ calibre of bullet │ 0 458 │ │ ────── │ difference │ 0 125 │ ─────────────────────┴───────────────────┴────────────────────────“from the above it will be noted that there is no uniformity in thesize of the holes and that they all exceed the diameter of the bullet “these experiments were supplemented by essay made recently in whicha sash containing six panes of ordinary window-glass was placedat twenty-five yards from the firer and the glass was successivelypenetrated a separate pane being used in each case by bullets from aservice 45-calibre springfield rifle, a 30-calibre springfield rifle, a 45-calibre colt revolver and a 22-calibre revolver in every casethe hole made was much larger than the bullet making it ”with reference also to the effect of a ball being smaller than itsoriginal diameter after it leaves the piece, captain shaler states:“all very compressible bullets forced by inertia lose a certain amounteven though they also gain force by slugging forcing by inertia tendsto shorten the bullet and increase the diameter, while slugging tendsto lengthen the bullet and reduce its diameter whether the bullet issmaller after it leaves the piece depends upon the bullet used and themethod of forcing employed ”to return to the billings case, it was claimed that the bullet wasalso too small it weighed 165 grains, 55 less than when it was firedfrom the rifle balch found in firing at human skulls, the subjects inall the trials but two being placed in a sitting posture, essaytimeswith a sash like the billings window in front of the subject, that theball lost lead in accordance with the resistance it met with and theamount of bone ploughed in its passage these experiments conclusivelyprove that the weight of a ball taken from a body after being fired, it having traversed a bone in its flight, is by no means evidence ofits weight before firing. In other words, a ball always loses essaylead when passing through bone with the same rifle as that producedat the trial he made a series of experiments in the dissecting-room, endeavoring to make a bullet enter the skull at the same point and innearly as possible the same direction as in the case of the murderedwoman in six such experiments there were varying losses of lead, allthe bullets used being the same general weight in two trials thedistance was but ten feet from the muzzle, yet more lead was lostthan in any of the other four the least loss recorded took place atthe longest distance, thirty-five feet this in writing accounts for theloss of lead, for at ten feet the bullet has not acquired its greatestpenetrating power, for he showed by experiment that a 220-grain bulletfired at a human skull will lose more lead than was missing from thebillings bullet, thus disposing of the question raised by the defencethat a ball could not have weighed 220 grains before being fired just how to account for the missing lead has never been clearlyestablished we have to remember that a few grains may be left inthe bore of a rifle, especially if rusty. That in passing throughglass another portion is lost, and finally it is scarcely conceivablethat any bullet should penetrate an adult skull, especially inthe neighborhood of the mastoid processes, without losing quite aperceptible percentage of its mass by friction it was also claimed by the defence that the ball taken from mrs billings’ head had been fired from a weapon of low velocity, whichwas held to account for the fact that the ball failed to pass out ofthe skull the rifle when tested at the government arsenal showeda mean velocity of 999 feet per second had it been as high as wassupposed by the defence, namely, 1, 300 or 1, 400 feet, the argumentthat a bullet driven with this force would always go through the skullwould have more weight, but with the velocity found by actual test theenergy of the ball was lessened to nearly one-half of that supposed the bullet which killed mrs billings did not pass entirely throughthe skull it ploughed into the opposite side and broke before it atriangular piece of bone which broke the skin externally this showsthe resistance of external fascia against perforation a study of thelines of fracture in this writingicular case proved very interesting, butperhaps would be essaywhat irrelevant here a measurement of the skulland of the bullet-track through it shows the former to have been ofmore than ordinary thickness and density, and the channel ploughed inthe bone by the bullet along the base of it to have been nearly twoinches in length dr balch gives the following conclusions to his veryinteresting evidence. 1st a leaden ball passing through bone loseslead in proportion to the amount of bone traversed 2d if the petrousportion of the temporal bone be the writing struck by the ball and strucksquarely at the base, that portion of the bone is crumbled or broken insuch exceedingly fine pieces as to defy restoration 3d that if theball struck any writing of the skull the petrous portion will be broken, but can be usually recognized and generally put together again 4th that a ball of given calibre fired through glass may make a holeenough smaller than the full size of the ball before firing to preventan unfired ball of like calibre passing in all this kind of experimentation upon cadavers for the purpose ofeliciting evidence by reproducing as nearly as possible ante-morteminjuries, we must not forget that casper has strongly insisted that“it is extremely difficult to break up the organic cohesion of deadorgans if we endeavor to fracture the skull of a dead adult weshall find that an amount of force which if applied in life wouldindubitably produce fissures if not fracture, or complete crushingof the skull, leaves the dead skull quite uninjured the mostpowerful blows struck down upon the body, laid down horizontally, werewithout result, and only after repeated violent blows were we able toproduce perhaps one or a few fissures in the occipital or parietalbone, or in the temporal bone squamous portion, and usually in thelatter we were unable to produce more considerable effects, such ascomplete smashing of the skull or fissures of its base, even in onesingle instance the dead skull seems to have considerably more powerof resistance, and after its removal fissures of the bone were moreeasily produced by similar blows” vol i , p 245 and again.