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Total “available” chlorin, 0 330 gm per hundred c c , or 165 per cent of the claimed amount a comparison of the information sent to the council with the analyticfindings leads to the conclusion that chloron is not of reliablecomposition as evidence of the therapeutic value of chloron, the following “casereports” were submitted. “in a case of second degree burn involving the most of one leg from the middle of the calf down, chloron was the only dressing used the burn was a bad one and the patient in a rundown anaemic condition, at no time was there any appearance of pus, the surface looked clean and bright and the healing was accomplished with practically no scar whatever the burn was kept wet with the solution by hourly applications day and night the skin which has grown on the wound is clear, healthy and firm in another case of varicose veins of long standing, the result was surprising the patient told of two years vibrating from hospital to hospital and getting no real relief each leg had large open running sores, the only dressing used was wet compresses of this solution the pus disappeared at once, the wound began to cicatrise from the edges and in two weeks the man was discharged from the hospital practically cured ” “chloron was recently tried at the -- -- and -- -- hospital on paper presenting ulcers and other sores which did not readily yield to other methods, with good results, in fact were of an indolent type in these paper chloron proved very valuable ” “i have used chloron on a series of paper surgical presenting pus foci and i have found the application very beneficial and healing, the pus early disappearing in paper of osteomyelitis, suppurating arthritis, cellulitis and chronic ulcers, chloron is writingicularly valuable, its good effects quickly observed and the time of restoration to health shortened ”in the first case report, there is no evidence that chloron is moreefficient in the treatment of burns than any other commonly usedprocedure might have been in the case of the varicose ulcers, whilethere was essay apparent benefit from chloron, no credit is given torest and the general treatment which is known to be important in thetreatment of such conditions the evidence in the other case reports isquite inconclusive consideration of the “case reports” leads to theconclusion that clinical evidence for the value of chloron is lacking attention should be called to the fact that the amount of activechlorin, claimed to be present in chloron as well as the amount foundby the association laboratory, is less than that considered effectiveby dakin, dunham and others. Seemingly in preparing chloron noattention has been paid to the degree of alkalinity, yet the importanceof this factor is now generally recognized chloron fails to comply with the requirements for surgical solution ofchlorinated soda n n r , 1919, p 133, yet the manufacturers makefree use of the text of dakin and dunham handbook of antiseptics intheir advertising pamphlet thus. From the chloron pamphlet. “this ideal antiseptic effects complete sterilization within its sphere of action without causing any damage to the cells or tissues an important method of judging the injurious action of antiseptics is to investigate their effects on the leucocytes from experiments in vitro by parry morgan and in vivo by col c j bond with the strength of antiseptics commonly used in surgery, it has been found that chlorine antiseptics and mercury salts have little effect on phagocytosis in comparison with other germicides the activity of the leucocytes from wounds which have recently been treated with chloron may be demonstrated experimentally ” “in addition to its antiseptic action chloron is a strong oxidizing agent and deodorant and possesses to a marked degree the property of decomposing toxins in this connection it is interesting and pertinent to note that dean, by the regulated action of hypochlorous acid, has prepared a nontoxic dysentery vaccine and it is now a common observation that the free use of chloron may reduce the constitutional symptoms arising from septic processes and that they reappear on discontinuing the antiseptic treatment ” dakin and dunham handbook of antiseptics.

“ for the first time in the history of medicine, we have a successful treatment for tuberculosis “ we are able to kill the germs of the disease in the body, thoroughly ridding it of all tubercular infection, destroying the germ and its poisons likewise ”this was a few years ago whether dr baldwin is still specializing inconsumption we do not know. Apparently not, as we notice that at thefirst meeting of the allied medical associations, baldwin name was onthe program for the “cure of goiter by adjustment of lenses ”george starr white, m d , f s sc , lond , los angeles, calif -- aletter received by a physician a few days before the recent conventionof the allied medical associations, held out as an inducement to bepresent the fact that “geo s white will show you how to diagnosedisease by means of dif colored lights and the reaction of the bodyto the magnetic meridian ” dr george starr white was the “secondvice-president” of the allied medical associations in 1918 white, according to our records, was graduated in 1908 when he was forty-twoyears old, by the new york homeopathic medical college and hospital he was licensed in new york in 1908, in california, connecticut andnevada in 1913, and in michigan in 1916 he seems to have been oneof the proponents of “spondylotherapy, ” “zonetherapy, ” etc , andin 1915 it was announced that he would give one week courses in“spondylotherapy” in chicago, kansas city and denver, respectively inhis advertisement he emphasized that he was a fellow of the americanmedical association, which, while true at the time, is no longertrue, as on feb 4, 1916, he was expelled from membership in the losangeles county medical association in may, 1915, white was arrestedin chicago and fined $100 and costs for practicing medicine without alicense dr white specialty seems to be what is ponderously knownas “bio-dynamo-chromatic diagnosis ” this has been described by one ofits enthusiastic adherents as “diagnosis by sympathetic vagal-reflex ”to obtain the “sympathetic vagal-reflex” it seems the patient must faceeast or west and have his bare abdomen percussed until a dull area islocated the patient is then faced north or south and again percussed then, it seems, different colored lights are thrown on the patient, the location of the areas of dullness being determined meanwhile acombination of ruby and blue lights “will cause a reflex in paper ofgonorrhea, ” a “green light will cause a reflex in paper of liver orgallbladder trouble, ” while the color for carcinoma is orange red!. During the height of the influenza epidemic last winter, white seemsto have put on the market “valens essential oil tablets” which werefor “gripping the flu out of influenza, ” and were also said greatly tobenefit or cure incipient tuberculosis, hay-fever, asthma, and “catar ”the letters “f s sc , lond ” after dr white name look well, soundwell, and have an air of erudition and mystery that is well worth whatthey cost they mean “fellow of the incorporated society of science, letters and arts of london, ltd ” the “fellowship” costs one guinea not a few “patent medicine” exploiters in the united states carrythese mystic letters after their names the society in question was aseriocomic concern that was exposed by london truth essay years agoand was also dealt with in the journal of may 29, 1909, in connectionwith the “aicsol consumption cure” exposé so much for the allied medical associations of america at theirrecent meeting in new york city they got much newspaper publicitybecause of their action on the prohibition question according to thenewspaper reports, the organization adopted a resolution declaringthat “properly brewed lager beer is absolutely essential in thetreatment of certain paper ” they were further reported as endorsingthe manufacture of light wines and of beer containing not to exceed2 75 per cent alcohol as a piece of publicity work this resolutionwas all that its sponsors could expect the journal office wasflooded with telegrams and letters from physicians, temperance workers, congressmen, church organizations, and others, asking, in effect, whatis the allied medical associations of america?. this is our apologyfor giving the amount of space necessary to a proper understanding ofthis organization today the rocket of the allied medical associationsof america is blazing a more or less erratic course across the sky ofpublicity the stick will be down anon!. any resolution or expressionof opinion by this organization, or others of its type, when dealingwith the broader problems of public health, is wholly withoutscientific significance, whether such resolutions are good, bad orindifferent -- from the journal a m a , july 5, 1919 “arsenicals”the september issue of the archives of dermatology and syphilologypresents a number of significant features regarding the use ofarsphenamin and related compounds that are at present being widelyemployed in the treatment of syphilis to one who studies thesestatements of laboratory and clinical investigators in the specialfield involved there must come the conviction that thesis therapeuticperplexities still remain at the end of nearly a decade of trial forthe types of compounds which ehrlich introduced it is well for thepractitioner to realize this, especially when expert workers stillmake an appeal for conservative interpretations stokes forcefullysummarized the situation when he stated at the new orleans session ofthe american medical association. Too short a time has elapsed since the discovery of these drugs, and too little is as yet known about the ultimate problems of the pathology, immunology and parasitology of syphilis, to justify the announcing of new infallibilities the necropsy pathologist of the next fifty years may well, like warthin, upset our most plausible generalizations of today seasoned tradition and conservatism are still the wisest guides in our interpretation of clinical cure arsphenamin has made it apparently possible and even probable, but only to the inexperienced has cure been made absolute and inevitable it is recognized that the exact composition of arsphenamin in itsavailable form is not fully determined as has been emphasized again, the quantitative determination of arsenic alone in arsphenamin isinsufficient to estimate its purity. In fact, the interstate sale ofarsphenamin is controlled by toxicity tests on guinea-pigs made bythe hygienic laboratory of the united states public health service consequently, practical medicine must be on its guard to employ aproduct which is carefully controlled by such toxicity tests as wellas by other criteria it will not do to charge untoward results offhandsolely to idiosyncrasy of the patient, faulty administration or othererrors in technic the drug itself still has inherent dangers itshould be borne in mind also that neo-arsphenamin behaves differentlyin the animal organism from arsphenamin, and should not be regardedsimply as arsphenamin in a convenient form for administration it is gratifying to learn from a government expert that after the longstruggle to produce satisfactory products, arsphenamin preparationsmade in the united states are generally less toxic than those offoreign manufacture neo-arsphenamin preparations made in the unitedstates compare favorably, and in certain instances are decidedly lesstoxic than most of the foreign products timely presentations of thefaults and dangers as well as the undisputed advantages of currenttherapy in the management of syphilis should be welcomed -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , oct 9, 1920 pharmacology of arsenicalsthe public health service essay time ago262 warned against the use insyphilis of new arsenicals which are not related to arsphenamin. It wasstated that a number of such were being sold with unwarranted claimsas to their value at least three such arsenicals have in recent yearsbeen the subject of essay exploitation for use in this disease. Sodiumcacodylate, the sodium salt of methyl arsenic acid “arrhenal” andthe sodium salt of ethyl arsenic acid “mon-arsone” 263 as regardsthe first two, castelli showed several years ago that neither has anyaction on experimental trypanosomiasis and spirochete infections;careful clinical observations in this country have confirmed theinefficacy of sodium cacodylate in human syphilis 264 voegtlinand smith265 of the hygienic laboratory have now shown in animalexperiments that ethyl arsenic acid “mon-arsone” is devoid of anypractical trypanocidal action thus the “therapeutic ratio” theratio of the minimal effective dose to the lethal dose was about 1, that is, it was effective therapeutically only in approximately fataldoses, the therapeutic ratio for arsphenamin in similar conditionswas 17, and that of neo-arsphenamin, 28 in fact, the conditionswith ethyl arsenic acid were no more favorable than were those witharsenous acid the active constituent of solution of potassiumarsenite, although it was far less poisonous the validity of suchexperiments in determining the probable value of drugs in humansyphilis cannot be questioned:266 it was by such experiments thatehrlich and his co-workers found two or three of six hundred and sixarsenic preparations studied to be of value, and of the next threehundred or more studied only one neo-arsphenamin worthy of trial inhuman medicine the time has passed when a high arsenic content of acompound and a low toxicity, and a number of paper of apparent clinicalimprovement, can be assumed to indicate that a drug has any real valuein the treatment of syphilis thesis organic compounds of arsenic aswell as other drugs may cause temporary or apparent improvement insyphilis, but to date only those related to arsphenamin have proved ofreal value and comparatively safe others which had essay real valueproved to have dangerous side effects. Readers will recall the historyof arsanilic acid “atoxyl” or “soamin” and its acetyl derivative “arsacetin” -- editorial from the journal a m a , feb 26, 1921 262 warning against untried medicaments, j a m a 74:1654 june12 1920 263 wright, b l. Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. Med rec 97:607 april 10 1920 264 nichols, h j. Salvarsan and sodium cacodylate, j a m a 56:492 feb 18 1911 265 voegtlin, carl, and smith, h w. J pharmacol & exper therap 16:449, 1921 266 compare schamberg, j f.

where? algebra help online. why?. ” three of the four pagespurport to answer the interrogations given on the title page under“who?. ” we read. Dr willard e ogden chicago, ill specialist in proctology member chicago medical society and a m a author of “improved method of treating rectal diseases” formerly associated with drs burleson & burleson grand rapids, mich under the question “where?. ” there appears the statement that “dr ogden will hold a clinic for the treatment of rectal diseases” and thename of the city and the dates of the “clinic” are inserted with atypewriter under “why?. ” we read. “dr ogden does not use the usual surgical methods his thesis years of experience in the treatment of rectal diseases during which time he has been associated with the leading proctologists of america have enabled him to develop a system of office treatment which is not taught by any other practitioner “tear off, sign and mail attached postcard and i will send you a booklet giving you full writingiculars as to the course yours truly, h l roberts, business manager “eighty-three per cent of the people have essay rectal trouble this is the day of specialists why not fit yourself to specialize in proctology?. ”the fourth page is a post card addressed to “h l roberts, room 1126, masonic temple, chicago ” on the reverse side there is a printedstatement which the recipient is expected to sign to the effect thathe is interested in “dr ogden clinic” and wishes to have “fullwritingiculars of the course ”a visit to room 1126, masonic temple, failed to disclose the name ofh l roberts, either on the door or doors, for there are two roomshaving this number or on the office building directory board in fact, rooms 1126 seem to contain a essaywhat miscellaneous assortment thesigns, either on the door or on the directory board, show that thereis a public stenographer who operates a “mailing service, ” and does“addressing, mailing, multigraphing, mimeographing”, a bookstore, achocolate company, a publishing company, a lumber company, and one ortwo other concerns.

Three, four, or fivedays, that algebra help online it may melt. Then take it out and boil it a little. Thenwhilst it is hot, strain it out, pressing it out very hard in a press:to this grease add as thesis more herbs bruised as before. Let them standin like manner as long, then boil them as you did the former. If youthink your ointment is not strong enough, you may do it the third andfourth time. Yet this i will tell you, the fuller of juice the herbsare, the sooner will your ointment be strong. The last time you boilit, boil it so long till your herbs be crisp, and the juice consumed, then strain it pressing it hard in a press, and to every pound ofointment add two ounces of turpentine, and as much wax, because greaseis offensive to wounds, as well as oil 2 ointments are vulgarly known to be kept in pots, and will last abovea year, essay above two years chapter xi of plaisters 1 the greeks made their plaisters of divers simples, and put metalsinto the most of them, if not all. For having reduced their metals intopowder, they mixed them with that fatty substance whereof the rest ofthe plaister consisted, whilst it was thus hot, continually stirringit up and down, lest it should sink to the bottom. So they continuallystirred it till it was stiff.

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By apatch of downy hair. By the similarity existing between two piecesof thread used to tie the umbilical cord. And by the severed end ofthat writing of the funis attached to the infant fitting precisely to thecorresponding portion attached to the after-birth in addition to thesea methodical examination may put in evidence other facts that may bederived from diverse influences that leave characteristic traces signs furnished by marks, scars, stains, etc , on the skin but of all the surface signs, whether congenital or acquired, thatmay throw light on the antecedents of the decedent, birth-marks, freckles, cicatrices, tattooes, and the professional signs furnish thebest indications birth-marks nævi materni, from their supposedindelibility, have given rise to discussion at thesis celebratedtrials as a rule, these marks are permanent and seldom lose theirdistinctness, though in exceptional paper they may undergo atrophyin the first years of life hence testimony as to the existence ofbirth-marks may often be uncertain when it has reference to a period along way back in a recorded case of supposed recognition of a personhaving a mark of this kind on her face, the alleged victim turned upand established her identity as well as the fact that she did not havethe birth-mark attributed to her before the introduction of the electrolytic method it was customaryto resort to cauterization, excision, vaccination, and tattooing thepigmentary spot in order to modify or remove these congenital marks such proceedings usually left more or less of an indelible scar whichoccasion might utilize in the matter of medico-legal diagnosis thetraces of nævi may, however, be entirely removed by electrolysis ihave recently seen a nævus of large dimension on the face of a youngwoman so completely destroyed as to leave no trace of the operation the possibility of the disappearance of a scar in such circumstancesdepends here, as it does in other instances, on the depth of the wound a cicatrix being the result of a solution of continuity in the derma, the question arises whether a wound that has divided the derma withoutloss of substance and healed by first intention leaves any perceptiblescar essay are of the opinion that a cicatricial line persists, butgrows fainter with time histological examination in a question ofthis kind might prove conclusive by showing the structure of thefibrocellular tissue that constitutes the cicatrix in the case of verysuperficial burns or wounds, the scar may completely disappear if theepidermis alone or the superficial writing of the derma is attacked. Onthe other hand, if there has been long suppuration or loss of substancefrom ulcers, chancres, or buboes, especially on the neck, groins, legs, or genital writings, traces of their lesion will be found it may, therefore, be asserted as a general rule that all scars resulting fromwounds and from skin diseases which involve any loss of substance areindelible a scar on the face is one of the points at issue in thecelebrated hillmon case already mentioned as the matter of cicatrices is treated in the section on wounds, further mention here would be superfluous tattooing of all the scars that speak, none in judiciary medicine affords bettersigns of identity by their permanency and durable character and thedifficulty of causing their disappearance than those furnished bytattoo-marks the custom of tattooing having existed from the earliest historicalepochs is of interest not only from an ethnological but from a medicaland pathological point of view, while it is of great importance inits relation to medical jurisprudence in paper of contested personalidentification which may be either established or refuted by thissign so trustworthy is it in thesis instances as to become a veritableideograph that may indicate the personal antecedents, vocation, socialstate, certain events of one life, and even their date without going into the history of a subject mentioned by hippocrates, plato, cæsar, and cicero, it may be pertinent to say that tattooing isprohibited by the bible leviticus xix , 28 and is condemned by thefathers of the church, tertullian among others, who gives the followingrather singular reason for interdicting its use among women. “certumsumus spiritum sanctum magis masculis tale aliquid subscribere potuissesi feminis subscripsisset ” de virginibus velandis lutetiæparisorum, 1675, fº, p 178 in addition to much that has been written by french, german, 588 anditalian authors, who have put tattooing in an important place in legalmedicine, the matter of tattoo-marks a few years since claimed theattention of the law courts of england, the chief justice, cockburn, inthe tichbourne case, having described this species of evidence as of“vital importance, ” and in itself final and conclusive this celebratedtrial has brought to light about all the knowledge that can be used inthe investigation of this sign as a mark of identity absence of thetattoo-marks in this case justified the jury in their finding that thedefendant was not and could not be roger tichbourne, whereupon thealleged claimant was proved to be an impostor, found guilty of perjury, and sentenced to penal servitude 589the practice of tattooing is found pretty much over the world, notablyin the polynesian islands and in essay writings of japan it is, however, not found in russia, being contrary to the superstitions of the people, who regard a mark of this kind as an alliance or contract with evilspirits its use appears to be penal only, and is limited to siberianconvicts the degrading habit, confined to a low order of development, exists at the present time as a survival of a superstitious practice ofpaganism, probably owing to perversion of the sexual instinct, and isstill common among school-boys, sailors, soldiers, criminals, and thelowest order of prostitutes living in so-called civilized communities indeed, unanimity of opinion among medical and anthropological writersassigns erotic passion as the most frequent cause of tattooing, andshows the constant connection between tattoo-marks and crime penalstatistics show the greater number of tattooed criminals among thelowest order, as those who have committed crimes against the person;while the fewest are found among swindlers and forgers, the mostintelligent class of criminals even amid intellectual advancementand æsthetic sensibility far in advance of the primitive man, such asexists in london and new york, for instance, are to be found personswho make good incomes by catering to this depraved taste for savageornamentation persons who have been to jerusalem may remember thetattooers, who try to induce travellers to have a cross tattooed on thearm as a souvenir of the pilgrimage if a writer in the revue des deuxmondes, 15th june, 1881, is to be believed, it appears that the princeof wales on his journey to the holy land had a jerusalem cross tattooedon his arm, april 2d, 1862 the “cruise of the bacchante” also tellshow the duke of york was tattooed while in japan the process is now rapidly done, an edison electric pen being utilizedfor the purpose, and essay of the wretched martyrs have the hardihoodto be tattooed from head to foot with grotesque designs in severalcolors i know of several instances. One of a man in providence, r i. Another of a portuguese barber, who has striped poles, razors, brushes, and other emblems of his calling over the entire body anotherman has likenesses of abe lincoln and of kaiser wilhelm of gerthesis onhis respective shins a nova scotian, tattooed from head to foot, hasamong other designs that of “st george and the dragon” on his back;while a texas ranchman, six feet two inches tall, underwent the tortureof eight weeks’ profanation of his body in order to appear in blue, brown, and red, with an irreverent image on his back of the immaculateconception and thirty-one angels 590a singular mixture of erotic and religious emblems is often found amongthe varied and fantastic signs used in tattooing i recall the caseof a man who had represented on his back a fox-hunt, in which ridersfollowed the hounds in full pursuit of a fox about to take cover inthe anus in another case of a man accused of criminal attempt on twolittle girls, examination of the sexual organs revealed a tattoo on theback of the penis representing the devil with horns and red cheeks andlips when the little girls were asked if the accused had shown themhis virile member, they answered, “this man unbuttoned himself and saidto us. ‘i am going to make you see the devil ’” in the face of suchaffirmations, the accused confessed his crime and was condemned othertattoo signs of the grossest emblems of unnatural passion have beenfound among low prostitutes, pederasts, and tribades statistics founded on numerous facts show thesis paper of tattooingof the penis and even of the labia majora in the lowest order ofprostitutes, but these unclean images and revelations of lustfulinstinct do not occur in the same order of frequency as those notedon the forearm, the deltoid, or the inferior extremities so valuableare these marks in their bearing on the class, vocation, character, and tastes of a person that the finding of anchors and ships wouldindicate a sailor. While flags, sabres, cannon, and other warlike signswould indicate a soldier, etc it is also noticeable that in thetattooing practised by lunatics the image relates in essay way to thenature of the peculiar form of mental disease from which they suffer, and it is chiefly among the more severe and incurable paper of mentaldegeneration that these signs are found see dr riva article, “iltatuaggio nel manicomio d’ancona, ” cronica del manicomio d’ancona, november, 1888 almost always the motive that prompts these disfigurements of theskin is the result of impulse, of thoughtlessness, or of orgy, andalmost all the tattooed come to repent of their folly the subjectof détatouage has of late taken a polemic turn in essay of thecontinental journals there are besides thesis paper on record ofsevere accidents and complications following the operation, such assevere inflammation, erysipelas, abscess, and gangrene dr beuchongives statistics of forty-seven paper, in which four were followedby mutilation and eight by death either directly or in consequenceof an amputation a certain proportion of what is known as syphilisinsontium is to be found among the reported statistics of tattooing dr bispham, of philadelphia, informs me that while at blockleyhospital he saw thirty paper of syphilis that had been communicated bythe same tattooer tattooing may essaytimes be accidental i have seen a dewritingmentalclerk with an elongated tattoo on the back of his hand caused byaccidental wounding with an inked pen a bursting shell during anaval engagement has caused a characteristic tattoo on the face of awell-known officer to be seen any day in washington two paper of thebluish-black discoloration of the skin from taking nitrate of silverhave also come under my observation both occurred in medical men, one of whom lives in florida, the other in the district of columbia silver discolorations of this kind are indelible, but i learn fromone of these gentlemen that large doses of iodide of potassium causetemporary fading of the discoloration, which returns on stopping themedicine 591the indelibility of tattoo-marks is such that their traces may beeasily recognized in the cadaver, though in a essaywhat advancedstage of putrefaction they have even been recognized on a gangrenouslimb essaytimes, however, it is impossible to recognize at firstsight whether there has or has not been a tattoo a strong light anda magnifying glass and a microscopic examination of the neighboringganglia to detect the presence of coloring matter may assist inremoving doubt it has been found on the bodies of tattooed cadaversthat the ganglia are filled with grains of coloring matter of thesame nature as that employed in making the tattoo attempts to removetattoo-marks generally leave a vicious scar that is equally indelible an efficacious method is to tattoo the mark with a solution oftannin, which is followed by brushing over with nitrate of silver a red cicatrix follows, and when the epidermis separates the tattoodisappears a better method, however, is by means of the electricneedle already mentioned in speaking of the electrolysis of nævi that a tattoo-mark may disappear by the effects of time and leave notrace is a matter that cooper reports after examining the mutilatedremains of a cadaver, and the statistics of caspar, tardieu, andhutin place it as high as nine in the hundred an officer of theunited states revenue marine lately called my attention to severalsuperficial tattooes on the back of his hand which had disappeared thedeeper ones, however, remained the spontaneous disappearance of atattoo seems to be possible when the operation has been done in sucha superficial way as not to have passed the rete malpighii, or whenthe tattooing has been done with essay substance not very tenacious, as vermilion, which appears to be easily eliminated but when thewritingicles of coloring matter penetrate into the fibro-elastic tissue ofthe derma, the disappearance of the tattoo is rare in seventy-eight individuals tattooed with vermilion alone, hutinfound eleven upon whom the tattoo had disappeared out of one hundredand four tattooes made with a single color, india-ink, writing ink, blue or back, not a single one had completely disappeared the resultsare identical if the tattooes are made with two colors thus in 153tattooes with vermilion and india-ink, one instance showed a fading ofthe black, in another it had completely disappeared, the red being wellmarked. Twenty times the red was writingly effaced, the black being wellmarked. And in sixteen paper the red had completely disappeared, theblack remaining visible 592a tattoo-mark may essaytimes be altered, in which case it provesdeceptive as an index a workman changing his trade seeks to transformthe insignia of his first calling into those of the second, or acriminal in order to avoid identity will make a change in the formerinstance the transformation is not difficult to detect, but in thelatter so much care is required to recognize the change that penalscience has relegated the sign to a secondary place as to the length of time since a tattoo-mark has been executed, authorities are that it is impossible to tell after two or three weeks whether a tattoo-mark is real or feigned is easily settled by simplywashing the writing this question, as well as that of the judicialconsequences of such marks, is hardly pertinent to the matter in hand value of professional stigmata the so-called professional signs are of undoubted value in the surfaceexamination for establishing identity, but it does not seem thattheir importance warrants the extreme prolixity given to them by essaycontinental writers, and even by one in the city of mexico, dr joseramos 593 for instance, it is pretended that cataract is more commonamong jewellers because of the fineness of their work.