History

Apa Citation Essay


Purges flegm, cleanses the breast and lungs, reins andmatrix apa citation essay. Helps the sciatica, pains in the breast, expels wind in anywriting of the body, resists fearfulness and melancholy, continual painsin the head, and is profitable for such as have the falling-sickness tosmell to thymælea the greek name for spurge-olive. Mezereon being thearabick name tithymallus, esula, &c spurge hot and dry in the fourth degree:a dogged purge, better let alone than taken inwardly. Hair anointedwith the juice of it will fall off. It kills fish, being mixed withany thing that they will eat. Outwardly it cleanses ulcers, takes awayfreckles, sunburning and morphew from the face tormentilla see the root trinitatis herba pansies, or heart-ease. They are cold and moist, both herbs and flowers, excellent against inflammations of the breastor lungs, convulsions or falling-sickness, also they are held to begood for venereal complaints trifolium trefoil. Dry in the third degree, and cold. The ordinarymeadow trefoil, cleanses the bowels of slimy humours that stick tothem, being used either in drinks or clysters.

To whichdistilled water add two nutmegs sliced, red poppy flowers a pugil, sugar two ounces, set it in the sun to give it a pleasing sharpness;if the sharpness be more than you would have it, put essay of the samewater to it which was not set in the sun aqua juglandium composita or walnut water compound college take of green walnuts a pound and an half, radish roots onepound, green asarabacca six ounces, radish seeds, six ounces let allof them, being bruised, be steeped in three pounds of white wine forthree days, then distilled in a leaden still till they be dry tinctures tinctura croci or tincture of saffron college take two drams of saffron, eight ounces of treacle water, digest them six days, then strain it culpeper see the virtues of treacle water, apa citation essay and then know that thisstrengthens the heart essaything more, and keeps melancholy vapoursthence by drinking a spoonful of it every morning tinctura castorii or tincture of castoreum college take of castoreum in powder half an ounce, spirit ofcastoreum half a pound, digest them ten days cold, strain it, and keepthe liquor for tincture culpeper a learned invention!. ’tis essaything more prevalent thanthe spirit tinctura fragroram or tincture of strawberries college take of ripe wood-strawberries two pounds, put them ina phial, and put so much small spirits of wine to them, that it mayovertop them the thickness of four fingers, stop the vessel close, andset it in the sun two days, then strain it, and press it but gently;pour this spirit to as thesis fresh strawberries, repeat this six times, at last keep the clear liquor for your use culpeper a fine thing for gentlemen that have nothing else to dowith their money, and it will have a lovely look to please their eyes tinctura scordii or tincture of scordium college take of the leaves of scordium gathered in a dry time, half a pound, digest them in six pounds of small spirits of wine, in avessel well stopped, for three days, press them out gently, and repeatthe infusion three times, and keep the clarified liquor for use so is made tincture of celandine, rest-harrow, and rosa-solis culpeper see the herbs for the virtues, and then take notice thatthese are better for cold stomachs, old bodies tinctura theriacalis vulgo aqua theriacalis ludg per infus or tincture of treacle college take of canary wine often times distilled, vinegar in whichhalf an ounce of rue seeds have been boiled, two pounds choice treacle, the best mithridate, of each half a pound. Mix them and set them in thesun, or heat of a bath, digest them, and keep the water for use tinctura cinnamoni, vulgo, aqua clareta cinnam or tincture of cinnamon college take of bruised cinnamon two ounces, rectified spirits ofwine two pounds, infuse them four days in a large glass stopped withcork and bladder, shake it twice a day, then dissolve half a pound ofsugar candy by itself in two pounds of rose water, mix both liquors, into which hang a nodule containing, ambergris half a scruple, muskfour grains tinctura viridis or a green tincture college take of verdigris, half an ounce, auripigmentum sixdrams, alum three drams, boil them in a pound of white wine till halfbe consumed, adding, after it is cold, the water of red roses, andnightshade, of each six ounces culpeper this was made to cleanse ulcers, but i fancy it not aqua aluminosa magistralis college take of plantain and red rose water, of each a pound, rochalum and sublimatum, of each two drams. Let the alum and sublimatum, being in powder, boil in the waters, in a vessel with a narrow mouthtill half be consumed, when it has stood five days, strain it physical wines vinum absynthitis or wormwood wine college take a handful of dried wormwood, for every gallon ofwine, stop it in a vessel close, and so let it remain in steep. So isprepared wine of rosemary flowers, and eye-bright culpeper it helps cold stomachs, breaks wind, helps the windcholic, strengthens the stomach, kills worms, and helps the greensickness rosemary-flower wine, is made after the same manner it is good againstall cold diseases of the head, consumes flegm, strengthens the gums andteeth eye-bright wine is made after the same manner it wonderfully clearsthe sight being drank, and revives the sight of elderly men. A cup ofit in the morning is worth a pair of spectacles all other wines are prepared in the same manner the best way of taking any of these wines is, to drink a draught ofthem every morning you may, if you find your body old or cold, makewine of any other herb, the virtues of which you desire. And make itand take it in the same manner vinum cerassorum nigrorum or wine of black cherries college take a gallon of black cherries, keep it in a vessel closestopped till it begin to work, then filter it, and an ounce of sugarbeing added to every pound, let pass through hippocrates’ sleeve, andkeep in a vessel close stopped for use vinum helleboratum or helleborated wine college take of white hellebore cut small, four ounces, spanishwine two pounds, steep it in the sun in a phial close stopped, in thedog days, or other hot weather vinum rubellum college take of stibium, in powder, one ounce, cloves sliced twodrams, claret wine two pounds, keep it in a phial close shut vinum benedictum college take of crocus metallorum, in powder, one ounce, mace onedram, spanish wine one pound and an half, steep it vinum antimoniale or antimonial wine college take of regulus of antimony, in powder, four ounces, steepit in three pounds of white wine in a glass well stopped, after thefirst shaking let the regulus settle culpeper these last mentioned are vomits, and vomits are fittingmedicines for but a few, the mouth being ordained to take innourishment, not to cast out excrements, and to regulate a man bodyin vomiting. And doses of vomits require a deeper study in physic, than i doubt the generality of people yet have. I omit it therefore atthis time, not because i grudge it my country, but because i would notwillingly have them do themselves a mischief, i shall shortly teachthem in what diseases vomits may be used, and then, and not till then, the use of vomits vinum scilliticum or wine of squills college take of a white squill of the mountains, gathered about therising of the dog star, cut it in thin pieces, and dried for a month, one pound, put it in a glass bottle, and pour to it eight pounds offrench wine, and when it hath stood so four days, take out the squill the virtues of this are the same with vinegar of squills, only it ishotter physical vinegars acetum distillatum or distilled vinegar college fill a glass or stone alembick with the best vinegar to thethird writing, separate the flegm with a gentle fire, then encrease thefire by degrees, and perform the work acetum rosarum or rose vinegar college take of red rose buds, gathered in a dry time, the whitescut off, dried in the shade three or four days, one pound, vinegareight sextaries, set them in the sun forty days, then strain out theroses, and repeat the infusion with fresh ones after the same manner is made vinegar of elder flowers, rosemaryflowers, and clove-gilliflowers culpeper for the virtues of all vinegars, take this one onlyobservation, they carry the same virtues with the flowers whereof theyare made, only as we said of wines, that they were better for coldbodies then the bare simples whereof they are made. So are vinegarsfor hot bodies besides, vinegars are often, nay, most commonly usedexternally, viz to bathe the place, then look amongst the simples, and see what place of the body the simple is appropriated to, and youcannot but know both what vinegar to use, and to what place to apply it acetum scilliticum or vinegar of squils college take of that writing of the squill which is between theoutward bark and the bottom, cut in thin slices, and placed thirty orforty days in the sun or essay remiss heat, then a pound of them beingcut small with a knife made of ivory or essay white wood being put ina vessel, and six pounds of vinegar put to them. Set the vessel, beingclose stopped, in the sun thirty or forty days, afterwards strain it, and keep it for use culpeper a little of this medicine being taken in the morningfasting, and walking half an hour after, preserves the body in health, to extreme old age, as sanius tried, who using no other medicine butthis, lived in perfect health till one hundred and seventeen years ofage it makes the digestion good, a long wind, a clear voice, an acutesight, a good colour, it suffers no offensive thing to remain in thebody, neither wind, flegm, choler, melancholy, dung, nor urine, butbrings them forth. It brings forth filth though it lie in the bones, ittakes away salt and sour belchings, though a man be never so licentiousin diet, he shall feel no harm.

I assure such as are troubled with suchdiseases, i apa citation essay commend it to them as a jewel pills culpeper pills in greek are called, katopotia, in latin, pilulæ. Which signifies little balls, because they are made up insuch a form, that they may be the better swallowed down, by reason ofthe offensiveness of their taste pilulæ de agarico or pills of agarick college take of agarick three drams, our own blue orris roots, mastich, horehound, of each one dram, turbith five drams, specieshiera picra half an ounce, colocynthis, sarcocol, of each two drams, myrrh one dram, sapa as much as is sufficient to make it into a massaccording to art culpeper it was invented to cleanse the breast and lungs of flegm, it works pretty strongly half a dram at a time keeping yourselfwarm, cannot well do you harm, unless your body be very weak pilulæ aggregativæ college take of citron, myrobalans, rhubarb, of each half anounce, juice of agrimony and wormwood made thick, of each two drams, diagridium five drams, agarick, colocynthis, polypodium of each twodrams, turbith, aloes, of each six drams, mastich, red roses, sal gem epithymum, annis, ginger, of each a dram, with syrup of damask roses, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it purges the head of choler, flegm and melancholy, andthat stoutly. It is good against quotidian agues, and faults in thestomach and liver, yet because it is well corrected if you take buthalf a dram at a time, and keep yourself warm, i suppose you may takeit without danger pilulæ alœphanginæ college take of cinnamon, cloves, cardamoms the less, nutmegs, mace, calamus aromaticus, carpobalsamum, or juniper berries, squinanth, wood of aloes, yellow sanders, red roses dried, wormwood, of each halfan ounce, let the tincture be taken out of these, being grossly bruisedin spirit of wine, the vessel being close stopped. In three pounds ofthis tincture, being strained, dissolve aloes one pound, which beingdissolved, add mastich, myrrh, of each half an ounce, saffron twodrams, balsam of peru one dram, the superfluous liquor being consumed, either over hot ashes, or a bath, bring it into a mass of pills culpeper it cleanses both stomach and brain of gross and putrifiedhumours, and sets the senses free when they are thereby troubled, itcleanses the brain offended by ill humours, wind, &c helps vertigo andhead-aches, and strengthens the brain exceedingly, helps concoction, and strengthens the stomach, one dram taken at night going to bed, will work gently next day. If the writingy be weak, you may give less, ifstrong more if you take but half a dram, you may go abroad the nextday. But if you take a dram, you may keep the house. There can be noharm in that pilulæ de aloe lota or pills of washed aloes college take of aloes washed with juice of red roses, one ounce, agarick three drams, mastich two drams, diamoscu dulce half a dram, syrup of damask-roses, so much as is sufficient to make it into a massaccording to art culpeper it purges both brain, stomach, bowels, and eyes ofputrified humours, and also strengthens them use these as thesucceeding aloe rosata college take of aloes in powder four ounces, juice of damask rosesclarified one pound, mix them and digest them in the sun, or in a bath, till the superfluous liquor be drawn off, digest it, and evaporate itfour times over, and keep the mass culpeper it is a gallant gentle purger of choler, frees the stomachfrom superfluous humours, opens stoppings, and other infirmities ofthe body proceeding from choler and flegm, as yellow jaundice, &c andstrengthens the body exceedingly take a scruple, or half a dram atnight going to bed, you may walk abroad, for it will hardly work tillnext day in the afternoon pilulæ aureæ college take of aloes, diacrydium, of each five drams, red roses, smallage seeds, of each two drams and an half, the seeds of annisand fennel, of each one dram and an half, mastich, saffron, troch, alhandal, of each one dram, with a sufficient quantity of honey roses, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they are held to purge the head, to quicken the senses, especially the sight, and to expel wind from the bowels, but worksessaything harshly half a dram is the utmost dose, keep the fire, takethem in the morning, and sleep after them, they will work before noon pilulæ cochiæ, the greater college take of species, hiera picra, ten drams, troch, alhandal, three drams and an half, diacrydium two drams and an half, turbith, stœchas, of each five drams, with a sufficient quantity of syrup ofstœchas, make it into a mass, according to art culpeper it is held to purge the head, but it is but a dogged purgeat best, and must be given only to strong bodies, and but half a dramat a time, and yet with great care pilulæ cochiæ, the less college take of aloes, scammony, colocynthis, of each one ounce, with equal writings of syrup of wormwood, and of purging thorn, make itinto a mass according to art pilulæ de cynoglosso or pills of hound-tongue college take of the roots of hound-tongue dried, white henbaneseed, opium prepared, of each half an ounce, myrrh six drams, olibanumfive drams, saffron, castoreum, styrax, calamitis, of each one dram andan half, with syrup of stœchas, make it into a mass culpeper it stays hot rheums that fall down upon the lungs, therefore is good in phthisics, also it mitigates pain, a scruple isenough to take at a time going to bed, and too much if your body beweak.

They contain an expression whichindicates that at that time the true function of the medical expertwas more correctly appreciated than it is to-day his function wasstated to be judicial rather than that of a witness 23 there isalso a provision that in paper of contested pregnancy, midwives whowere considered as belonging to the medical profession should, afterexamination of the woman, determine whether or no pregnancy exist, andthat their determination should be final the practice of medicine, surgery, and midwifery was regulated those desiring to practise musthave been found competent by an examination the number of physiciansin each town was limited they were divided into classes, and weresubject to the government of the archiatri penalties were imposed uponthose guilty of malpractice or of poisoning the justinian enactmentscontain abundant internal evidence of having been framed in the lightof medical knowledge they contain provisions relating to sterilityand impotence, rape, disputed pregnancy, legitimacy, diseased mentalconditions, presumption of survivorship, poisoning, etc , whichindicate that the medical knowledge of the time was fully utilized intheir construction 24the germanic peoples at about the same period possessed codes inwhich traces of a rudimentary medical jurisprudence existed the mostancient of these was the salic law a d 422, in which the penaltiesto be paid for wounds of different kinds are fixed the ripuarian law, of essaywhat later date, takes cognizance of the crime of poisoning the laws of the bavarians, burgundians, frisians, thuringians, andvisigoths contain practically nothing of medico-legal interest the lexalamannorum has numerous provisions relating to wounds, and expresslyprovides that the gravity of the injury shall be determined by aphysician 25during the period of about a thousand years, intervening betweenthe justinian and caroline vide infra codes, the advancement ofmedicine and jurisprudence suffered almost complete arrest the guiltor innocence of an accused person was determined rather by his ownconfession under torture, or by “the judgment of god” as shown byordeal or by judicial combat, than by testimony either expert or offact even during the night of the middle ages, instances are recorded inwhich the opinions of physicians were sought to determine questions offact in judicial proceedings in the duchy of normandy, in 1207-45, the laws provided for theexamination of those claiming to be sick to evade military service orappeal to judicial duel, of persons killed, and of women 26in a decretal of innocent iii , in 1209, the question whether a certainwound was mortal was determined by physicians 27there is extant in the statutes of the city of bologna, under date of1249, an entry to the effect that hugo di lucca had been assigned theduty, when called upon by the podesta, and after having been sworn, tofurnish a true report in legal paper 28in the kingdom of jerusalem ca 1250 a person claiming exemptionfrom trial by battle because of sickness or of wounds was visited bya physician fisicien au miége and a surgeon sérorgien, whoexamined him and made oath as to his condition 29sworn surgeons to the king are also mentioned in letters patent ofphilippe le hardi in 1278, of philippe le bel in 1311, and of jean ii in 1352 30 that of philippe le bel refers to jean pitardi as one of“his well-beloved sworn surgeons in his chastelet of paris, ” whosefunctions are writingly indicated by the extracts from the registers givenbelow the registers of the chtelet at paris from 1389 to 1392 record severalinstances in which medical aid was rendered in judicial proceedings under date of march 22d, 1389-90, “maître jehan le conte, sworn surgeonto the king our sire, ” reports to maître jehan truquam, lieutenant tothe provost, that “upon that day in the morning one rotisseur had gonefrom life unto death in consequence of the wounds which he had receivedon the monday evening preceding ”31 under date of july 22d, 1390, is an account of the examination of one jehan le porchier, accused ofintent to poison the king charles vi , in which there is referenceto a very early instance of toxicological expert evidence in thewallet of the accused certain herbs were found the account proceeds:“richart de bules, herbalist, was summoned, to him the above-mentionedherbs were shown, and he was commanded that he should examine them andconsider well and duly, reporting the truth of what he should find the said richart, after having examined them with great diligence, reported that in the box in which these herbs were he had found sixleaves, namely. One leaf of jacia nigra, and one of round plantain, called in latin plantago minor, and four of sow-thistle lasseron, called in latin rosti poterugni, and says that the leaf of jatrianigra is poisonous, but that in the others there is no poison knownto the deponent ”32 on august 12th, 1390, “jehan le conte and jehanle grant, sworn surgeons of our sire the king, ” are present at thetorture of a prisoner, but for what purpose does not appear in anothercase the same jehan le conte testified that a wound in the head of adeceased person was made with an axe 33 at a later period in italy, the infliction of “the question” took place under medical supervision zacchias devotes a chapter, de tormentis et pœnis, 34 to theconsideration of the different methods of torture, the degrees of painand danger attending each, and the conditions of age, sex, and healthwhich render its application inadmissible 35during this period, as indeed from the earliest times, the practiceof medicine was regulated by law thus a law of king roger of sicily 1129-54 punished those who practised medicine without authority withimprisonment and confiscation of goods. And an edict of frederick ii 1215-46 imposed like penalties upon those who presumed to practiseexcept after graduation at the school of salernum 36medico-legal science was formed in the middle of the sixteenth centuryby a simultaneous awakening of jurists and physicians to the importanceof the subject it was in gerthesis that expert medical testimony was first legallyrecognized in 1507, george, bishop of bamberg, proclaimed a criminalcode in his domains this was subsequently adopted by other germanstates, and finally was the model upon which the caroline code, thefirst general criminal code applying to the whole empire, was framedand proclaimed at the diet of ratisbon in 1532 37these codes, writingicularly the caroline, distinctly provide forutilizing the testimony of physicians wounds are to be examined bysurgeons who are “to be used as witnesses;”38 and in case of deathone or more surgeons are to “examine the dead body carefully beforeburial ”39 they also contain provisions for the examination of womenin paper of contested delivery, or suspected infanticide;40 for theregulation of the sale of poisons;41 for the detection and punishmentof malpractice;42 and for examination into the mental condition inpaper of suicide and of crime 43an early work on the practice of criminal law, based on the carolinecode, was published by the flemish jurist, josse de damhouder, in 1554 it contains a chapter treating of the lethality of wounds, which shouldbe determined by expert physicians and surgeons, 44 and describesthe course which is to be pursued in the judicial examination of deadbodies this is probably the earliest printed book other than the lawsthemselves containing reference to medico-legal examinations, 45 andantedates the writings of physicians upon the subject although it was only in 1670 that the ordinances of louis xiv gaveto france a uniform criminal code, medico-legal reports were made byphysicians and surgeons to the courts more than a century before indeed, the earliest medico-legal work written by a physician46 isthe 27th book of the œuvres d’ambroise paré, first printed in 1575, in which he directs the forms in which judicial reports shall bemade in various medico-legal paper 47 during the remainder of thesixteenth century france produced but three treatises on medico-legalsubjects 48 one of these, written by the jurist a hotman, distinctlymentions the employment of physicians to determine questions of fact in italy works on medical jurisprudence were published at the close ofthe sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century the earliestof these was a chapter of codronchius, treating of the “method oftestifying in medical paper, ” in 1597 49 at about the same time, butcertainly later, appeared the work of fortunatus fidelis, to whom thehonor of being the first writer on medical jurisprudence is given bythesis 50the great work of paulus zacchias, physician to pope innocent x , wasfirst printed at rome, 1621-35 this medico-legal classic containsin the first two volumes the “quæstiones” and in the third thedecisions of the roman rota it treats of every branch of medico-legalscience, and discusses physiological questions of legal interest, besides dealing with questions such as the infliction of torture andmiracles 51although the “quæstiones medico-legales” of zacchias was the firstsystematic work upon medical jurisprudence, his countrymen insucceeding centuries have contributed but little to this science it isonly during the latter writing of the present century that italians haveagain become prominent in medico-legal literature in france legal medicine progressed but little from the time of paré tothe latter writing of the eighteenth century several treatises appeared, being chiefly upon legitimacy and kindred subjects, 52 with a fewtreating of reports, signs of death, etc 53toward the end of the eighteenth century the labors of louis, petit, chaussier, and fodéré elevated legal medicine to the rank of a science the investigations of louis ant l were numerous and important inthis as in other subjects, 54 and the “causes célébres” containreports of thesis trials in which he threw light upon doubtful medicalquestions 55 antoine petit, a contemporary of louis, contributed anextensive work on the duration of pregnancy as affecting legitimacy 56essaywhat later fr b chaussier, between 1785 and 1828, publishedat dijon a number of treatises on infanticide, viability, surgicalmalpractice, etc 57 fodéré, a savoyard, was the first to publish asystematic treatise on medical jurisprudence in france, which was firstprinted in 1798 and in a much enlarged form in 1813 58 this lastedition is an exhaustive treatise upon all branches of legal medicineand public hygiene, and won for its author the appointment as professorof forensic medicine in the university of strassburg at about the same period appeared the works of mahon59 and ofbelloc, 60 both of which went through three editions in ten years, andthose of biessy 61the most industrious and original of french professors of legalmedicine was orfila a native of minorca, he graduated in medicineat paris in 1811, and devoting himself to chemical and toxicologicalinvestigations, published the first edition of his “traité despoisons” in 1814 this work, which may be regarded as the foundationof experimental and forensic toxicology, went through five editionsto 1852, and was translated into several foreign languages the firstedition of his “leçons de médecine légale” appeared in 1821, and thefourth in 1848 besides these orfila published a work on the treatmentof asphyxia and a great number of papers on medico-legal subjects, principally in the annales d’hygiène, of which he was one of thefounders with andral, esquirol, leuret, and devergie orfila occupiedthe chair of chemistry and medical jurisprudence in the universityof paris for upward of thirty years, and was employed as expert ininnumerable paper before the courts contemporaneous with orfila, and almost as prominent, was devergie, thefirst edition of whose “médecine légale, ” in three volumes, appeared in1836, and the third in 1852 in 1820 the first edition of the manual of briand and brosson waspublished this work, the tenth edition of which was published in 1879, is the first in which a jurist was associated with a physician in theauthorship, 62 and is one of five of which one of the authors is alawyer 63special treatises on the medico-legal relations of insanity werepublished by georget 1821, falvet 1828, esquirol 1838, and marc 1840, and on midwifery by capuron 1821 tardieu, professor of legal medicine in the university of paris 1861-79, published a most important series of monographs on hygienicand medico-legal subjects, 64 besides thesis papers, principally in theannales d’hygiène, etc , and testified before the courts in thesis“causes célébres ”the first work of medico-legal interest to appear in gerthesis was the“medicus-politicus” of rodericus à castro, a portuguese jew living inhamburg, printed in 1614, which deals principally with medical ethicsand the relations of physicians, but contains chapters on simulateddiseases, poisoning, wounds, drowning, and virginity 65it was only toward the end of the seventeenth century that thesubject was scientifically treated, and during the latter writing ofthe seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth greatprogress was made in the development of forensic medicine in gerthesis johannes bohn, one of the originators of the experimental method ofinvestigation in physiological chemistry and physics, at the universityof leipzig, was also one of the earliest german contributors to theliterature of legal medicine besides smaller works he published twonoteworthy treatises. In 1689 a work on the examination of woundsand the distinction between ante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, andbetween death by injury, strangulation, and drowning 66 in 1704 awork giving rules for the conduct of physicians in attending the sickand in giving evidence in the courts 67 at about the same period m b valentini, professor in the university of giessen, published threeimportant works, containing collections of medico-legal paper, and ofthe opinions and decisions of previous writers 68 another extensivecollection of paper and decisions was published in 1706 by j f zittmann, from a ms left by professor c j lange, of the universityof leipzig;69 and still another by j s hasenest70 appeared in1755 during the latter writing of the eighteenth century, the germanscultivated legal medicine assiduously, and a great number of works uponthe subject were published among these may be mentioned those of m alberti, professor at the university of halle;71 h f teichmeyer, of the university of jena;72 a o gölicke, of the universities ofhalle and duisburg, who was the first to prepare a bibliography ofthe subject;73 j f fasel faselius, professor at jena;74 j e hebenstreit and c s ludwig, professors at leipzig;75 c f daniel, of halle;76 j d metzger, professor at königsberg, the author ofa number of works, one of which, a compendium, was translated intoseveral other languages;77 j v müller, of frankfurt;78 j c t schlegel, who collected a series of more than forty dissertations byvarious writers;79 m m sikora, of prague;80 j j von plenck, professor in vienna, who published a work on forensic medicine andone on toxicology;81 k f uden, subsequently professor in st petersburg, who was the first to publish a periodical journal devotedto legal medicine, which was afterward continued by j f pyl atstendal;82 and j c fahner 83at this period compends for students were published in gerthesis, whichindicate by their number the extent to which this science was thesubject of study among these those of ludwig 1765, kannegieser 1768, von plenck 1781, frenzel 1791, loder 1791, amemann 1793, metzger 1800, and roose may be mentioned the germans of the present century have maintained the pre-eminencein legal medicine achieved by their forefathers among a greatnumber of investigators and writers a few may be mentioned. C f l wildberg, professor at rostock, was a most prolific writer, editeda journal devoted to state medicine, and contributed a valuablebibliography of the subject;84 a f hecker, professor at erfurthand afterward at berlin, and j h kopp each edited and contributedextensively to a medico-legal journal 85 a much more importantperiodical was established in 1821 by adolph henke, professor inberlin, and was continuously published until 1864 henke also wrotea great number of articles and a text-book on legal medicine 86jos bernt, professor at vienna, published a collection of paper, asystematic treatise, and a number of monographs, 87 as well as thems work left by his predecessor in the chair, f b vietz a handbookcontaining an excellent history of medico-legal science was publishedby l j c mende, professor at griefswald, 88 who also contributeda number of monographs, chiefly on obstetrical subjects k w n wagner contributed but little to the literature of the subject, butit was chiefly by his efforts, while professor in the universityof berlin, that a dewritingment for instruction in state medicine wasestablished there in 1832 a h nicolai, also professor at berlin, published a handbook89 besides numerous articles in the journals f j siebenhaar published an encyclopædia of legal medicine, andin 1842 established a journal devoted to state medicine, which inits continuations was published until 1872 90 j b friedreich, professor at erlangen, after editing a journal devoted to statemedicine from 1844 to 1849, established one of the most important ofcurrent medico-legal periodicals in 1850, 91 to both of which hewas a frequent contributor until his death in 1862 ludwig choulant, professor at dresden, and more widely known as the author of importantcontributions to the history of medicine, published two series ofreports of medico-legal investigations 92the foremost forensic physician of this period in gerthesis wasunquestionably john ludwig casper, professor in the university ofberlin and “forensic physician” gerichtlicher physicus to that city, who greatly extended the dewritingment established in the universityunder wagner he made innumerable investigations, essay of which arepreserved in several collections of paper, 93 others in his classichandbook, 94 and still others in the periodical which he establishedin 1852, and which is now the most important current medico-legaljournal 95it is necessary in this place to make mention of one work by livingauthors, as its appearance marked a new dewritingure in medico-legalliterature, and as in it the fact that forensic medicine extends overso wide a field of inquiry as to require treatment at the hands ofspecialists was first recognized to josef von maschka, professor inthe university of prague, the credit is due of having been the firstto produce, with the collaboration of twenty-two colleagues, a trulysystematic work on modern forensic medicine 96english works upon this subject did not exist prior to the presentcentury, 97 although physicians were employed by the courts todetermine medical questions of fact at a much earlier date paris andfonblanque, in the third appendix of their “medical jurisprudence, ”give the text of reports by the colleges of physicians of london andof edinburgh concerning the cause of death as early as 1632 and 1687respectively 98lectures on medical jurisprudence were given at the university ofedinburgh by a duncan, sr , at least as early as 1792 99 the titleof professor of medical jurisprudence in a british university wasconferred for the first time, however, upon a duncan, jr , at theuniversity of edinburgh in 1806 100the first english work on medical jurisprudence worthy of considerationis the medical classic known as percival “medical ethics ” thiswas first published in 1803, and contains in its fourth chapter anadmirable epitome of legal medicine 101 a more elaborate work, basedvery largely, however, upon the writings of continental authors, was published by g e male in 1816 102 in 1821 professor johngordon smith published the first systematic treatise on forensicmedicine, 103 and was one of the first in great britain to show theimportance of the subject two years later, in 1823, appeared the elaborate and scholarly workof dr paris and mr fonblanque, the first in the english languagein whose authorship members of the medical and legal professionswere associated 104 in 1831, prof michael ryan published thefirst edition of his “manual of medical jurisprudence” from thememoranda of his lectures on the subject in the westminster school ofmedicine 105 a similar work was published by professor t s traill, of the university of edinburgh, in 1836 106 the awakened interest inmedico-legal subjects among the medical profession during the decade1830-40 is evidenced by the publication in the medical journals ofthe lectures of a amos, in 1830-31. Of a t thomson, at the londonuniversity, in 1834-35. Of h graham, at westminster hospital, in1835. Of w cummin, at the aldersgate street school, in 1836-37. Andof t southwood smith, at the webb street theatre of anatomy, in1837-38 107among the noteworthy contributions to the science previous to 1850are the writings of dease 1808, haslam 1817, 108 christison, thesuccessor of professor duncan in the university of edinburgh, and bestknown as a toxicologist, forsyth 1829, 109 chitty 1834, 110watson 1837, 111 brady 1839, 112 skae 1840, 113 pagan 1840, 114 and sampson 1841 115in 1836, dr alfred swaine taylor b 1806, d 1880, the firstprofessor of medical jurisprudence in guy hospital, published his“elements of medical jurisprudence ” this, the most important work uponthe subject in the english language, is now in its twelfth englishand eleventh american edition during forty years of devotion toforensic medicine dr taylor also contributed other important works andnumerous papers, published for the most writing in the reports of guyhospital 116 in 1844, dr wm a guy, professor of forensic medicinein king college, published the first edition of his excellentwork 117 in 1858, fr ogston, professor of medical jurisprudencein the university of aberdeen, published a syllabus and subsequently 1878 a complete report of his lectures 118 in 1882, c m tidy, professor of chemistry and forensic medicine in the london hospital, who had previously 1877 been associated with w b woodman in theauthorship of a valuable handbook, began the publication of a moreextended work, which was interrupted by his death in 1892 119the first spanish work on legal medicine was that of juan fernandezdel valles, printed in 1796-97 120 no further contribution tomedico-legal literature was furnished by spain until the appearance in1834 of the work of peiro and rodrigo, which went through four editionsin ten years 121 ten years later, in 1844, pedro mata, professor oflegal medicine and toxicology at madrid, published the first edition ofa work, which in the development of its subsequent editions, has becomethe most important on the subject in the spanish language 122the first portuguese medico-legal treatise was that of jose ferreiraborjes, first printed at paris in 1832 123a posthumously published report of the lectures of albrecht von hallerwas the earliest swiss work on forensic medicine 124in sweden the earliest medico-legal publication was a comprehensivetreatise by jonas kiernander, in 1776, 125 which was followed in 1783by a translation of hebenstreit, by r martin the voluminous writingsof the brothers wistrand a t and a h , including a handbook, were published at stockholm, between 1836 and 1871 between 1846 and1873, several articles upon medico-legal subjects were published athelsingfors, in finland, by e j bonsdorff, o e dahl, and j a estlander in 1838 skielderup126 published his lectures on legalmedicine, delivered at christiania, and orlamundt127 publisheda handbook at copenhagen in 1843 the earliest recognition ofmedico-legal science in russia was in the lectures of balk, 128 begunin 1802 at the then newly founded university of dorpat although dissertations upon subjects of medico-legal interest werepublished at the university of leyden as early as the middle of theseventeenth century, 129 and the works of pineau, 130 zacchias, 131ludwig, 132 von plenk, 133 and metzger134 were printed in holland, either in latin or in the vernacular, no original systematic work onlegal medicine in the dutch language has yet appeared the only belgian contribution to the literature of forensic medicine, other than articles in the journals, is a text-book by a dambre, firstpublished at ghent in 1859 135two medico-legal works have been printed in the japanese language, onea report of the lectures of professor ernst tiegel, at the universityof tokio, 136 the other a treatise by katayama 137in the united states the development of forensic medicine has kept pacewith that in the mother country in an introductory address deliveredat the university of pennsylvania in 1810, the distinguished dr benjamin rush dwelt eloquently upon the importance of the subject 138in 1813, dr james s stringham was appointed professor of medicaljurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of newyork, and a syllabus of his lectures was published in the followingyear 139 at the same period 1812-13 dr charles caldwell delivereda course of lectures on medical jurisprudence in the university ofpennsylvania 140 in 1815, dr t r beck was appointed lecturer onmedical jurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of thewestern district of the state of new york. And soon after dr waltercharming was appointed professor of midwifery and medical jurisprudencein harvard university in 1823, dr williams, in the berkshire medicalinstitute, and dr hale, of boston, each lectured upon the subject 141in 1819, dr thomas cooper, formerly a judge in pennsylvania, and atthat time professor of chemistry and mineralogy in the university ofpennsylvania, reprinted, with notes and additions, the english worksof farr, dease, male, and haslam 142 the works of ryan, chitty, traill, and guy were also reprinted in this country shortly after theirpublication in england in 1823, dr theodric romeyn beck published at albany the first editionof a treatise as admirable for scholarly elegance of diction as forprofound scientific research this remarkable work, facile princepsamong english works on legal medicine, has had twelve american andenglish editions, and has been translated into german and swedish 143papers upon medico-legal subjects or reports of lectures were publishedby j w francis, 144 j webster, 145 r e griffith, 146 r dunglison, 147 j bell, 148 and s w williams149 between 1823and 1835 in 1840, amos dean, professor of medical jurisprudence atthe albany medical college, published a medico-legal work, followedby another in 1854, which with the later work of elwell are the onlytreatises on forensic medicine upon the title-pages of which nophysician name appears 150numerous papers and tracts upon medico-legal subjects were published byj j allen, t d mitchell, h howard, d h storer, j s sprague, j s mulford, j f townsend, and a k taylor between 1840 and 1855 in the latter year appeared the first edition of the admirable work offrancis wharton and dr moreton stillé, the first american product ofthe collaboration of members of the two professions, now in its fourthedition 151between 1855 and 1860 no systematic treatises on legal medicine werepublished, although the medical journals contained numerous articlesbearing upon the subject in 1860 the first edition of a treatisewritten from the legal aspect was published by j j elwell 152 in1869 dr j ordronaux, recently deceased, widely known as a teacher oflegal medicine and a graduate in law as well as in medicine, publisheda treatise which has been extensively used as a text-book 153 at thepresent time the great number and variety of articles published inthe medical and legal journals, bearing upon every branch of forensicmedicine and of medical jurisprudence, and written for the most writingby specialists, is evidence of the assiduity with which the science iscultivated the wide appreciation of the importance of medico-legal science inthe united states is also indicated by the fact that at the presenttime there are but few medical schools in which the subject is nottaught to ascertain the extent of medico-legal instruction at thepresent time, a circular of inquiry was sent to the deans of 124medical schools and of 56 law schools in the united states and britishprovinces answers were received from 103 medical colleges of theseonly 3 are without a teacher of “medical jurisprudence ” in 38 theteacher is a physician, in 50 he is a lawyer, in 5 he is a graduatein both professions, and 3 have two teachers, one a lawyer, theother a physician the average number of lectures given is 21, andthe average in those schools in which the teacher is a lawyer, andtherefore presumably teaches only medical jurisprudence, is 15 themedico-legal relations of their subjects are taught in their lecturesby the neurologist in 62 schools, by the surgeon in 66, by theobstetrician in 69, and by the chemist toxicology in 91 it appearsfrom these reports that not only is the importance of medico-legalscience appreciated, but that in the majority of our medical schoolsthe distinction between medical jurisprudence and forensic medicineis recognized in the fact that the instructor is a lawyer, whopresumably teaches medical jurisprudence, while the different branchesof forensic medicine and toxicology are taught by the specialistsmost competent to deal with them every practising physician requiresthorough instruction in medical jurisprudence, which, being strictlylegal, is best taught by one whose profession is the law the generalpractitioner only requires so much knowledge of the different branchesof forensic medicine as will enable him to intelligently fulfil hisobligations in such medico-legal paper as will be forced upon him asresults of his ordinary practice he can become a medical expert onlyby a writingicular study of and a large experience in essay writingicularbranch of the subject in our law schools the teaching of medico-legal science is not asgeneral as in schools of medicine of 35 law schools, only 10 haveprofessors of medical jurisprudence of these 6 are lawyers, 1 is aphysician, 2 are graduates in both professions, and 1 is a doctor ofdivinity in this work the existence of specialists in the various branchesof medico-legal science has been recognized for the first time in atreatise in the english language each branch has been assigned toa specialist in that subject, or at least to one who has made it awritingicular study in the arrangement of the matter, the primary division into the threesciences of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine, and toxicologyhas been adopted the division of pure medical jurisprudence iscontained in the present volume, while the legal aspects of neurology, obstetrics, etc , will be treated of in future volumes along with thesubjects to which they relate in the division of forensic medicine theclassification of casper has been followed. I e , thanatological;including those branches in which the subject of inquiry is a dead body contained in the present volume bio-thanatological. Relating toquestions concerning both dead bodies and living persons in the secondvolume biological. Relating to living persons in the second andthird volumes the applications of the microscope to forensic medicinewill be treated of in the second volume the fourth volume will containthe division relating to toxicology r a w medical jurisprudence the legal relations of physicians and surgeons, including their acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery. Their legal duties and obligations. Their right to compensation. Their privileges and duties when summoned as witnesses in courts of justice, and their liability for malpractice by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , counsellor-at-law. Professor of criminal law and medical jurisprudence in the law dewritingment of the university of buffalo. Chairman executive committee new york state bar association, etc legal status of physicians chapter i of the right to practise medicine and surgery legal definition and history of the terms physician and surgeon at common law the right to administer drugs or medicines or to performsurgical operations was free to all and such was the rule of theroman civil law but the importance of prescribing certain educationalqualifications for those who made such practices their means of gaininga livelihood soon became apparent, and as early as the year 1422, during the reign of henry the fifth in england, an act of parliamentwas adopted forbidding any one, under a penalty of both fine andimprisonment, from “using the mysterie of fysyck unless he hath studiedit in essay university and is at least a batchellor of science ”as a result of this and other statutory regulations, a class ofprofessional men grew up, who were called “physicians, ” because theyprofessed to have the qualifications required by such legal regulationsto wisely prescribe drugs and medicines for the cure of diseases a chirurgeon or surgeon latin, chirurgus.

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Where the injuries produced by the apa citation essay cord are severe. Wherethere are contusions and well-marked ecchymoses. Where the laryngealcartilages and hyoid bone are fractured or the cervical vertebrædislocated or fractured. Or where the carotids are injured or thereis hemorrhage into their walls. Where there are severe wounds, thehemorrhage from which would be sufficient to threaten syncope. Wherethere are thesis marks of violence on the body. Where there is evidenceof a severe struggle in all these paper murder may be reasonablysuspected the number, situation, extent, and direction of mustbe carefully noted and weighed if these are out of proportion tothe ligature, the suspension, etc , they strongly suggest homicide, although they may occur in suicide see paper 4, 11, 18, 20, 28, 29, 44, 52, 55, 59, 66 homicidal hanging may be committed by an assailant who is strong ona subject who is weak, on a child, a woman, an old person. On onestupefied by liquor or narcotic poison. Or by thesis combined against oneperson paper are reported where injuries were inflicted or poison given, andthe subject was afterward hanged to avert suspicion most of thesepaper are those of murder either by strangulation or suffocation paper64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 74 essaytimes hanging is accidental children and even older personsplay at hanging successfully taylor mentions the case of a boy whowitnessed a hanging and afterward tried the experiment himself toascertain the sensation, and caused his own death tardieu882 relates the case of a man, t , age 37, of small stature, feeble constitution, very thin, of sinister face, eyes hollow but lively, cunning nose and mouth, who meeting a man aged 81, learned that he had essay trouble with his leg and promised to cure him the old man lived alone t told him to buy a strong cord as thick as his little finger and one and one-half yards long, and keep the whole thing a secret t would see him at his room at 7 p m the old man became suspicious and had t arrested the investigation showed that already t had made away with three old men by hanging, who were known to be opposed to suicide their bodies showed no trace of violence two others had escaped when the cord was passed around their necks tardieu gives a number of paper of suicidal hanging which were falselyattributed to criminal violence, in which the pressure of publicopinion joined to circumstances improperly explained by inexpertphysicians caused deplorable judicial errors illustrative paper suicide 1 harvey. Indian med gaz , 1876, xi , p 2 - man, age 30 foundhanging by turban to bars of cell door. Slip-knot around neck. Heartbeating feebly.