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Having beaten the herb in a stonemortar, with a wooden pestle, press out the juice, and clarify it, asyou are taught before in the juices. Then let the juice boil away tillabout a quarter of it be consumed. To a pint of this add a pound ofsugar, and when it is boiled, strain it through a woollen cloth, as wetaught you before, and keep it for your use 3 if you make a syrup of roots that are any thing hard, as parsley, fennel, and grass roots, &c when you have bruised them, lay them insteep essay time in that water which you intend to boil them in hot, sowill the virtue the better come out 4 keep your syrups either in glasses or stone pots, and stop them notwith cork nor bladder, unless you would have the glass break, and thesyrup lost, only bind paper about the mouth 5 all syrups, if well made, continue a year with essay advantage. Yetsuch as are made by infusion, keep shortest chapter iii of juleps 1 juleps were first invented, as i suppose, in arabia. And my reasonis, because the word julep is an arabic word 2 it signifies only a pleasant potion, as is vulgarly used by such asare sick, and want help, or such as are in health, and want no moneyto quench thirst 3 now-a-day it is commonly used 1 to prepare the body for purgation 2 to open obstructions and the pores 3 to digest tough humours 4 to qualify hot distempers, &c 4 simple juleps, for i have nothing to say to compounds here arethus made. Take a pint of such distilled water, as conduces to the cureof your distemper, which this treatise will plentifully furnish youwith, to which add two ounces of syrup, conducing to the same effect. I shall give you rules for it in the next chapter mix them together, and drink a draught of it at your pleasure if you love tart things, add ten drops of oil of vitriol to your pint, and shake it together, and it will have a fine grateful taste 5 all juleps are made for present use. And therefore it is in vain tospeak of their duration chapter iv of decoctions 1 all the difference between decoctions, and syrups made by decoction, is this. Syrups are made to keep, decoctions only for present use. Foryou can hardly keep a decoction a week at any time.

Purgeth the breast all ivy writing services. Boil them being bruised in white wine also the seeds of ammi, or bishop-weed, heat and dry, help difficultyof urine, and the pains of the cholic, the bitings of venomous beasts;they provoke the menses, and purge the womb annis seeds, heat and dry, ease pain, expel wind, cause a sweetbreath, help the dropsy, resist poison, breed milk, and stop the fluoralbus in women, provoke venery, and ease the head-ache cardamoms, heat, kill worms, cleanse the reins, and provoke urine fennel seed, breaks wind, provokes urine and the menses, encreasesmilk in nurses cummin seed, heat, bind, and dry, stop blood, expel wind, easepain, help the bitings of venomous beast. Outwardly applied viz inplaisters they are of a discussing nature carrot seeds, are windy, provoke lust exceedingly, and encreaseseed, provoke urine and the menses, cause speedy delivery to women intravail, and bring away the placenta all these also may be boiled inwhite wine nigella seeds, boiled in oil, and the forehead anointed with it, ease pains in the head, take away leprosy, itch, scurf, and help scaldheads. Inwardly taken they expel worms, they provoke urine, and themenses, help difficulty of breathing stavesacre, kills lice in the head, i hold it not fitting to be giveninwardly olibanum mixed with as much barrow grease beat the olibanum firstin powder and boiled together, make an ointment which will kill thelice in children heads, and such as are subject to breed them, willnever breed them a medicine cheap, safe, and sure, which breeds noannoyance to the brain the seeds of water-cresses, heat, yet trouble the stomach and belly;ease the pains of the spleen, are very dangerous for pregnant women, yet they provoke lust. Outwardly applied, they help leprosies, scaldheads, and the falling off of hair, as also carbuncles, and cold ulcersin the joints mustard seed, heats, extenuates, and draws moisture from the brain:the head being shaved and anointed with mustard, is a good remedy forthe lethargy, it helps filthy ulcers, and hard swellings in the mouth, it helps old aches coming of cold french barley, is cooling, nourishing, and breeds milk sorrel seeds, potently resist poison, help fluxes, and such stomachsas loath their meat succory seed, cools the heat of the blood, extinguishes lust, opensstoppings of the liver and bowels, it allays the heat of the body, andproduces a good colour, it strengthens the stomach, liver, and reins poppy seeds, ease pain, provoke sleep your best way is to make anemulsion of them with barley water mallow seeds, ease pains in the bladder chich-pease, are windy, provoke lust, encrease milk in nurses, provoke the menses, outwardly, they help scabs, itch, and inflammationsof the testicles, ulcers, &c white saxifrage seeds, provoke urine, expel wind, and break thestone boil them in white wine rue seeds, helps such as cannot hold their water lettice seed, cools the blood, restrains venery also gourds, citruls, cucumbers, melons, purslain, and endive seeds, cool the blood, as also the stomach, spleen, and reins, and allay theheat of fevers use them as you were taught to do poppy-seeds wormseed, expels wind, kills worms ash-tree keys, ease pains in the sides, help the dropsy, relieve menweary with labour, provoke venery, and make the body lean piony seeds, help the ephialtes, or the disease the vulgar call themare, as also the fits of the mother, and other such like infirmitiesof the womb, stop the menses, and help convulsions broom seed, potently provoke urine, break the stone citron seeds, strengthen the heart, cheer the vital spirit, resistpestilence and poison tears, liquors, and rozins laudanum, is of a heating, mollifying nature, it opens the mouth ofthe veins, stays the hair from falling off, helps pains in the ears, and hardness of the womb it is used only outwardly in plaisters assafœtida is commonly used to allay the fits of the mother bysmelling to it. They say, inwardly taken, it provokes lust, and expelswind benzoin, or benjamin, makes a good perfume sanguis draconis, cools and binds exceedingly aloes, purges choler and flegm, and with such deliberation that itis often given to withstand the violence of other purges, it preservesthe senses and betters the apprehension, it strengthens the liver, andhelps the yellow-jaundice yet is naught for such as are troubled withthe hemorrhoids, or have agues i do not like it taken raw see aloerosata, which is nothing but it washed with the juice of roses manna, is temperately hot, of a mighty dilative quality, windy, cleanses choler gently, also it cleanses the throat and stomach achild may take an ounce of it at a time melted in milk, and the drossstrained out, it is good for them when they are scabby scamony, or diagridium, call it by which name you please, is adesperate purge, hurtful to the body by reason of its heat, windiness, corroding, or gnawing, and violence of working i would advise mycountrymen to let it alone. It will gnaw their bodies as fast asdoctors gnaw their purses opopanax, is of a heating, molifying, digesting quality gum elemi, is exceeding good for fractures of the skull, as also inwounds, and therefore is put in plaisters for that end see arceushis liniment tragacanthum, commonly called gum traganth, and gum dragon, helpscoughs, hoarseness, and distillations on the lungs bdellium, heats and softens, helps hard swellings, ruptures, pains inthe sides, hardness of the sinews galbanum hot and dry, discussing. Applied to the womb, it hastensboth birth and after-birth, applied to the navel it stays thestrangling of the womb, commonly called the fits of the mother, helpspains in the sides, and difficulty of breathing, being applied to it, and the smell of it helps the vertigo or diziness in the head myrh, heats and dries, opens and softens the womb, provokes the birthand after-birth. Inwardly taken, it helps old coughs and hoarseness, pains in the sides, kills worms, and helps a stinking breath, helps thewasting of the gums, fastens the teeth. Outwardly it helps wounds, andfills up ulcers with flesh you may take half a dram at a time mastich, strengthens the stomach exceedingly, helps such as vomit orspit blood, it fastens the teeth and strengthens the gums, being chewedin the mouth frankinsense, and olibanum, heat and bind, fill up old ulcers withflesh, stop bleeding, but is extremely bad for mad people turpentine, purges, cleanses the reins, helps the running of them styrax calamitis, helps coughs, and distillations upon the lungs, hoarseness, want of voice, hardness of the womb, but it is bad forhead-aches ammonicaum, applied to the side, helps the hardness and pains of thespleen camphire, eases pains of the head coming of heat, takes awayinflammations, and cools any place to which it is applied juices that all juices have the same virtues with the herbs or fruits whereofthey are made, i suppose few or none will deny, therefore i shall onlyname a few of them, and that briefly sugar is held to be hot in the first degree, strengthens the lungs, takes away the roughness of the throat, succours the reins and bladder the juice of citrons cools the blood, strengthens the heart, mitigates the violent heat of fevers the juice of lemons works the same effect, but not so powerfully juice of liquorice, strengthens the lungs, helps coughs and colds things bred from plants these have been treated of before, only two excepted the first ofwhich is, agaricus agarick. It purges flegm, choler, and melancholy, from thebrain, nerves, muscles, marrow, or more properly brain of the back, it cleanses the breast, lungs, liver, stomach, spleen, reins, womb, joints. It provokes urine, and the menses, kills worms, helps pains inthe joints, and causes a good colour. It is very seldom or never takenalone see syrup of roses with agarick lastly, vicus quircinus, or misleto of the oak, helps thefalling-sickness being either taken inwardly, or hung about oneneck living creatures millepedes so called from the multitude of their feet, though itcannot be supposed they have a thousand sows, hog-lice, wood-lice, being bruised and mixed with wine, they provoke urine, help the yellowjaundice, outwardly being boiled in oil, help pains in the ears, a dropbeing put into them the flesh of vipers being eaten, clear the sight, help the vices ofthe nerves, resist poison exceedingly, neither is there any betterremedy under the sun for their bitings than the head of the viper thatbit you, bruised and applied to the place, and the flesh eaten, youneed not eat above a dram at a time, and make it up as you shall betaught in troches of vipers neither any comparable to the stinging ofbees and wasps, &c than the same that sting you, bruised and appliedto the place land scorpions cure their own stingings by the same means. The ashesof them being burnt potently provokes urine, and breaks the stone earth-worms, are an admirable remedy for cut nerves being applied tothe place.

Take three orfour good handfuls of the berries, either green or fresh, or dried, andhaving bruised them, put them into so thesis all ivy writing services gallons of beer or ale whenit is new tunned up. This drink taken daily, has been found to do muchgood to thesis, both to ease the pains, and expel urine and the stone, and to cause the stone not to engender the decoction of the berries inwine and water is the most usual way. But the powder of them taken indrink is more effectual chervil it is called cerefolium, mirrhis, and mirrha, chervil, sweet chervil, and sweet cicely descript the garden chervil doth at first essaywhat resembleparsley, but after it is better grown, the leaves are much cut in andjagged, resembling hemlock, being a little hairy and of a whitish greencolour, essaytimes turning reddish in the summer, with the stalks also;it rises a little above half a foot high, bearing white flowers inspiked tufts, which turn into long and round seeds pointed at the ends, and blackish when they are ripe. Of a sweet taste, but no smell, thoughthe herb itself smells reasonably well the root is small and long, andperishes every year, and must be sown a-new in spring, for seed afterjuly for autumn fails the wild chervil grows two or three feet high with yellow stalks andjoints, set with broader and more hairy leaves, divided into sundrywritings, nicked about the edges, and of a dark green colour, whichlikewise grow reddish with the stalks. At the tops whereof stands smallwhite tufts, of flowers, afterwards smaller and longer seed the rootis white, hard, and enduring long this has little or no scent place the first is sown in gardens for a sallad herb. The secondgrows wild in thesis of the meadows of this land, and by the hedge sides, and on heaths time they flower and seed early, and thereupon are sown again inthe end of summer government and virtues the garden chervil being eaten, dothmoderately warm the stomach, and is a certain remedy saith tragusto dissolve congealed or clotted blood in the body, or that which isclotted by bruises, falls, &c the juice or distilled water thereofbeing drank, and the bruised leaves laid to the place, being takeneither in meat or drink, it is good to help to provoke urine, or expelthe stone in the kidneys, to send down women courses, and to help thepleurisy and pricking of the sides the wild chervil bruised and applied, dissolves swellings in any writing, or the marks of congealed blood by bruises or blows, in a little space sweet chervil, or sweet cicely descript this grows very like the great hemlock, having largespread leaves cut into divers writings, but of a fresher green colourthan the hemlock, tasting as sweet as the anniseed the stalks rise upa yard high, or better, being creased or hollow, having leaves at thejoints, but lesser. And at the tops of the branched stalks, umbels ortufts of white flowers. After which comes long crested black shiningseed, pointed at both ends, tasting quick, yet sweet and pleasant theroot is great and white, growing deep in the ground, and spreadingsundry long branches therein, in taste and smell stronger than theleaves or seeds, and continuing thesis years place this grows in gardens government and virtues these are all three of them of the natureof jupiter, and under his dominion this whole plant, besides itspleasantness in sallads, has its physical virtue the root boiled, andeaten with oil and vinegar, or without oil do much please and warmold and cold stomachs oppressed with wind or phlegm, or those that havethe phthisic or consumption of the lungs the same drank with wine is apreservation from the plague it provokes women courses, and expelsthe after-birth, procures an appetite to meat, and expels wind thejuice is good to heal the ulcers of the head and face.

my work was undertaken solely out of interest tosee whether trypsin could exist in the all ivy writing services powder which gives a markedlyacid solution when dissolved in water the elixir lactopeptine couldtheoretically show no tryptic activity, nor have i found any trace ofsuch activity in one sample of the elixir examined “in making use of any of the contents of my letters kindly include thestatement that my work upon lactopeptine was done without remunerationof any kind, and was done only for the scientific interest attached tothe question ” conclusionsthe new york pharmacal association demanded that the referee reexaminelactopeptine, making use of fresh specimens the council held that thiswas unnecessary, for the following reasons:1 the previous finding of the council, that specimens of lactopeptinefound on the open market are essentially weak saccharated pepsins, isnot to be refuted by examination of fresh specimens even if it beassumed that all old specimens of lactopeptine have been withdrawnfrom the market since the last purchase of specimens for the use ofthe council referee, there can be no assurance that the stock willbe constantly kept fresh unless the manufacturers date their product, physicians cannot know that their prescriptions are filled with freshmaterial nor is it reasonable to ask that the council examine themarket supply of any given proprietary at a time selected by themanufacturers 2 without entering into all questions of detail in the analyses, the council is willing to accept the reports of drs benedict andhawk as representative of fresh lactopeptine powder it is thereforeunnecessary for the council to make further experiments along thisline the results of these two chemists in no wise contradict theconclusions of the council referees, being comparable with thoseobtained by the referee on the fresher specimens used by them theexperiments of drs hawk and benedict show a degree of trypticactivity which, though chemically not negligible, is quite withoutsignificance practically, even if it could be assumed that the trypsinin the fresh lactopeptine escaped destruction in the stomach thefigures for tryptic activity given by dr benedict do not differmaterially from those of the first referee those of professorhawk show a tryptic activity of from 18 to 20 per cent of that ofcommercial pancreatin-- and commercial pancreatins ordinarily are oflow tryptic activity, if not inert see long and muhleman. Arch int med , february, 1914, p 314 the reports of these chemistspresent no reason for changing the conclusion that “it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity ”the results which dr balch obtained in a test for tryptic activityshow a marked discrepancy with those obtained by drs hawk andbenedict, not to mention the council referees, and also with thefact that only about 11 per cent of “pancreatin” is claimed in thepublished formula of lactopeptine the council is unable to accept dr balch result for trypsin or rennin as reliable his other results arewithout significance and call for no special comment 3 even if tryptic activity were conceded to lactopeptine, thepreparation, like all preparations containing pepsin and pancreatin, would still be, as previously stated, therapeutically irrational the council approved the report report of referee ain view of the manufacturer reiteration of the claims forlactopeptine powder, i have carried out further experiments todetermine its proteolytic and amylolytic power for the proteolytic test i used fresh, well washed fibrin and examinedsamples of lactopeptine powder numbered as follows:no 1 a writing of the english product examined and reported on lastspring no 2 -- a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail drug store indecember, 1913 no 3 a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail store in december, 1913 portions of 1 gm each of these samples were mixed with 5 gm fibrin, 100 mg of sodium carbonate and 50 c c of water in flasks a littletoluene was added to each flask, which was then closed with a tuftof cotton and the mixtures were incubated at 40 degrees throughtwenty-four hours at the end of that time there was no marked changein the quantity of the fibrin remaining in each flask, the larger writingby far being undigested as a control i used the sample of an active commercial trypsin, ofwhich i added 500 mg to the same quantity of water, fibrin and sodiumcarbonate this was digested in the same bath at the same time thedigestion was practically completed in less than ten minutes, onlyminute flakes of the fibrin remaining it is evident that the digestive power of the lactopeptine must beextremely low, and only a small fraction of that exhibited by acommercially good trypsin in an experiment with the english sample carried out through nineteenhours as above, using 2 gm of fibrin and 100 mg of ferment, it wasfound by nitrogen tests on the filtrate that about 12 2 per cent of the protein had been brought into solution, an amount which ispractically without importance in a digestion of such duration to test the starch digestive power i have made a large number ofexperiments in a series just completed i mixed 1 gm portions ofsamples 1 and 2 with water to make 100 c c volumes before makingup to the final volumes 0 5 c c of normal sodium hydroxid wasadded to neutralize the slight acidity of the ferment as shown byphenolphthalein of these mixtures 4, 6, 8 and 10 c c portions were mixed with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste and incubated at 40 degrees to find thecolorless end-point in the starch digestion, by the iodin test at the end of twenty-two hours the iodin reaction was as strong as atthe beginning, indicating no appreciable starch digestion to the flasks in which no digestion had taken place under theseconditions, 5 mg of a pancreas ferment was added this gave an almostimmediate conversion to the colorless end-point this ferment was asample of holadin which had been in the laboratory about a year the5 mg completed the reaction to the colorless end-point in less thanten minutes in a similar test i used 2 gm of lactopeptine no 3, made up to100 c c with 1 2 c c of normal alkali ten and 15 c c portions wereincubated with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste through twenty hoursat 40 degrees with no apparent result the holadin then added, 5 mg being used, completed the conversion in less than ten minutes this shows that the medium was a proper one for the test and that thelactopeptine must be extremely weak no sugar tests were made becausethe lactopeptine contains milk sugar to the extent of about 60 per cent similar results for both protein and starch digestives have beenobtained in a large number of experiments these here quoted showthat the ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition practically the digestion of a few milligrams of fibrin orstarch after thesis hours of contact, while being perhaps scientificallypossible, is of no value when we come to a consideration of the use ofsuch bodies as digestive ferments in medicine the amount of lactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” present inlactopeptine is very small, since the total acid which may be titratedby sodium hydroxid and phenolphthalein is measured by 0 5 c c ofthe normal hydroxid for 1 gm of the lactopeptine powder, in themean in different samples examined the range was found to be from0 41 c c to 0 6 c c tests with methyl orange, methyl red and otherindicators showed that the free acidity is but trifling. If the wholeof this acid, as measured by phenolphthalein, were calculated to hcl, the amount would be too small to have any appreciable physiologicactivity, in view of the daily dose recommended, 10 to 20 grains of thepowder report of referee bthe following table gives a summary of the results of my investigationson lactopeptine the numbers in the extreme left-hand column are themanufacturer identifying marks these, it is assumed, run serially, the higher numbers indicating fresher specimens table showing enzymic power of lactopeptine preparations amylase pepsin rennin trypsin lipase 2275 - - - 2301 - - - 2312 - - - 2348 - - - 2352 - - - 2364 - ?. - 2374 - - ?. 2383 - ?. 1638 tablets - - - pancreatin old - -the conclusions in the foregoing summary depend on the followingcriteria:amylase. Removal of starch paste, small in proportion to beginwith pepsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in acid media rennin. Curdling of milk in moderate excess trypsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in neutral andalkaline media, and tryptophan test lipase. Coloration of litmus-milk. Exact color controls all tests were suitably controlled the responses for pepsin were weakeven when compared with those of old pepsin preparations in the table above, the interrogation points in parentheses ?. referto results that were obtained after treatment for from twelve totwenty-four hours and indicates that the change was slight at best andof no practical import -- from the journal a m a , oct 23, 1915, with additions iodum-miller and iod-izd-oil miller report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council adopted the following report and authorized its publication w a puckner, secretary a referee has submitted to the council the following report of thechemical laboratory of the american medical association on iodum-millerand iod-izd-oil miller iodum-miller co , kansas city, mo :the unsatisfactory statements made in regard to the composition ofiodum-miller and the far-reaching therapeutic recommendations forit induced the laboratory to make a chemical examination of thepreparation it claimed more or less directly that the preparation isentirely new and possesses novel characteristics it is asserted that “iodum-miller is made from soot iodine, which is our own product this soot iodine is soluble in water before being combined with its base c p glycerine ”no information regarding “soot iodine” is offered and an inquiry sentto the proprietors by a physician brought only the noncommittal replythat “soot iodine” “is made from resublime resublimed?. iodine by a chemical process which renders it soluble in water before being combined with its base ”iodum-miller is said to contain “active free iodine 2 2 grams per 100 c c , 10 grains per fluid ounce, 1 7% by weight ” “in addition to the active free iodine iodum-miller carries a still greater per cent of iodine in its basic combination ”according to the label, the preparation is “an iodine for external and internal use 45 drops equals 1 dr by weight each drop equals the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide ”iodum-miller is a heavy, dark liquid having an odor characteristicof ether ethyl oxid qualitative tests revealed the presence ofglycerin, free iodin, iodid and potassium the specific gravity at 25degrees was 1 284 direct titration with sodium thiosulphate solutionindicated the presence of 1 68 per cent of free iodin a determinationof the total iodin content by the hunter method indicated 3 06 percent subtraction of the amount of free iodin found from the totalamount of iodin present, gives 1 38 per cent combined iodin assumingthis to be present as potassium iodid, as appears probable from thequalitative examination and from the quantitative determination ofpotassium, 1 80 per cent potassium iodid is indicated from thisexamination it is concluded that iodum-miller is, essentially, a solution of iodin and potassium iodid in glycerin, containing1 68 per cent free iodin and 1 80 per cent potassium iodid theexamination contradicts the assumption that iodum-miller is eithernovel in principle or new moreover, accepting the firm statementthat 45 drops weigh 1 dram 60 grains the examination shows that onedrop equals not “the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide” butinstead, the per cent of iodin in only 1/20 grain potassium iodid asthe statement that “each drop equals the per cent of iodine in 1 gr potas iodide” appears on the label of the trade package, iodum-millerwould seem to be misbranded under the federal food and drugs act the recommended internal dosage of iodum-miller from 1/2 to 20 dropsis equivalent to from 1/40 to 1 grain of potassium iodid its externalefficacy in comparison with that of other iodin preparations may beestimated by comparing the respective free iodin contents, since thegermicidal power of combined iodid is negligible while iodum-millercontains 2 15 gm free iodin in 100 c c , tincture of iodin contains7 gm per 100 c c and compound solution of iodin lugol solutioncontains 5 gm free iodin in 100 gm among the advertising literature is a circular which purports to bea “certificate from kansas city testing laboratory, by roy cross, secretary ” the “certificate” attempts to prove that iodum-miller isvastly superior to the official tincture of iodin as a germicide, asserting that “in the process of dissolving tincture of iodin inwater, a very large amount of the iodin is lost by precipitation ”this is not true of the tincture of iodin which is now official, though it is true of the tincture official in former editions of thepharmacopeia the report ignores completely the widely used aqueoussolution of iodin iod-izd-oil miller is said to be an “iodine combination” made“from the same soluble soot iodine as is iodum-miller ” it is saidto “liberate free soluble iodine” when applied to the skin, mucoussurfaces, etc it is further defined as “soluble iodine combinedwith water-white hydrocarbon oil” and is said to liberate “solubleiodine 2 per cent ” while these statements suggest that iod-izd-oil miller contains the iodin-potassium iodid combination contained iniodum-miller, analysis indicated the oil to be a simple solution ofiodin in liquid petrolatum quantitative determinations indicated, not2 per cent of iodin, as claimed, but only 0 42 per cent and all ofthis was present as free iodin referee reportthe following therapeutic claims appear on the label of a bottle ofiodum-miller:“external indications “tuberculosis, pneumonia, pleurisy, cough, sore throat, pyorrhea, tonsilitis, rheumatism, spinal irritation, boils, felons or any pain periostitis, carbuncles, fistula in ano, goiter, blood poison, diseases of uterus and appendages apply full strength on cotton wrapped applicator, gonorrhea, acute or chronic in both sexes, orchitis, bubo, prostatitis, swellings, enlarged glands, etc ”“internal indications “pneumonia, tuberculosis, pleurisy, typhoid fever, syphilis, catarrh of mucous surface of alimentary canal, autotoxemia, vomiting of pregnancy, rheumatism, chronic glandular and organic affections ”the “certificate” from the kansas city testing laboratory, mentionedabove, states that iodum-miller was found to have a germicidal valuenineteen times greater than carbolic acid-- a essaywhat remarkablefinding in view of the fact that iodin dissolved by means of potassiumiodid in alcohol or water, when tried on the typhoid bacillus hasrecently been found to possess only four times the germicidal valueof carbolic acid in a solution of the same strength maben and white:chem and drug , jan 30, 1915, p 144 the “certificate” furtherstates that the test “shows available iodine as found in iodum-millerto have the greatest bactericidal power of any substance that we haveever tested that can be used medicinally ” there is no reason tobelieve that the desire to please its patrons has led the “testinglaboratory” astray from the literal truth the laboratory experiencemay be limited and the statement therefore entirely correct as faras it goes no mention, however, is made of any tests comparing thegerm-destroying power of iodum-miller with that of tincture of iodin, which contains 7 per cent free iodin, unless the casual statement that“iodum-miller sterilized the skin more quickly” than tincture ofiodin, be taken to imply such tests it is not clear, however, by whatmeans the laboratory was able to determine that there were no bacterialeft alive in the skin after application of tincture of iodin andiodum-miller.

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Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents.