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As also the rank smell of algebra help free the arm-pits, orthe whole body. Being boiled in wine and drank, and are said to help astinking breath, and to strengthen the stomach pliny saith, that thejuice bathed on the place that wants hair, it being fallen off, willcause it to grow speedily the melancholy thistle descript it rises up with tender single hoary green stalks, bearingthereon four or five green leaves, dented about the edges. The pointsthereof are little or nothing prickly, and at the top usually but onehead, yet essaytimes from the bosom of the uppermost leaves there shootsforth another small head, scaly and prickly, with thesis reddish thrumbsor threads in the middle, which being gathered fresh, will keep thecolour a long time, and fades not from the stalk a long time, while itperfects the seed, which is of a mean bigness, lying in the down theroot hath thesis strings fastened to the head, or upper writing, which isblackish, and perishes not there is another sort little differing from the former, but that theleaves are more green above, and more hoary underneath, and the stalkbeing about two feet high, bears but one scaly head, with threads andseeds as the former place they grow in thesis moist meadows of this land, as well in thesouthern, as in the northern writings time they flower about july or august, and their seed ripensquickly after government and virtues it is under capricorn, and therefore underboth saturn and mars, one rids melancholy by sympathy, the other byantipathy their virtues are but few, but those not to be despised. Forthe decoction of the thistle in wine being drank, expels superfluousmelancholy out of the body, and makes a man as merry as a cricket;superfluous melancholy causes care, fear, sadness, despair, envy, and thesis evils more besides. But religion teaches to wait upon godprovidence, and cast our care upon him who cares for us what a finething were it if men and women could live so?. and yet seven years’care and fear makes a man never the wiser, nor a farthing richer dioscorides saith, the root borne about one doth the like, and removesall diseases of melancholy modern writers laugh at him. Let themlaugh that win. My opinion is, that it is the best remedy against allmelancholy diseases that grows. They that please may use it our lady thistle descript our lady thistle hath divers very large and broad leaveslying on the ground cut in, and as it were crumpled, but essaywhat hairyon the edges, of a white green shining colour, wherein are thesis linesand streaks of a milk white colour, running all over, and set with thesissharp and stiff prickles all about, among which rises up one or morestrong, round, and prickly stalks, set full of the like leaves up tothe top, where at the end of every branch, comes forth a great pricklythistle-like head, strongly armed with prickles, and with bright purplethumbs rising out of the middle. After they are past, the seed grows inthe said heads, lying in soft white down, which is essaywhat flattishin the ground, and thesis strings and fibres fastened thereunto all thewhole plant is bitter in taste place it is frequent on the banks of almost every ditch time it flowers and seeds in june, july, and august government and virtues our lady thistle is under jupiter, andthought to be as effectual as carduus benedictus for agues, and toprevent and cure the infection of the plague.

And soon thereafter a new company was organizedknown as the leroy drug company in 1917 w l capell was connectedwith the capell, cameron co , inc , of lincoln, neb , which wasselling “capell uroluetic test”, “capell treatment for syphilis”and other remedies the “treatment for syphilis” was said to be “painless, pleasant, harmless, efficacious, and requires usually from 30 to 90 days only to eradicate the disease ”the name of the treatment is “mercarodin”-- earlier it was called“camit”-- and it is now being sold from “capell laboratory, ” omaha in addition, capell laboratory sells acneine, which apparently isthe same product that was sold in 1906 and 1907 under the name of“sambu-co” by the holtman-stringer co of omaha and later was put outby the acneine pharmacal company of omaha while capell laboratory sells proprietary remedies, it is the“uroluetic test” which the concern now seems to be featuring theclaims made for this are. “this test requires no expert knowledge, is inexpensive, and can be made in a few minutes, and is so plain that it cannot be mistaken ”the idea of being able to determine the absence or presence of syphilisby a simple color test of the urine is a fascinating one the presentreliable diagnostic tests are, as capell laboratory so plausiblyemphasizes, essaywhat involved, and call for rather delicate technic but there are no short-cuts to knowledge a physician who ordered capell uroluetic test essay weeks ago receivedwith the bill the letter that follows. It is given not so much for whatit says, as for how it says it it is copied verbatim et literatim. “your letter received, and we have mailed you as per your letter 1 doz of capell ‘uroluetic’ tests in close find statement and instructions, for same “the ‘uroluetic’ test is meeting a far greater approval from the medical profession than we had expected, while we do not claime that it is perfect, yet we have only received one unfavorable report, and we daily feel incuraged in its efficacy “you know doctor that there are two dangerous elements in this world, one is the extreme pessimist and the other is the extreme optimist the immoral lincoln said, ‘that there was nothing that was wholly good or wholly evil, ’ and we presume that this is equally true of the ‘uroluetic’ test but we want the truth no matter what it is ”“capell uroluetic test” would be “important if true ” unfortunately, its scientific value to the sufferer is negligible compared with itseconomic value to the exploiter it is not so much a test for luesin the patient as of credulity in the doctor -- from the journala m a , aug 23, 1919 another urinary test for syphilis to the editor:-- will you kindly inform me whether the test in the enclosed “literature” is what it is represented to be?. charles m thomas, m d , sunbury, pa answer -- the “literature” referred to by dr thomas dealt with the“uri-na test” sold by the standard appliance company of philadelphia there seems to be a strong family resemblance between this alleged testand that known as “capell uroluetic test, ” which was discussed inthe propaganda dewritingment of the journal, aug 23, 1919 of that thejournal said. “unfortunately, its scientific value to the sufferer isnegligible compared with its economic value to the exploiter it is notso much a test for lues in the patient as of credulity in the doctor ”the same may be said of the “uri-na test ” the facts are, there is nomethod at present known by which the absence or presence of syphilismay be determined by a simple color test of the urine -- query in thejournal a m a , nov 22, 1919 chemotherapy and tumorsn richard weil, m d , new yorkn from the cancer research service of the general memorial hospital, new york n this critical discussion of the status of chemotherapy in tumorswas prepared at the request of the council on pharmacy and chemistry ofthe american medical association within the last three years a number of reports have appeared in themedical press which bear on the treatment of malignant growths inhuman beings by chemical preparations the most persuasive and themost insistent claims have been made in connection with the colloidalsolutions of certain metalloids and metals, notably selenium, vanadiumand copper at the same time a number of drug houses, both in thiscountry and abroad, have placed on the market proprietary preparationsof these substances in various forms, for which the claim is made thatthey produce striking therapeutic effects and essaytimes even cures inmalignant neoplasms the impulse toward the use and production of this type of preparationis directly traceable to a series of scientific experiments on thetumors of animals, which date back no farther than the year 1911 inthat year wassermann and his co-workers267 published a report onthe treatment of rat tumors by means of the intravenous injection ofselenium compounds this paper received wide notoriety through itsenthusiastic diffusion by the lay press shortly afterward neuberg andhis co-workers268 published their observations upon the therapeuticeffects of certain metallic compounds the clinical application of theencouraging results obtained by these authors in animal tumors followedrapidly, and up to the present time a number of papers have appearedin which the claim is made that human tumors also may be favorablyinfluenced through the constitutional use of substances similar tothose used by wassermann or neuberg in essay paper, use has been madeof colloidal solutions of the heavy metals, such as copper. In others, selenium compounds have been used, while in a third set of observationsthe therapeutic agent represents an attempt to combine the virtues ofthese two types of therapy by employing selenium in colloidal form asan example of the first class, may be cited the cuprase of gaube dugers;269 of the second, the seleniovanadic ointment of roemer and thesulpho-selene of walker. Of the third, seleniol and electro-selenium 267 wassermann, keysser and wassermann.

And droppedinto the ears, eases the pains in them, and heals and removes the heat the same also with the juice of houseleek is profitable against allinflammations and breakings out of the skin, and against burnings andscaldings by fire and water the juice or decoction made either ofitself, or other things of the like nature, is of much use and goodeffect for old and hollow ulcers that are hard to be cured, and forcankers and sores in the mouth or privy writings of man or woman. Andhelps also the pains of the piles in the fundament the juice mixedwith oil of roses, and the temples and forehead anointed therewith, eases the pains of the head proceeding from heat, and helps lunatic andfrantic persons very much. As also the biting of serpents, or a maddog the same also is profitably applied to all hot gouts in the feetor hands, especially in the beginning it is also good to be appliedwhere any bone is out of joint, to hinder inflammations, swellings, andpains that presently rise thereupon the powder of the dried leavestaken in drink, kills worms of the belly.

“it is quite impossible to confound a burninflicted during life with one inflicted after death ”woodman and tidy, 717 in an algebra help free extended series of experiments, concludethat while blisters can be produced post mortem, they are readilydistinguished from those formed ante mortem in containing no serum. Andeven in dropsical subjects, where blisters containing essay fluid wereformed, the presence of but a mere trace of albumin was shown. And, inall, no redness about the base of the blisters was produced, nor anyappearance of redness after removal of the cuticle taylor718 has never observed vesications in post-mortem experimentson infants he cites a case of drowning where the person, “pulselessand apparently dead, ” was imprudently placed in a hot bath blisterscontaining bloody serum were formed over several portions of the body he concludes that hot water on the living and recently dead body, sofar as vesication is concerned, produces similar effects in experiments on the dead body immediately after death the writer hasfailed to produce any blister containing serum or fluid the so-calledblisters are produced by the rapid expansion and evaporation of thefluid beneath the cuticle over the portion to which the heat wasapplied, and differ distinctly from blisters caused during life, in theabsence of serum or any redness of adjacent or subjacent writings plateii chambert719 concludes that in living bodies and in dead bodies withintwenty-four hours after death blisters can be produced, and that lessheat will develop them in the living he specially emphasizes thedifference, in the albuminous character of the contents, of a blisterformed ante mortem and of one formed post mortem jastrowitz720 emphasizes the difference between blisters formedduring life and those occurring in œdematous conditions blisters are to be distinguished from the bullæ arising fromputrefaction there is little danger of confounding such paper inconditions of putrefaction no redness or line of demarcation exists, and the green discoloration and other conditions of the skin willsuffice to establish the diagnosis schjerning721 considers blisters containing highly albuminous serumas diagnostic of burns produced during life in essay conditions ofdepression of nutrition blisters occasionally form, but are not liableto be confounded with those caused by burning a second anatomical feature of much importance, even more so thanvesication, is the condition of the skin to which the heat was applied it assumes a dusky red color and a dry and parchment-like condition case 8 surrounding this is an area of grayish-white skin bounded bya sharply defined and deeply injected red line, which in turn shadesinto the color of the surrounding skin these features are more or lesspronounced according to the degree of heat applied and to the length oftime of contact. Or, in other words, to the depth and severity of theburn plate i means of distinguishing ante-mortem from post-mortem burns differentially, a distinction is to be made between the surroundingredness and the line of redness the redness due to capillarydistention is transient, disappears under pressure during life, and fades after death the line of redness is permanent, changingbut little under pressure, and remains after death it is a vitalreactionary effort, a true line of separation between living anddead tissue, formed in the same manner as the line of demarcation insphacelus or gangrene this line of redness, developed only during lifeand permanent after death, is of great significance in paper witha medico-legal bearing it has been already stated that in personsin a condition of depressed vitality the appearance of redness andvesication is essaytimes very tardy and imperfect, and that death fromshock or pain may occur before their development at all they are vitalprocesses and require time for their appearance in proportion to theactivity of the powers of reaction hence in paper of burning resultingfatally where vesication and redness do not appear, the circumstancesmust be carefully considered before deciding that the burns producedwere post mortem with these qualifications, it may be stated that thepresence of the red line is almost uniform in burns inflicted duringlife and absent in those occurring after death if upon a body bearing evidences of exposure to heat there be foundblisters containing highly albuminous serum, and such blisters, afterthe removal of the cuticle, present a bright red base surrounded bya bright and sharp line of demarcation, with redness of adjacentsurface, we are justified in concluding that the burns were inflictedante mortem or, at farthest, within a few moments of death if, on thecontrary, the red line is absent and the blisters contain a thin wateryfluid, with a yellowish and dry condition of their base after removalof the cuticle, the presumption is that the burning occurred postmortem where a number of burns are found upon a body, the question whetherthey were produced simultaneously may be raised this can be answeredby examination as to their condition if essay show signs of recentinfliction, while others are in conditions of suppuration or otherchanges which only occur after an interval, a difference of time inproduction would be probable but if all present mainly the sameconditions, the probability of their occurring at the same time may beconcluded plates i and ii the condition of the blood - special examination of the blood ofpersons dying from the effect of burns has been made by competentobservers while it is not at present possible to define an exact andconstant condition, specially characteristic, essay features of interesthave been recently recorded the color of the blood has been variously reported. In essay paper asbeing of a dark color and in others of a bright arterial hue deathby asphyxia or suffocation, by the deprivation of oxygen, and by theproducts of combustion, would be accompanied by a dark or venous hueof the blood an atmosphere containing an excess of carbon monoxide, resulting from combustion, would cause death by apnœa with an arterialhue to the blood 722 but other influences must be considered according to schjerning, 723 it is difficult to deduce positiveconclusions from the condition of the blood the changes induced by thespleen and kidneys, as well as the varying intensity of the degree ofheat to which the body may be subjected, tend to render positive andconstant conclusions from this source difficult falk724 refers to the bright red color of the blood found in essaypaper, and explains this condition in writing by the influence of chemicalchanges in the tissues surrounding the vessels wertheim725 describes certain conditions observed by him and mentionsan increase in the number of the leucocytes, together with the presenceof hæmoglobin and melanin hoppe seyler meets with similar results and arrives at the sameconclusions in his observations ponfik, 726 on the contrary, is doubtful of the constant presence ofessay of these conditions and also of their diagnostic value seliger727 confirms the conclusions of wertheim, in that he describesthe presence of crystalline bodies and of dark discolorations melanin essay spectroscopic analyses have disclosed the presence of bandsadditional to those of normal blood the lack of uniformity ofconditions described and of conclusions reached leaves the subject in aposition of uncertainty examination of the blood of those dying fromburns has not been so extensively and minutely followed as to enable usto decide questions which may arise in any case explanation of plate ii figure 1 - ante-mortem burn scald by steam from a boiler bursting, july, 1892 from a photograph taken sixty hours after the accident the injurycovered one-half of the surface of the body the red line is sharplymarked. The extensive blisters formed are broken and their contentshave escaped. The serum drying has produced yellowish discolorations;the blush of redness on adjacent writings is well marked death resultedon the fifth day figure 2 - post-mortem burn exp 1 appearances after application of a tin can containingboiling water the cuticle was raised by expansion the blisterscontained no serum and no red line is developed figure 3 - post-mortem burn exp 2 appearances after the application of iron at a dull redheat no proper blister formed.

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adjuvant for the physician to use in carrying out treatment of disease of the uterus ” “zinc sulphate, 3-3/4 gr , sodium sulphate, 3-1/2 gr , sodium borate, 4 gr , boric acid, 3/4 gr ” “naphey & co , warren, pa , u s a ” “each box contains 25 wafers, sufficient for three months’ treatment price per box, 25c ”in name, composition, and general appearance of the package, napheymedicated uterine wafers bear a strong resemblance to micajahmedicated uterine wafers the journal, a m a , march 26, 1910, p 1070 an advertising pamphlet reads. “in every form of leucorrhea naphey medicated uterine wafers are indicated ” “what is true of leucorrhea is also true of all other functional troubles affecting the female genital canal. They are all treated best by astringents and antiseptics and these, to be effective, must be applied in prolonged contact ”the implication that all “functional troubles affecting the femalegenital canal” are best treated by astringent tablets like napheymedicated uterine wafers is an absurdity the naming of diseaseconditions on the label, the manifestly unwarranted and exaggeratedtherapeutic claims, the name, which is non-descriptive of compositionbut suggestive of use, and the fixed formula, which cannot rationallybe expected to give uniformly satisfactory results in the wide rangeof conditions for which the product is recommended, render napheymedicated uterine wafers ineligible for new and nonofficial remediesunder rules 4, 6, 8 and 10 the report having been sent to naphey & co , the manufactureroffered, on condition that the preparation be accepted, to revise theadvertising matter in minor writingiculars, to remove disease names fromthe trade package and to adopt the name naphey wafers or napheytablets the council advised naphey & co that the proposed names donot conform to the requirements for acceptance in new and nonofficialremedies because they do not indicate the composition of thispharmaceutical mixture, and moreover, that the routine use of a complexformula such as that of these tablets is irrational -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 66 nujol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynujol, a liquid petrolatum standard oil company of new jersey, bayonne, n j , was submitted to the council by the manufacturers the council advised the company that, before nujol could be madeeligible for new and nonofficial remedies, the advertising claims madefor it must be revised to conform to the rules of the council and theterm “liquid petrolatum” must be used in connection with the branddesignation and given equal prominence on the labels, advertisementsand all circulars the company thereupon submitted a label on whichthe name “nujol” appeared in large red letters and under it in smallletters the words “liquid petrolatum ” this did not meet the councilrequirement with regard to the name moreover, nujol continued to beadvertised to the public under exaggerated and unwarranted claims the foregoing report was sent to the standard oil company of newjersey, which thereupon submitted revised advertising copy thiscopy was decidedly less objectionable than the previous advertisingbut still contained exaggerated statements the copy for use inlay journals writingicularly evidenced exaggeration observation onthesis occasions of a similar fact has convinced the council of theinexpediency of admitting to new and nonofficial remedies any articlewhich is advertised to the public 101101 since publication of this report the council on pharmacy andchemistry has revised its rule against recognition of articlesadvertised to the public so that this shall not apply a todisinfectants, germicides and antiseptics, provided the advertising belimited to conservative recommendations for their use as prophylacticapplications to superficial cuts and abrasions of the skin and to themucous surfaces of the mouth, pharynx and nose, and provided they arenot advertised as curative agents, and b to non-medicinal foodpreparations, except when advertised in an objectionable manner the council held that conflict with rules 3, 6 and 8 preventedthe acceptance of nujol and authorized the publication of thisreport -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 68 pulvoids natrium compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrypulvoids natrium compound was submitted to the council by the drugproducts company, inc , new york, with the statement that each pulvoid coated tablet, said to be made to dissolve in the intestinal tractrepresents the equivalent of. Potassium nitrate 2-1/2 grs sodium nitrite 1/2 gr sodium bicarbonate 2 grs fl ext crataegus oxycantha 1 min nitroglycerin 1/250 gr according to the advertisements the tablets are “indicated in thetreatment of high blood pressure and all forms of hypertension of thecardio-vascular system ” it is claimed that the tablets “will notirritate the kidneys ”the council, having submitted its objections to the manufacturer andconsidered the firm reply, held that pulvoids natrium compound wasinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for the following reasons:1 the claim is made that the tablets disintegrate in the intestines;experiments conducted by the council indicated that in most paper theywould be broken up in the stomach it was found that the tablets werevisibly changed immediately after being put into gastric juice or eveninto distilled water. They disintegrated within from three to fourhours, not only in gastric juice obtained from a dog at 37 c , butalso in distilled water it is quite usual for solids to remain inthe stomach for more than three hours if they make their way out ofthe stomach in less than that time the gastric movements must be sovigorous as further to hasten the disintegration of the tablets 2 the rules of the council require that the name of a pharmaceuticalmixture shall indicate the potent ingredients the name of this mixturedoes not indicate the presence of the nitrites, the potassium nitrate, the bicarbonate or the extract of hawthorne and the nondescriptive nameis likely to lead physicians to use the tablets without fully realizingwhat they are giving 3 no evidence was submitted that the tablets, as found on the market, contained the amount of sodium nitrite and nitroglycerin claimed that is, it does not appear that the manufacturer checks the sodiumnitrite and nitroglycerin content by analysis the council did notdetermine the nitrite content of the tablets it maintains that whena manufacturer places a product on the market the burden of proof ison that manufacturer to show that the facts are in accordance withhis claims for his product further, the examination by the councilof one or several specimens of any commercial product writingicularlyin the case of nitroglycerin preparations would not be a guaranteeof the constancy of its composition so long as the manufacturer doesnot himself control the composition by analysis the necessity ofsuch control of tablets containing nitroglycerin is evident from thereport102 of l f kebler of the u s bureau of chemistry dr kebler said:102 j a m a , nov 2, 1912, p 1604 “ nitroglycerin tablets have in a majority of paper been found deficient in the nitroglycerin content declared ” “ these commodities are manufactured largely by rule of thumb little checking obtains in their manufacture and generally no analyst is employed ”a further proof that nitroglycerin tablets are likely to be deficientin strength is contained in the convictions under the food and drugsact of manufacturers who sold tablets below the declared strength, recorded from time to time notices of judgments nos 3405, 2059, 1843, 1799 4 there is no good evidence, experimental or clinical, to justify thesimultaneous administration in fixed proportion of two vasodilatorslike sodium nitrite and glyceryl trinitrate nitroglycerin also thereis no rational excuse for combining extract of hawthorne, which is saidto have a tonic effect on the heart muscle, with nitrites, which causerelaxation of the vascular system, or for the combination with theseconstituents of potassium nitrate or of sodium bicarbonate in the absence of evidence for the combination, pulvoids natriumcompound must be considered an irrational mixture, the use of which isa detriment to sound drug therapy and, hence, not admissible to newand nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 69 saloform report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya referee submitted the following report of the american medicalassociation chemical laboratory to the council. analysis of saloformsaloform flexner is advertised by the robinson-pettet company oflouisville, ky in the advertisements for the product it is stated that. “saloform is a definite chemical compound the component writings of which are hexamethylene tetramine, salicylic acid and lithia ” “as a uric acid solvent it is indicated in rheumatism, gout, in phosphaturia, in gravel, and in renal colic ” “as a genito-urinary antiseptic it limits suppuration anywhere along the urinary tract, from the kidneys down to the orifice of urethra ”as, even after diligent search, no description of a compound ofhexamethylenamine hexamethylenetetramine, salicylic acid and lithiawas found in chemical literature, it seemed probable that saloformis merely a mixture of hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate accordingly the separation of saloform into its component writings bymeans of selected solvents was attempted by triturating the powderwith chloroform, filtering and evaporating the filtrate, a residuewas obtained which gave satisfactory tests for hexamethylenaminebut contained only traces of salicylic acid or lithium salicylate the portion insoluble in chloroform was dissolved in water thesolution gave satisfactory tests for lithium salicylate but not forhexamethylenamine from these tests it is evident that saloformis a simple mixture of hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate quantitative examination indicated that the two ingredients, hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate, are present in approximatelyequal amounts referee recommendationthe report of our chemical laboratory shows that saloform is not adefinite compound as claimed, but a simple mixture of hexamethylenaminand lithium salicylate it is therefore in conflict with rule 1 it isalso in conflict with rule 6, for neither hexamethylenamin, lithium, nor salicylate are therapeutically effective “uric acid solvents”. Norwould any of these have any effect on “phosphaturia ”the mixture also conflicts with rule 10. For it is inadvisable toadminister the ingredients in fixed, but unknown proportions it is recommended that saloform be deemed inadmissible to n n r the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 71 secretogen report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryabout a year ago the council declared secretogen, 103 a product theactive ingredient of which was stated to be “pancreatic secretin” andadvertised as a remedy for certain conditions of defective digestionand assimilation, to be ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies the reasons for this decision were stated at the time as follows:103 j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 “1 no evidence has been presented that the absence of secretin is acause of gastro-intestinal diseases it is usually present, and if notpresent, as in achylia gastrica, there is evidently essay compensatingarrangement by which the pancreas is stimulated to perform its regularfunctions “2 there is no evidence that secretin in any form is physiologicallyactive when administered by mouth ”since secretogen was not the only so-called secretin preparation onthe market, and since the use of secretin preparations was recommendedby certain writers, notwithstanding the lack of evidence of its value, the council caused an experimental investigation of the question to bemade this was carried out by prof a j carlson of the university ofchicago no secretin was found in the commercial products examined, namely, secretogen tablets, secretogen elixir and duodenin furthermore, carlson results104 confirmed the council previous conclusionas to the inertness of secretin administered by mouth the councilendorsed professor carlson findings 105104 carlson a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208.