Apush Long Essay

The more fibrous structures are torn and laceratedor simply perforated, mainly owing to their different tension at theinstant apush long essay. Their openings seldom correspond to those of the muscletissues or those upon the surface of the body, because of the constantchange in the relation of the writings due to muscle action this makesit often difficult to follow the course of a bullet with accuracy theirregularity of a bullet-track due to these causes constitutes one ofthe great sources of danger, since cavities and pouches thus formedgive lodgment to foreign matter driven in with the bullet, by retentionof which a fertile source of sepsis is maintained gunshot injuriesof bone may be classified as contusions, simple fractures, writingialfractures, penetrations, perforations, and complete fractures with moreor less comminution or loss of substance, all of these, of course, inthe surgical sense compound these are all manifestations of mechanicalforce acting in accordance with established laws on autopsy these willbe ascertained, while one or more portions or all of a bullet may befound imbedded in or attached to essay bone the best illustration ofsuch accidents will be found in the “medical and surgical history ofthe war of the rebellion ”such questions as pertain to the position of the wounded person whenshot or that of his antagonist, and other similar inquiries, can onlybe settled by reference to writingicular circumstances of individualpaper position of the wound may help a little a bullet-wound directlyin the centre of the top of the head could scarcely be received by aperson standing unless his assailant occupied an elevated position ifaccompanied by evidence of severe blows by which the deceased mighthave been knocked down, it might show that he had been shot afterfalling wounds by small shot - small shot rarely traverse the entire bodyunless discharged from such proximity as to make a clean, roundopening paley relates the following instance. A boy was shot in theneck by the accidental explosion of his own gun, no 8 shot he diedinstantly he was lying forward of the muzzle so that it was nearly incontact with the skin of the neck a large round hole was produced, indiameter one and one-half inches, whose edges were slightly darkenedby powder the wound of exit at the back of the neck, at the thirdvertebra, was a mere slit in the skin scarcely an inch in length withthe diameter placed vertically the smallness of this aperture mayhave been owing to the greater writing of the charge being lodged in thebody dr lowe states that in essay experiments it was found that around aperture might be produced by a discharge of small shot at amuch greater distance than that assigned by dr lachese, namely, tento twelve inches even admitting such exceptional instances, it willscarcely ever occur that a wound from a small shot can be mistaken forone produced by a leaden bullet de vergie has shown that when the ball enters a portion of the bodywell covered with fat, this often protrudes between the edges of thewound and may alter its character if clothing have been carried inessay shreds of it may show upon the wound, and such fragments oftexture will nearly always characterize the wound at once as that ofentrance wounds by blank charges - experience has shown that no matter withwhat the piece is charged, it is capable, when fired close by, ofproducing a wound which may prove fatal thus a gun loaded with waddingor gunpowder only may cause death a portion of clothing may be carriedinto the wound and lead to death from hemorrhage, or death may occurfrom thesis secondary causes, such as tetanus or sepsis accidents sofrequently occur from weapons discharged in sport, not loaded withball or shot, that it is worth while to bear this in mind it has beenobserved, for instance, that persons attempting to commit suicide haveforgotten to put a bullet in the pistol, nevertheless the dischargeof the weapon into the mouth has sufficed, from the wadding alone, to produce a considerable laceration and hemorrhage taylor thesisfatal accidents have taken place by the discharge of wadding fromcannon lachese has ascertained by experiment that a piece charged withgunpowder alone is capable of producing a penetrating wound essaywhatresembling that produced by gunshot, when the piece is large andfired within six feet of the body ann d’hygiene, 1836, p 368 this arises from unexploded grains of powder acting as pellets ofsmall shot sweet has experimented with pistols loaded with gunpowderand wadding in order to determine the effect of their discharge atdifferent distances at twelve inches he found that the clothing waslacerated and the skin abraded, but the wadding did not penetrate. Atsix inches the clothes were lacerated and the wadding penetrated tothe depth of one-half inch. At one and one-half inches from the chestthe wadding passed into the thoracic cavity between the ribs, and at asecond experiment carried away a portion of the ribs it is probable that an ordinary wadding such as loosely wrapped paper, rag, or similar material, especially as prepared by one not accustomedto military use of a weapon, would not produce a wound which wouldresemble that made by a bullet, and it is doubtful whether such a woundcould be produced at a greater distance than six inches from the body it is on record that in paris, in 1858, a circus cannon of four inchesbore, loaded with three ounces of grain powder retained by a wad ofold theatre bills loosely folded together and rammed home with onlymoderate force, was discharged in the direction of the boxes at adistance of about one hundred and fifty feet a man seated in one ofthese boxes opposite the muzzle of the gun, leaning forward, his armscrossed upon the handle of his umbrella, had his arm broken above theelbow immediately upon its discharge several portions of waddingwere found beneath the place where the man sat, but no marks existedupon his clothing nor upon the anterior writing of the arm, which musthave been inaccessible to any projectile that did not first strikethe forearm it was concluded that the fracture had been caused bythe violent and sudden starting of the man backward, which must havebrought his arm against the hard writing of the writingition an experimenttried with the cannon proved that any wadding that could be made withpaper was dispersed in passing, or lost all power of mischief, at muchless distance than one hundred and twenty feet annales d’hygiene, 1859, p 420, wharton and stille the mannlicher rifle - it may be of interest here to note the effectsof the rifle-bullets used in the most recently invented improvedarms the last new projectile used in the german army, 1892, with themannlicher rifle, has an inner core of lead inclosed in a casing ofsteel or firm metal, which prevents the lead, even when softened byheat, from becoming deformed and enlarged by contact the weight ofthe bullet is much less than any of the old, but to its higher rate ofvelocity and its pointed shape, which is preserved, must be ascribedits greater perforating power owing to this immense velocity and thesmall surface of contact, it meets with little resistance on strikinga person, has no time to stretch the various tissues it encounters, causes little or no commotion of the neighboring writings, and merelypunches a hole, carrying the contused elements before it clear outof the wound without seriously damaging the surrounding wall of thebullet-track this absence of contusion must lead to more frequentdeaths from hemorrhage, while when this arm is used we shall hear verylittle of deflection or deviation of the bullet from its path, sinceit has sufficient power to pass directly through any writing of the bodywhich it may meet on its way the result in battle will be a reductionof the list of wounded, but a terrible augmentation of that of the dead identity from a flash of gunpowder taylor states the following. “among the singular questions which havearisen out of this subject is the following. Whether the person whofires a gun or pistol during a dark night can be identified by meansof the light produced during the discharge this question was firstnegatively answered by a class in physical science in france, whereaslater a case tending to show that their decision was erroneous wassubsequently reported by fodere a woman positively swore that shesaw the face of the prisoner, who fired at another during the night, surrounded by a kind of glory, and that she was thereby enabled toidentify him this statement was confirmed by the deposition of thewounded writingy desgranges, of lyons, performed thesis experiments onthis subject, and he concluded that away from every source of lightthe prisoner who fired the gun might be identified within a moderatedistance. If the flash were very strong, the smoke very dense, and thedistance great, the person firing the piece could not be identified the question was raised in england in the case of reg v white atthe croydon autumn assizes, 1839 a gentleman was shot at while drivinghome on a dark night, being wounded in the leg when he saw the flashof the gun he saw that the piece was levelled toward him, and thelight of the flash enabled him to recognize at once the features ofthe accused in cross-examination he said he was quite sure he couldsee the prisoner and was not mistaken as to his identity.

Acute inflammation in the apush long essay chest. Persistentlocal pain. ” this might be interpreted as including tuberculosis;pneumonia. Cancer, and appendicitis “lumbago. Sciatica. Articularrheumatism” gonorrheal infections?.

Is moderately hot and dry:a good cordial. A rich perfume, a great strengthener to the stomach aspalathus rose-wood it is moderately hot and dry, stops looseness, provokes urine, and is excellent to cleanse filthy ulcers bresilium brasil all the use i know of it is, to die cloth, andleather, and make red ink buxus box thesis physicians have written of it, but no physicalvirtue of it cypressus cypress the wood laid amongst cloaths, secures them frommoths see the leaves ebenum ebony it is held to clear the sight, being either boiled inwine, or burnt to ashes guajacum, lignum vitm dries, attenuates, causes sweat, resistsputrefaction, is good for the french disease, as also for ulcers, scabs, and leprosy. It is used in diet drinks juniperus juniper the smoak of the wood, drives away serpents. Theashes of it made into lie, cures itch, and scabs nephriticum it is a light wood and comes from hispaniola. Beingsteeped in water, will soon turn it blue, it is hot and dry in thefirst degree, and so used as before, is an admirable remedy for thestone, and for obstructions of the liver and spleen rhodium encreases milk in nurses santalum, album, rubrum, citrinum white, red, and yellow sanders:they are all cold and dry in the second or third degree. The red stopsdefluxions from any writing, and helps inflammations. The white and yellow of which the yellow is best cool the heat of fevers, strengthen theheart, and cause cheerfulness sassafras is hot and dry in the second degree, it opens obstructionsor stoppings, it strengthens the breast exceedingly. If it be weakenedthrough cold, it breaks the stone, stays vomiting, provokes urine, andis very profitable in the venereal, used in diet drinks tamaris is profitable for the rickets, and burnings xylobalsamum wood of the balsam tree, it is hot and dry in thesecond degree, according to galen i never read any great virtues of it herbs and their leaves a brotanum, mas, fœmina southernwood, male and female it is hotand dry in the third degree, resists poison, kills worms. Outwardlyin plaisters, it dissolves cold swellings, and helps the bitings ofvenomous beasts, makes hair grow. Take not above half a dram at a timein powder absinthium, &c wormwood its several sorts, are all hot and dryin the second or third degrees, the common wormwood is thought to behottest, they all help weakness of the stomach, cleanse choler, killworms, open stoppings, help surfeits, clear the sight, resist poison, cleanse the blood, and secure cloaths from moths abugilissa, &c alkanet the leaves are essaything drying and binding, but inferior in virtue to the roots, to which i refer you acetosa sorrel is moderately cold dry and binding, cuts toughhumours, cools the brain, liver and stomach, cools the blood in fevers, and provokes appetite acanthus bears-breech, or branks ursine, is temperate, essaythingmoist see the root adiantum, album, nigrum maiden hair, white and black they aretemperate, yet drying white maiden hair is that we usually callwall-rue. They both open obstructions, cleanse the breast and lungs ofgross slimy humours, provoke urine, help ruptures and shortness of wind adiantum aurcum politrycum golden maiden-hair its temperature andvirtues are the same with the former. Helps the spleen. Burned, and lyemade with the ashes, keeps the hair from falling off the head agrimonia agrimony galen eupatorium it is hot and dry inthe first degree, binding, it amends the infirmities of the liver, helps such as evacuate blood instead of water, helps inward wounds, opens obstructions outwardly applied it helps old sores, ulcers, &c inwardly, it helps the jaundice and the spleen take a dram of this orthat following, inwardly in white wine, or boil the herb in white wine, and drink the decoction galen, pliny, dioscorides, serapio ageretum hot and dry in the second degree, provokes urine and themenses, dries the brain, opens stoppings, helps the green sickness, andprofits such as have a cold, weak liver. Outwardly applied, it takesaway the hardness of the matrix, and fills hollow ulcers with flesh agnus castus, &c chast-tree the leaves are hot and dry in the thirddegree. Expel wind, consume the seed, cause chastity being only borneabout one.

On the tops of which standflowers, almost like the stock gilliflowers, but rounder, and not solong, of a blushing white colour. The seed is reddish, and grows tosmall branches, being of a sharp biting taste, and so has the herb place they grow in moist places, and near to brooksides time they flower in april and may, and the lower leaves continuegreen all the winter government and virtues they are under the dominion of the moon, andvery little inferior to water cresses in all their operations. Theyare excellently good for the scurvy, they provoke urine, and break thestone, and excellently warm a cold and weak stomach, restoring lostappetite, and help digestion lettuce it is so well known, being generally used as a sallad-herb, that it isaltogether needless to write any description thereof government and virtues the moon owns them, and that is the reasonthey cool and moisten what heat and dryness mars causeth, because marshas his fall in cancer. And they cool the heat because the sun rulesit, between whom and the moon is a reception in the generation of men, as you may see in my guide for women the juice of lettuce mixed orboiled with oil of roses, applied to the forehead and temples procuressleep, and eases the headache proceeding of an hot cause. Being eatenboiled, it helps to loosen the belly it helps digestion, quenchesthirst, increases milk in nurses, eases griping pains in the stomachor bowels, that come of choler applied outwardly to the region of theheart, liver or reins, or by bathing the said places with the juiceof distilled water, wherein essay white sanders, or red roses are put;not only represses the heat and inflammations therein, but comfortsand strengthens those writings, and also tempers the heat of urine galenadvises old men to use it with spice. And where spices are wanting, to add mints, rochet, and such like hot herbs, or else citron lemon, or orange seeds, to abate the cold of one and heat of the other theseed and distilled water of the lettuce work the same effects in allthings. But the use of lettuce is chiefly forbidden to those that areshort-winded, or have any imperfection in the lungs, or spit blood water lily of these there are two principally noted kinds, viz the white andthe yellow descript the white lily has very large and thick dark greenleaves lying on the water, sustained by long and thick foot-stalks, that arise from a great, thick, round, and long tuberous black rootspongy or loose, with thesis knobs thereon, green on the outside, but aswhite as snow within, consisting of divers rows of long and essaywhatthick and narrow leaves, smaller and thinner the more inward they be, encompassing a head with thesis yellow threads or thrums in the middle;where, after they are past, stand round poppy-like heads, full of broadoily and bitter seed the yellow kind is little different from the former, save only that ithas fewer leaves on the flowers, greater and more shining seed, and awhitish root, both within and without the root of both is essaywhatsweet in taste place they are found growing in great pools, and standing waters, and essaytimes in slow running rivers, and lesser ditches of water, insundry places of this land time they flower most commonly about the end of may, and their seedis ripe in august government and virtues the herb is under the dominion of the moon, and therefore cools and moistens like the former the leaves andflowers of the water lilies are cold and moist, but the roots and seedsare cold and dry. The leaves do cool all inflammations, both outwardand inward heat of agues. And so doth the flowers also, either by thesyrup or conserve. The syrup helps much to procure rest, and to settlethe brain of frantic persons, by cooling the hot distemperature of thehead the seed as well as the root is effectual to stay fluxes of bloodor humours, either of wounds or of the belly. But the roots are mostused, and more effectual to cool, bind, and restrain all fluxes in manor woman the root is likewise very good for those whose urine is hotand sharp, to be boiled in wine and water, and the decoction drank thedistilled water of the flowers is very effectual for all the diseasesaforesaid, both inwardly taken, and outwardly applied. And is muchcommended to take away freckles, spots, sunburn, and morphew from theface, or other writings of the body the oil made of the flowers, as oilof roses is made, is profitably used to cool hot tumours, and to easethe pains, and help the sores lily of the valley called also conval lily, male lily, and lily confancy descript the root is small, and creeps far in the ground, as grassroots do the leaves are thesis, against which rises up a stalk halfa foot high, with thesis white flowers, like little bells with turnededges of a strong, though pleasing smell.

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arsenoven s s “arsenoven s s ” is a preparation put out by the s s productscompany, philadelphia the claims are made that it is “a simplifiedoffice treatment for syphilis” and is “a combination of arsenic andmercury for office use, offering maximum efficiency, safety andconvenience ” according to the company, “arsenoven s s ” containsdimethylarsenin 15 4 grains, mercury biniodid 1/10 grain, sodium iodid1/2 grain with regard to the apush long essay identity of “dimethylarsenin” the companyclaims. “this product is a compound of cacodylic acid similar tosodium cacodylate but with a more pronounced therapeutic action ” thecommittee recommends to the council that “arsenoven s s ” be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because of unwarrantedtherapeutic claims arseno-meth-hyd“arseno-meth-hyd, ” is sold by the new york intravenous laboratory, new york city, for the treatment of syphilis it comes in threedosages, 2 gm , 1 5 gm , and 0 7 gm , respectively the claim is madethat “arseno-meth-hyd 2 gm ” contains “2 gm 31 grains of sodiumdimethylarsenate cacodylate, u s p and mercury iodid 5 mg 1/12grain” in 5 c c of solution physicians are told. “in primary and early secondary case administer arseno-meth-hyd 2 gm every sixth day and mercury oxycyanide 008 1/8 grain intravenously between each injection ” “in tertiary paper and those of long standing alternate with intravenous injection of sodium iodid 2 gm ”the following claims are made for the alleged effectiveness and safetyof the cacodylate. “this methyl compound of arsenic has come into almost universal use for syphilis on account of lack of toxicity an aggressive routine can be carried on the simple technic and absence of reactions make it most desirable for the regular practitioner this large dose gives more uniform results both as healing manifestations and negative wassermann ” “much discussion has surrounded the use of methyl compounds of arsenic and it has been demonstrated beyond doubt that cacodylate of soda proves an effective remedy for syphilis provided that it is properly administered ” sic “the low toxicity of this methyl compound of arsenic is remarkable it is contraindicated only where a decided idiosyncrasy for even small doses of arsenic exists ”these statements are essentially false and misleading cacodylate hasnot come into universal use in the treatment of syphilis, nor hasits usefulness been “demonstrated beyond doubt ” on the contrary, h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 has shown that dosesso large as to produce renal injury were almost totally ineffectiveagainst syphilis obviously, “effective doses” if such exist, are notharmless the dosage advised for arseno-meth-hyd may not produce acutetoxic symptoms. Nevertheless smaller doses have produced nephriticphenomena the “arseno-meth-hyd” treatment includes the intravenousinjection of about 1/4 grain of a mercury salt although this is lessthan the usual dose about 1 grain per week, the mercury is probablymore effective than the cacodylate the committee recommends to the council that, because of theunwarranted therapeutic claims, “arseno-meth-hyd” be held inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies the council adopted both reports of the committee and declared“arsenoven s s ” and “solution of arsenic and mercury” “arseno-meth-hyd” inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies the committee reports on these two products impel the councilagain to call attention to the undesirable and dangerous abuses towhich “intravenous therapy” lends itself there is a distinct fieldfor the intravenous administration of drugs in those paper in whichimmediate drug action is necessary, or when the medicament is likelyto be changed if absorbed through the ordinary channels unless suchindications exist, however, intravenous administration involves notonly inconvenience and expense to the patient, but what is moreimportant, unnecessary danger the fact that indiscriminate intravenousadministration is peculiarly profitable to certain manufacturing housesmakes it all the more necessary for the medical profession to be on itsguard in this matter in this connection it is well worth while to quote the closingparagraph from an editorial on “intravenous therapy” that appeared inthe journal, nov 11, 1916 it is as true today as when it appeared:“intravenous therapy will be most securely advanced if its employmentis restricted to such well defined fields as those mentioned above these fields can be satisfactorily determined only by a scientificpharmacologic study of the action of these drugs when so administeredin animals, as well as in man, under conditions in which the resultsare carefully controlled the intravenous method is an impressive one, approaching in preparation almost to that which goes with a surgicaloperation the patient is usually interested and impressed by thisnew, and, to him, mysterious method there is a psychic element in hisreaction to the injection which is not a factor in his reaction to thesame drug when given by mouth the intravenous injection of a complexmixture would appear to be writingicularly reprehensible little is known, as has been stated, of the results to be expected from intravenoustherapy, even with simple substances the use of complex mixtures willwithout doubt react against the proper use of the method ”after the report on arseno-meth-hyd had been presented to the council, a letter was received from the new york intravenous laboratoryannouncing that the preparation “arseno-meth-hyd” was now called“solution of arsenic and mercury” and expressing a desire to have itsproducts accepted for inclusion in new and nonofficial remedies inview of this letter, the committee report on “arseno-meth-hyd” andthe council protest against promiscuous intravenous therapy weresent the new york intravenous laboratory for consideration the reply of the new york intravenous laboratory contained nothingwhich permitted a revision of the preceding report the change of thename of “arseno-meth-hyd” to “solution of arsenic and mercury” meanslittle as the name still does not disclose the important fact that thearsenic is present as sodium cacodylate, nor does it tell the characterof the mercury compound the council voted that “solution of arsenicand mercury” and “arsenoven s s ” be declared inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies because the therapeutic claims advanced for themare unwarranted rule 6 and because the names of these pharmaceuticalpreparations are not descriptive of their composition rule 8 in filing its reply with the council, the new york intravenouslaboratory announced that that document would be circulated to themedical profession this is of course the firm privilege the councilnotes, however, with interest, that the reply is devoted almostentirely to points which were not raised by the council and that itfails to discuss the objections which were actually made the reply constantly confuses the efficiency of cacodylate in anemiaand in syphilis the council report on “arseno-meth-hyd” does notdiscuss or even touch on the question of cacodylates in anemia itis confined to a discussion of the disappointing results obtainedwith cacodylates as such i e , without mercury in the treatmentof syphilis this attempt on the writing of the new york intravenouslaboratory to confuse the issue and to attribute to the councilan opinion that it has never stated or held is an inexcusablemisrepresentation the company in its reply said. “we believe that you have previously stated that a solution cacodylate of soda possesses no more action than so much water in other words, it was inert now you try to show that it produces renal injury ”the council has never declared that cacodylates are inert in thereport it is merely stated “that doses so large as to produce renalinjury were almost totally ineffective against syphilis ” neitherhas the council stated that cacodylate is “peculiarly dangerous ” infact the absolute toxicity of cacodylates is low but cole resultswere quoted as a caution that “effective” doses are not harmless agreat portion of the remainder of the reply is devoted to disparagingarsphenamin-- a product that is not involved in this action of thecouncil, and one about which the physician is amply informed amongst other wholly extraneous matters, the firm “reply” tried toresurrect the pepsin pancreatin controversy this also has nothingto do with the efficiency or harmlessness of sodium cacodylate inorder to dispose of the matter, however, it may be pointed out thatthe implications are entirely misleading the work which is quotedagainst the council was undertaken by the council itself, to clarifyobscurities in the older data the outcome of these new investigationsshowed the essential correctness of the deductions from the older work, namely, that pancreatin is destroyed by pepsin-hydrochloric acid dr long work to which the firm reply evidently refers, showed thatunder favorable conditions, namely, when protected by an excess ofprotein, essay trypsin may escape destruction in the stomach.