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is it getting a square deal when physicians are financiallyinterested in the products that they may be called on to prescribe? algebra homework help free. Is the average layman confidence in the medical profession likelyto be enhanced when he learns that the physician to whom he went fortreatment has a financial interest in the therapeutic agent whichwas prescribed?. our correspondent complaint against the companyseems to be, not that the company sold stock to physicians, but that“the dividend checks have been few and far between, ” the assumptionbeing that had the dividends come regularly, there would have been nocomplaint it cannot be too often emphasized that it is against publicinterest and scientific medicine for physicians to be financiallyinterested in the sale of products which they may be called on toprescribe for the sick it is perfectly true that there are thesisphysicians who would not consciously permit financial considerationsto warp their judgment. But it is not humanly possible to remainunbiased in paper of this sort it is conceivable that a judge on thebench might make every effort to dispense imwritingial justice in a suitin which one of the writingies was a firm in which he, the judge, hadfinancial interest nevertheless, it would be obviously improper forsuch a judge to try a case of this kind yet, in this supposititiouscase the only harm that could result would be of a financial nature inthe case of the physician, the harm is not to the public purse but tothe public health -- from the journal a m a , dec 11, 1920 pituitary gland preparationsthe importance of the standardization of preparations of the posterior, or infundibular, lobe of the pituitary gland the liquor hypophysisof the new united states pharmacopeia, pituitary solution, pituitaryextract, etc is exemplified by a recent publication of roth 304 asis well known, the active constituent or constituents of this glandhave not been isolated, and there is no chemical method of determiningthe activity and therapeutic value of various preparations thereare, however, certain physiologic methods by which the activity ofsuch preparations may be determined with a considerable degree ofexactness the last revision of the pharmacopeia, recognizing thatthe best attested field of usefulness for such preparations is inobstetrics, adopted as a test their activity on the uterus of theguinea-pig. The details of the method adopted by the pharmacopeia arethose described by roth 305 roth now reports on the activity ofseven samples of commercial infundibular extracts, the products offive american manufacturing pharmacists four of these samples werefound to be of pharmacopeia strength. The other three were much weaker of the latter, one had but one tenth, another but one fifth and thethird but one fourth of the required activity those preparationswhich had been accepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistryfor inclusion in new and non-official remedies corresponded to thepharmacopeia requirements roth also compared the activity of theseseven preparations on the blood pressure, another method by whichit has been proposed to standardize infundibular extracts the fourpreparations which were equally active on the uterus were found to beequally active on the blood pressure. The other three were much weaker roth points out, however, that the results of the two methods are notnecessarily parallel.

Internal organs congested case 2 criminal exposure to cold ann d’hygiene, 1868, vol ii , p 173 - girl, unmarried. Sudden delivery when at stool she stated that she had fainted, and found the child dead when she recovered the child had breathed and the cord was cut no marks of violence evidence of death being caused by wilful exposure imprisoned case 3 ill-treatment and criminal exposure ann d’ hygiene, vol vi , p 207, 1831 - man and wife tried for manslaughter of a child, æt 11 wife the stepmother starvation and ill-treatment by mother, followed by forcing the child, in a cold december day, to get into a barrel of cold water and remain there though removed by a servant, she was again placed in the cold water by the mother, death resulting the woman was sentenced to life imprisonment case 4 sunstroke, high temperature, etc dr a flint, jr , new york med jour , 1872, p 168. Dr katzenbach, new york med jour , 1873, p 93 case 5 scald, drinking from a tea-kettle accidental mr sympson, brit med jour , 1875, june 19th, p 809 - boy, æt 2½ years, drank boiling water from spout of tea-kettle inflammation of pharynx and glottis tracheotomy. Recovered case 6 fatal scald of insane person in a bath brit med jour , april, 1871, p 456 - an insane patient fatally scalded in a bath, through carelessness of an attendant the charge of manslaughter brought against the attendant case 7 fatal burn of genitals accidental caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 315 - female child, 2½ years, fell on a hot flat-iron genitals burned. Died in eleven days vagina gangrenous. Blood fluid. Lungs anæmic and pale. Trachea bright red, etc case 8 red, parchmenty skin, cracks, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 307 - while a chimney-sweep was cleaning a chimney a fire was lighted below death the entire skin was of a coppery red color, with yellow patches no carbonization skin parchmenty, with fissures upon the edges of which the fat had melted and flowed out case 9 asphyxia sooty mucus, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 314 - two children, æt 3 and 7, burned.

Ibid , p 313 - boy, age 10 abrasions over front ofneck, especially near left ear, probably from ligature. Also abrasionon upper writing of chest, probably from forcible pressure underneaththese marks the veins were much distended trachea minutely congested;contained much frothy fluid lungs showed rupture of essay of theair-vesicles. Entire tissues distended with blood and frothy fluid dark fluid blood in both sides of heart large quantity of fluid inpericardium brain much congested eyes congested tip of tonguebetween teeth other organs normal 5 mackenzie. Ibid , february, 1889, p 44 - hindoo woman, age notgiven, strangled by another, stronger woman necroscopy. Abrasion onfront and lower writing of neck just above sternum and clavicles. Fourinches long, three broad. Five superficial lacerated wounds on sidesof neck, four on left, one on right, apparently nail scratches twocontusions below and behind lower jaw also contusions on thighs nospots of ecchymosis on neck contusion under skin of lower writing of neckand upper writing of chest, eight inches long, four broad left greatercornu of hyoid bone fractured both upper cornua of thyroid cartilagefractured. Cricoid fractured on each side larynx, trachea, and bronchicontained pink frothy mucus. Mucous membrane congested lungs muchcongested. Pink frothy mucus in bronchi. No emphysema nor apoplexies right side of heart full of dark blood. Left side empty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested stomach and intestines normal bladder empty internal genitals normal brain congested 6 mackenzie. Ibid , august, 1888, p 232 - hindoo man, age about30 strangled by soft cloth cord necroscopy.

‘i am going to make you see the devil ’” in the face of suchaffirmations, the accused confessed his crime and was condemned othertattoo signs of the grossest emblems of unnatural passion have beenfound among low prostitutes, pederasts, and tribades statistics founded on numerous facts show thesis paper of tattooingof the penis and even of the labia majora in the lowest order ofprostitutes, but these unclean images and revelations of lustfulinstinct do not occur in the same order of frequency as those notedon the forearm, the deltoid, or the inferior extremities so valuableare these marks in their bearing on the class, vocation, character, and tastes of a person that the finding of anchors and ships wouldindicate a sailor. While flags, sabres, cannon, and other warlike signswould indicate a soldier, etc it is also noticeable that in thetattooing practised by lunatics the image relates in essay way to thenature of the peculiar form of mental disease from which they suffer, and it is chiefly among the more severe and incurable paper of mentaldegeneration that these signs are found see dr riva article, “iltatuaggio nel manicomio d’ancona, ” cronica del manicomio d’ancona, november, 1888 almost always the motive that prompts these disfigurements of theskin is the result of impulse, of thoughtlessness, or of orgy, andalmost all the tattooed come to repent of their folly the subjectof détatouage has of late taken a polemic turn in essay of thecontinental journals there are besides thesis paper on record ofsevere accidents and complications following the operation, such assevere inflammation, erysipelas, abscess, and gangrene dr beuchongives statistics of forty-seven paper, in which four were followedby mutilation and eight by death either directly or in consequenceof an amputation a certain proportion of what is known as syphilisinsontium is to be found among the reported statistics of tattooing dr bispham, of philadelphia, informs me that while at blockleyhospital he saw thirty paper of syphilis that had been communicated bythe same tattooer tattooing may essaytimes be accidental i have seen a dewritingmentalclerk with an elongated tattoo on the back of his hand caused byaccidental wounding with an inked pen a bursting shell during anaval engagement has caused a characteristic tattoo on the face of awell-known officer to be seen any day in washington two paper of thebluish-black discoloration of the skin from taking nitrate of silverhave also come under my observation both occurred in medical men, one of whom lives in florida, the other in the district of columbia silver discolorations of this kind are indelible, but i learn fromone of these gentlemen that large doses of iodide of potassium causetemporary fading of the discoloration, which returns on stopping themedicine 591the indelibility of tattoo-marks is such that their traces may beeasily recognized in the cadaver, though in a essaywhat advancedstage of putrefaction they have even been recognized on a gangrenouslimb essaytimes, however, it is impossible to recognize at firstsight whether there has or has not been a tattoo a strong light anda magnifying glass and a microscopic examination of the neighboringganglia to detect the presence of coloring matter may assist inremoving doubt it has been found on the bodies of tattooed cadaversthat the ganglia are filled with grains of coloring matter of thesame nature as that employed in making the tattoo attempts to removetattoo-marks generally leave a vicious scar that is equally indelible an efficacious method is to tattoo the mark with a solution oftannin, which is followed by brushing over with nitrate of silver a red cicatrix follows, and when the epidermis separates the tattoodisappears a better method, however, is by means of the electricneedle already mentioned in speaking of the electrolysis of nævi that a tattoo-mark may disappear by the effects of time and leave notrace is a matter that cooper reports after examining the mutilatedremains of a cadaver, and the statistics of caspar, tardieu, andhutin place it as high as nine in the hundred an officer of theunited states revenue marine lately called my attention to severalsuperficial tattooes on the back of his hand which had disappeared thedeeper ones, however, remained the spontaneous disappearance of atattoo seems to be possible when the operation has been done in sucha superficial way as not to have passed the rete malpighii, or whenthe tattooing has been done with essay substance not very tenacious, as vermilion, which appears to be easily eliminated but when thewritingicles of coloring matter penetrate into the fibro-elastic tissue ofthe derma, the disappearance of the tattoo is rare in seventy-eight individuals tattooed with vermilion alone, hutinfound eleven upon whom the tattoo had disappeared out of one hundredand four tattooes made with a single color, india-ink, writing ink, blue or back, not a single one had completely disappeared the resultsare identical if the tattooes are made with two colors thus in 153tattooes with vermilion and india-ink, one instance showed a fading ofthe black, in another it had completely disappeared, the red being wellmarked. Twenty times the red was writingly effaced, the black being wellmarked. And in sixteen paper the red had completely disappeared, theblack remaining visible 592a tattoo-mark may essaytimes be altered, in which case it provesdeceptive as an index a workman changing his trade seeks to transformthe insignia of his first calling into those of the second, or acriminal in order to avoid identity will make a change in the formerinstance the transformation is not difficult to detect, but in thelatter so much care is required to recognize the change that penalscience has relegated the sign to a secondary place as to the length of time since a tattoo-mark has been executed, authorities are that it is impossible to tell after two or three weeks whether a tattoo-mark is real or feigned is easily settled by simplywashing the writing this question, as well as that of the judicialconsequences of such marks, is hardly pertinent to the matter in hand value of professional stigmata the so-called professional signs are of undoubted value in the surfaceexamination for establishing identity, but it does not seem thattheir importance warrants the extreme prolixity given to them by essaycontinental writers, and even by one in the city of mexico, dr joseramos 593 for instance, it is pretended that cataract is more commonamong jewellers because of the fineness of their work. Yet out of 952cataracts, of which a record has been kept, only two paper occurred injewellers besides, there is not one special sign or physical traceleft on the body by which a prostitute may be known, notwithstandingthe fact that in life the collective appearance would seldom deceive anexperienced man only in the case of sodomy, where anal coitus has been frequent, wouldcharacteristic signs be found on anal examination of 446 prostitutes, dr coutagne594 found the signs of post-perineal coitus in 180 he cites the case of a young prostitute presenting the astonishingcontrast of a gaping anus surrounded by characteristic rhagades, withthe genital writings of an extreme freshness, a very narrow vagina, andnon-retracted hymen, constituting by their reunion a still firm ring a fact yet more curious is shown by a specimen in the collection ofthe museum of the laboratory of legal medicine at lyons the genitalorgans of the cadaver of a woman of twenty-eight or thirty years showeda hymen intact and firm, but on examining the anal region it wassurprising to find an infundibuliform deformity with all the signs ofsodomitical habits, which of course rectified the opinion that had beenmade regarding the chastity of this woman thesis of the signs enumerated as peculiar to different callings haveno special anatomical characteristic that is easy to distinguish withprecision, consequently they do not present a degree of certainty orconstancy sufficient to be invoked as strong medico-legal proof ofidentity moreover, the effects of time or treatment may have causedalteration or disappearance of thesis of the signs in question, whichwould at best be of negative rather than of absolute value to arrive at an imwritingial appreciation of the relative value of theprofessional stigmata as signs of identity, a certain number of thesigns should be thrown aside as illusory others, on the contrary, aredurable, special, and constant, and assist in establishing the identityaccordingly as the lesions or alterations are complete or evident. Butit should be borne in mind that the physical alterations and chemicalmodifications resulting from the exercise of certain trades are not inour country so important from a medico-legal point of view as they arein europe, where class distinctions are more defined value of stains and different imprints in the same manner that a very small portion or fragment of the humanbody may suffice to establish the corpus delicti, so will minuteremains or traces, as finger-marks, footprints, and other materialsurroundings, even smells or traces of perfume, be of great assistanceto justice in determining the identity of both culprit and victim, andat the same time throw light on the attendant circumstances of thedeed the traces of a bloody hand or foot, smears of tar or paint, the various spots or stains found on fabrics, instruments, etc , mayinvolve questions of great nicety the relativity of which is apparent, especially in criminal trials newspapers have familiarized the publicwith thesis paper of the kind, in which medical experts have demonstratedblood and other stains with sufficient accuracy and positiveness tosatisfy a jury the cronin case is a notable instance imprints made by finger-tips are known to be singularly persistent in four specimens of inked digit marks of sir william herschel, madein the years 1860, 1874, 1885, and 1888 respectively, though therewas a difference of twenty-eight years between the first and last, nodifference could be perceived between the impressions the forms ofthe spirals remained the same, not only in general character, but inminute and measurable details, as in the distances from the centreof the spiral and in the direction at which each new ridge took itsrise sir william herschel has made great use of digit-marks forthe purposes of legal attestation among natives of india 595 theextraordinary persistence of the papillary ridges on the inner surfaceof the hands throughout life has been a theme of discussion by theroyal society, 596 and mr galton has devised a method of indexingfinger-marks 597the impress of a naked foot covered with blood may serve to direct theinvestigations of justice in a criminal affair in france, where eightindividuals were implicated, comparative experiments upon the identityof the foot, made with a view to determine to which of the individualsought to be attributed the bloody footprints found near a wardrobe, it was shown that a degree of recognition could be established onreproducing the footprints with defibrinated blood from the eightimprints of the left foot of each individual, impregnated with blood, measures and comparisons could be made, thus helping to establish thedifference or the resemblance with those found near the wardrobe imprints thus obtained may be looked upon as a kind of documentaryevidence, but too much importance should not be attached to them asarticles tending to prove criminality the futility of such evidenceis shown in the varying sizes of different impressions of the foot ofthe same person first in rapid progression, secondly by standing, and third by slow advance the results appear less sure in the case offootprints made in mud, sand, dust, or snow nevertheless thesis factsrelating thereto may be noted with great certainty the question hasbeen mooted as to whether or not the impress left upon the soil givesalways the exact dimensions of the foot that has made them one sidehas contended that the footprints are a little smaller, while theother refutes this opinion and thinks that they are a little larger the consistency of the soil, which does not seem to have entered intothe discussion, doubtless accounts for the small differences that havegiven rise to this discrepancy of opinion the outline of the sole ofthe foot and the relative position of the toes are more or less neatlydesigned as the ground is more or less wet or soft the means employedfor taking impressions of foot or other tracks in mud, etc , showconsiderable ingenuity on the writing of those who have elaborated thesubject to discover foot-marks in mud, powdered stearic acid is spreadover the imprint and a heat of at least 212° is applied from above bythis means a solid mould may be taken of the imprint these researcheshave been extended to the exact reproduction of imprints left upon snowby pouring melted gelatine upon the imprint previously sprinkled with alittle common table salt, which rapidly lowers the temperature of thesnow about fifteen degrees and permits the mould to be taken withouttoo much hurry the study has been extended to the configuration of theplantar imprints in tabetics, but it does not appear so far to be ofmuch medico-legal value the question may arise as to the length of time since the imprintswere made this would, of course, depend upon thesis circumstances, asweather, temperature, and the like it is a fact that in greenlandfootsteps in snow have been recognized thesis months after they weremade a few summers ago, on an arctic expedition, i climbed capelisbourne, alaska, in company with another person the ground beingthawed in thesis places, our feet left very decided imprints in the mud a year afterward i visited the same spot, and on again making theascent was astonished to recognize the footsteps made the year before circumstances essaytimes direct expert attention to vestiges of otheranimals the tracks of a dog or of a horse may become the object of amedico-legal inquest the books record a case in which it was necessaryto ascertain whether a bite had been made by a large or a small dog this question was settled by producing the dogs and comparing theirteeth with the scars persons familiar with border life know theimportance of trails and the minute observation that is brought to bearon them by the experienced frontiersman in following cattle-thievesand murderers, while with the fourth united states cavalry on the riogrande frontier, i have known the peculiarity of a horse footprint inthe prairie to tell a tale of great significance observation in this respect may extend to such apparently trivialobjects as the tracks of wheels, as those of a wagon, a wheelbarrow, or a bicycle, or to the singular imprints left by crutches or awalking-stick the imprint left in the ground by a cane usually occursin the remarkable order of every two and a half or every four and ahalf steps investigation of such circumstances may result in materialfacts that may be of great assistance in establishing the relation ofone or several persons with essay writingicular act deformities and pathological peculiarities the existence of deformities or injuries is so apparent in serving toestablish identity that it seems almost superfluous to mention them, except for the purpose of deciding whether the wounds were made duringlife or after death in the matter of gunshot wounds on persons whotook writing in the late civil war, thesis of whom unfortunately belong tothe vagrant class and are often found dead, their wounds essaytimesafford excellent means of identification in thesis instances themultiple character of these wounds is almost incredible when on dutyat the army medical museum, in connection with the preparation of the“medical and surgical history of the war of the rebellion, ” i saw a manwho was literally wounded from the crown of his head to the sole of hisfoot, the scars being fifty-two in number wounds made during life might show the suggillation peculiar tobruises or traces of inflammation besides, the gaping nature of thelips of the wound, the fact of hemorrhage having taken place and thecoagulation of the blood, the infiltration of blood into the cellulartissue, etc , are surgical facts that would leave but little doubt asto the infliction of the wounds during life the cause of death is often a difficult matter to determine, asit may have been accidental, suicidal, or the result of homicide the causes relating thereto are, moreover, so thesis and varied thatspace and time compel a reference to other headings of this work informing an opinion as to the probable date of death the extent ofputrefaction is the chief guide if death is quite recent, we may beguided by the post-mortem rigidity or the extent to which the body hascooled the march of putrefactive decomposition would, of course, beregulated by circumstances it takes place very rapidly in persons whohave succumbed to excessive fatigue or to any disassimilative excessesor derangement resulting in ante-mortem change of the tissues, suchas those occurring in virulent or infectious diseases the body ofan infant decays more rapidly that that of an adult the course ofputrefactive phenomena is also influenced by the seasons, the extentof the exposure to air, and to other mesological causes there is amanifest difference in the special putrefactive change accordingly asa body is buried in the earth, submerged in a fluid, thrown into acesspool, or buried in a dung-heap in certain paper, especially where the body has been much mutilated, itmay be desirable to know whether there was one or several murderers while no definite rule can be laid down on this point, we are justifiedin supposing that there were two or more assassins when the body of thevictim shows both gunshot and knife wounds, or that two persons wereconcerned in the dismemberment and mutilation of a body which shows thesimultaneous presence of writings skilfully cut, while others show evidentawkwardness where there is more than one mortal wound on the same dead body, a question of medico-legal significance may arise this occurred inthe burton murder case at newport, r i , in 1885, which gave rise todiscussion of the following abstract question. “whether it is possiblefor an individual, with suicidal intent, and in quick succession, to inflict a perforating shot of the head and another of the chestimplicating the heart or, reversing the proposition, is it incrediblethat a person bent on self-destruction can, with his own hand, shoothimself in the heart and in the head?. ”after consideration of the case referred to and reversal of theprevious decision of the coroner, the supposed suicide proved to bea homicide yet if the abstract question of possibilities is aloneregarded, there is no doubt of the fact that a suicide could shoothimself in such manner, both in the head and the heart, or, changingthe order, of shots in the heart and in the head the number ofpaper recorded establishes beyond a doubt the feasibility of theself-infliction of two such wounds, and make it clear that the theoryof suicide may be maintained in such circumstances 598judicial anthropometry of late years the subject of anthropometric identification has takensuch a place before justice that it cannot be ignored by the medicallegist the facts of scientific anthropology have here been applied insuch a way as to establish with great certainty both the present andfuture identity of individuals who attempt dissimulation of their nameand antecedents the method used principally in the identificationof criminals and deserters from the army has been adopted in thepublic service599 and by most municipalities, with the exception ofnew york, where the subsequent identification of persons connectedwith municipal affairs has been and may be a source of no littleembarrassment the system is based on three recognitory elements. Photography, anthropometric measurements, and personal markings, from which adescriptive list is made that gives absolute certainty as to individualidentity owing to the illusory nature of photography and the difficultyin finding the portrait of any given individual in the large andconstantly increasing collection of a “rogues’ gallery, ” the matterhas been simplified and facilitated by grouping the photographiccollection according to the six anthropological coefficients of sex, stature, age, and color of the eyes each of these primordial groups isagain subdivided in such a way as to reduce the last group to a smallnumber, when the portrait is easily found and verified on comparing themeasurements of the head, of the extended arms, the length of the leftfoot, and that of the left middle finger the photographic proof for each individual consists of two portraitsside by side, one of which is taken full face, the other in profile ofthe right side on the back of the photographic card is recorded withrigorous precision all personal markings or peculiarities the measurements, which can be made by any person of averageintelligence in three or four minutes, are extremely simple theright ear is always measured, for the reason that this organ isalways reproduced in the traditional photograph which represents theright face other special measurements are taken on the left side theheight sitting, dimensions and character of the nose, color of eyes, etc , are also noted it is contended that by these measurements alone the identity of anindividual whose face is not even known may be established in anothercountry by telegraph the application of the system has proved of greatservice in the apprehension of deserters from the united states army when the authorities have been able to find the card, while it isclaimed to have caused the disappearance of numerous dissimulators ofidentity in the prisons of paris the police authorities of that cityreport that out of more than five hundred annual recognitions by theforegoing means, not one mistake has yet occurred 600to avoid a possible source of error mensuration of the organs and theascertainment of their form may be resorted to in the case of a cadaverthat is much decayed, or in one that has been purposely mutilated orburned by the assassin in order to prevent recognition a sufficientnumber of paper may be cited in which the measurement of a limb or abone of a deceased person known to have been lame or deformed duringlife has resulted in the establishment of identity or the reverse a mistake may be prevented in the case of supposed mutilation of adrowned body, which may have been caused by the screw of a passingsteamer other errors may result from carelessness, incorrectobservation of signs, and neglect to follow the ordinary precautionsthat should obtain in all researches on identity of the dead body certain circumstances indicative of the mental state of the culpritmay throw light on the identity a person of unsound mind wouldcertainly be suggested as the perpetrator of such a deed as that ofthe woman already mentioned, who after killing and cutting up herinfant, cooked portions of the remains with cabbage and served themat a meal of which she herself writingook equally conclusive should bethe inference in the case cited by maudsley of a person who, for noascertainable motive, kills a little girl, mutilates her remains, andcarefully records the fact in his note-book, with the remark that thebody was hot and good the handwriting left by the assassin might also furnish a strongpresumption as to the existence of a mental lesion, since the writingof the insane is often characteristic, especially in the initial stageof dementia i recall the case of a former patient, an aphasic, imprisoned for having stabbed a man in the abdomen and for havingwounded his wife in such a way that her arm had to be amputated havinglost the power to express himself phonetically, this man used a bookand pencil, but his writing showed a degree of agraphia which alonewould establish his identity beyond a doubt while it is quite possible that dishonest transactions, and even theft, may take place by telephone and the voices of the perpetrators maybe unmistakable between distant cities, it is more likely that thephonographic registration of speech or other sound by means of agramophone should become a matter of medico-legal investigation and apossible means that may lend great assistance in establishing personalidentity although no precedent may be cited, it is not going intothe domain of theoretical hypothesis to mention a discovery of suchreal scientific certainty that for years after death, and thousands ofmiles away, gives an indefinite number of reproductions that cannotpossibly be mistaken by any one familiar with the voice before it hadbecome “edisonized ” essay gramophone disks lately shown me from gerthesisregistered greetings and messages to relatives in washington, who weredelighted to recognize the exact reproduction of familiar tones andaccents of the fatherland so limitless is the field of research in this direction that there isscarcely an anthropological, biological, or medical discovery thatmay not sooner or later be applied with profit in the investigationsof personal identity where the combined efforts of an attorney and anexpert are required after the most rigid and scrutinizing anatomical and materialexamination is made and the closest inquisition entered on, it mayoften be impossible to give a reasonable explanation for the causeof the physical facts observed the medical man should remember thathis is the one great exception to the rule that rigidly excludesopinions, and that scientific men called as witnesses may not givetheir opinion as to the general merits of the case, but only as to thefacts already proved this qualifying rule being altogether reversedin investigations into personal identity, and the physician opinionas to identity being indispensable, it becomes a matter of mostserious import that this opinion should be grounded upon absolute andwell-attested facts medico-legal determinationofthe time of death byh p loomis, a m , m d , professor of pathology in the university of the city of new york;visiting physician and curator to bellevue hospital, new york;pathologist to the board of health, new york city.

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At the tops of thestalks and branches come forth three or four more white flowers madeof five small pointed leaves a-piece, standing on a stalk together, one above another, with yellow pointels in the middle, composed offour or five yellow threads set together, which afterwards run into sothesis pendulous green berries, of the bigness of small pease, full ofgreen juice, and small whitish round flat seed lying within it theroot is white, and a little woody when it hath given flower and fruit, with thesis small fibres at it. The whole plant is of a waterish insipidtaste, but the juice within the berries is essaywhat viscous, and of acooling and binding quality place it grows wild with us under our walls, and in rubbish, thecommon paths, and sides of hedges and fields, as also in our gardenshere in england, without any planting time it lies down every year, and rises up again of its own sowing, but springs not until the latter end of april at the soonest government and virtues it is a cold saturnine plant the commonnightshade is wholly used to cool hot inflammations either inwardlyor outwardly, being no ways dangerous to any that use it, as mostof the rest of the nightshades are. Yet it must be used moderately the distilled water only of the whole herb is fittest and safest tobe taken inwardly. The juice also clarified and taken, being mingledwith a little vinegar, is good to wash the mouth and throat that isinflamed. But outwardly the juice of the herb or berries, with oil ofroses and a little vinegar and ceruse laboured together in a leadenmortar, is very good to anoint all hot inflammations in the eyes italso doth much good for the shingles, ringworms, and in all running, fretting and corroding ulcers, applied thereunto the juice droppedinto the ears, eases pains thereof that arise of heat or inflammations and pliny saith, it is good for hot swellings under the throat havea care you mistake not the deadly nightshade for this. If you knowit not, you may let them both alone, and take no harm, having othermedicines sufficient in the book the oak it is so well known the timber thereof being the glory and safety ofthis nation by sea that it needs no description government and virtues jupiter owns the tree the leaves and barkof the oak, and the acorn cups, do bind and dry very much the innerbark of the tree, and the thin skin that covers the acorn, are mostused to stay the spitting of blood, and the bloody-flux the decoctionof that bark, and the powder of the cups, do stay vomitings, spittingof blood, bleeding at the mouth, or other fluxes of blood, in men orwomen. Lasks also, and the nocturnal involuntary flux of men the acornin powder taken in wine, provokes urine, and resists the poison ofvenomous creatures the decoction of acorns and the bark made in milkand taken, resists the force of poisonous herbs and medicines, as alsothe virulency of cantharides, when one by eating them hath his bladderexulcerated, and voids bloody urine hippocrates saith, he used thefumes of oak leaves to women that were troubled with the stranglingof the mother. And galen applied them, being bruised, to cure greenwounds the distilled water of the oaken bud, before they break outinto leaves is good to be used either inwardly or outwardly, to assuageinflammations, and to stop all manner of fluxes in man or woman thesame is singularly good in pestilential and hot burning fevers. Forit resists the force of the infection, and allays the heat.