History

Air Pollution Essay


Iodine soluble air pollution essay in mineral oil 5 and 10% for nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, bronchial, rectal, etc , and all meucoid affections and abnormal conditions of the mucous membrane ”a sample of b oleum iodine was submitted by the manufacturer andexamined the label on the bottle states that it is 5 per cent b oleum iodine in mineral oil this sample has the characteristics ofa solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum it is oily and has thecharacteristic violet color ammonia. B oleum iodine, since it is presumed to be a solution of b iodine, was examined for ammonium compounds a small quantity was mixedwith an equal volume of strong sodium hydroxid solution and heated noammonia was evolved a few crystals of ammonium chlorid were added toa little of b oleum iodine and treated as above ammonia was readilydetected iodine. 5 255 gm b oleum iodine was dissolved in chloroform andplaced in a separator a solution of potassium iodid was added and theiodin titrated with a tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate solution itrequired 3 5 c c indicating 0 85 per cent iodin the conclusion is that b oleum iodine is a simple solution of iodin inliquid petrolatum to the extent of 0 85 per cent and not 5 per cent as claimed furthermore, it is not a solution of b iodine since noammonium compound is present the preceding report was sent to the b iodine chemical company thefollowing reply was received. Your letter of the 21st inst , received and contents noted and cannot quite agree with your report reasons why. Nh₄i, a nitro hydrate iodide. Nh₄i₂, a nitro hydrate iodate. And nh₄i₂i₂, per iodide, a molecular compound, which i claim, they all being of a nh group, so what can be the objection of nitrogen hydrate of iodine?. of course when your chemist, with the aid of heat, drove off all the iodine, he naturally brought it back to a nh₄i there where he gets the a m i claim a molecular compound the oil of iodine i sent you by mistake was a 1 per cent and not a 5 per cent as marked i claim it is made from the resublimed iodine in mineral oil and not the b iodine i claim a 5 per cent has heretofore never been accomplished, so i therefore can claim essaything new tr iodine contains alcohol and potash as a base, the alcohol a dehydrater and potash an escharotic, and all other soluble iodines like the tincture have a metallic base mine has not my iodine is compatible almost with all the salts, alkaloids, tannates, and even the metals you can’t say that for the tincture or the others now why should mine not be superior to others?. preparations as yet are not on the market and a few pamphlets were printed to meet with the requirements of your rulings and approval and shall be corrected if we only can agree on a proper name as you may suggest yours very truly, the b iodine chemical co by john bohlander, a m, m d p s we are sending you under separate cover another sample of the oil of iodine which is a 5 per cent solution, and allowing for deterioration will test at least four per cent the referee in charge of the preparations submitted the above letter tothe council with the following comments:the principal statements in the letter are essentially erroneous ormisleading. Mixtures or double salts of ammonium iodid and iodin werenot discovered by dr bohlander, and are nothing new watery solutionsof iodin by means of an iodid have long been known and used in the formof lugol solution there is no evidence that ammonium iodid is less irritating thanpotassium iodid on the contrary, ammonium salts are generally moreirritating than the corresponding potassium salts b iodine is notcompatible with alkaloids, but behaves essentially like lugolsolution the a m a chemical laboratory reports that the new sampleof b oleum iodine contains only 1 2 per cent of free iodin, insteadof the claimed amount it is therefore essaywhat weaker than the iodinpetrolatum prepared by the a m a chemical laboratory reportscouncil pharm and chem , 1917, p 88 however good dr bohlander intentions may be, the statements that hemakes about his products are misleading or erroneous, and the productsare ineligible for n n r -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1918, p 44 antithyroid preparations antithyroidin-moebius and thyreoidectin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of antithyroid preparations antithyroidin-moebius andthyreoidectin has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, contains a discussionof “antithyroid” preparation and describes two of these:antithyroidin-moebius e merck, darmstadt, gerthesis and thyreoidectin parke, davis & company, detroit, mich the referee reported that these “antithyroid preparations” evidentlyhave not realized the expectations of their promoters, and are viewedwith skepticism by practically all critical clinicians consequently, notwithstanding the cautiously worded statements ofclaims made by the manufacturers of thyreoidectin, the council approvedthe recommendation that this preparation thyreoidectin be omittedfrom new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule 6 unwarrantedtherapeutic claims and rule 10 unscientific and useless articles antithyroidin-moebius had already been omitted because it was offthe market the council further directed that the general article“antithyroid preparations” be also omitted the council having adopted the recommendation of the referee, thyreoidectin is omitted from n n r , while the general articleappears below, as a matter of record:antithyroid preparations are obtained from the blood or milk ofanimals, after the removal of the thyroid glands the use of these preparations is based on the theory that the thyroidgland secretes products which are toxic, but which neutralize and areneutralized by, other toxic substances produced elsewhere in the body removal of the thyroid glands would then lead to the accumulation ofthese second toxic substances as evidenced by the phenomena of cachexiastrumipriva and myxedema on the other hand, the blood or milk ofsuch animals is claimed to be capable of preventing the effects ofhypersecretion of thyroid substance, such as is supposed to occurin hyperthyroidism basedow or graves’ disease-- generally calledexophthalmic goiter these views are largely hypothetical.

this was air pollution essay inmarch, 1920. Yet people still grow old within the last month the los angeles examiner has heralded essay morewonderful accomplishments of rahtjen according to this paper rahtjenhas:1 isolated the “germ of pernicious anemia ”2 found the “serum” for the cure of this disease 3 discovered the secret of human virility 4 evolved a fluid “from the glands of selected bulls and cows” whichwill “restore ‘pep’ for worn-out human bodies!. give added weight, clearer eyes, brighter minds, quicker bodies and a generally ‘firmergrip’ on oneself!. ”this “amazing discovery” was, according to the los angeles paper, theculmination of “five years of continuous study” and had only just beenrevealed by rahtjen “dr rahtjen has for years been working silently in a bio-chemical laboratory in pasadena, surrounded by microscopes, scales, test-tubes, acids, alkalis, reagents and all the accompanying stage settings that spell bio-chemical science ”all of these wonders might still have been a closed book to the publichad not “friends” of dr rahtjen brought the matter to the attention ofthe examiner “dr rahtjen yesterday, with the usual reserve of the ethical scientist, was disinclined to talk of his work until publication of it in a scientific journal ”fortunately for a palpitating public, the los angeles examiner “wasable to learn the essence of his study” and pass the information on itseems from this newspaper report that rahtjen first made his extractsfrom the glands of goats and sheep but these extracts “were found tobe too strong ” as a result “dr rahtjen is now using the glands ofspecially selected mexican bulls and cows ” the male patients who are“weak, uninterested in life, unable to concentrate in thought” aregiven the extract of bull. The female patients who are in a similarlydeplorable condition receive an “injection of the cow gland extract ”we have not yet learned whether the los angeles examiner hasdeprecated dr rahtjen use of mexican bovines remembering theattitude of the hearst papers toward all things mexican, one may lookfor the suggestion that mr rahtjen use 100 per cent americanbull -- from the journal a m a , nov 26, 1921 sodium cacodylate in syphilisto the editor:-- i was much interested in the study of this subject bydr h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 in 1913 i treated a series of paper of syphilis with sodium cacodylate;but, not getting the desired results, i discontinued its use in 1915, i became interested again because of the writings of dr j b murphy, and applied it in three paper in which the patients had initial lesions:case 1 -- j m , man aged 21, single, shoeworker, came to me withan initial lesion of the penis to the right of the frenum i beganintramuscular injections of sodium cacodylate, 5 grains, in ampulesmade by parke, davis & co , every day for ten days then i haltedfor ten days and repeated ten more injections the sore on the penisentirely disappeared about the ninth day there was a slight, faintlymacular eruption of the forearms and abdomen, which soon disappeared there was no alopecia when he returned, after the last series often injections, there were mucous patches in the throat and essayinvolvement of the left tonsil i put the patient on mixed treatment, which cleared his throat he had, at end of twenty doses of 5 grains ofsodium cacodylate each, a positive wassermann reaction after mercuryand potassium iodid for two months there was a positive wassermannreaction to date, after three salvarsan treatments intravenously therehave been two negatives case 2 -- f s , man, aged 28, married, machinist, had an initial lesionon the penis treatment with sixty injections of 5 grains of sodiumcacodylate gave results as follows. The initial sore on the penisdisappeared in ten injections. There were severe mucous patches of themouth. The tonsils were badly infected there was a positive wassermannreaction there were syphilids of both arms and shins. Marked papulareruption. Malaise, and a slight trace of albumin in the urine iplaced the patient on mercurials and at last give him three salvarsaninjections three weeks awriting the result was a negative wassermannreaction, the skin was clear and the patient felt fine case 3 -- d c , woman, aged 21, single, seamstress, had an initiallesion on the left side of the cervix, and a macular eruption on theface, neck and shoulders, and also, though faint, on the forearms thirty injections of sodium cacodylate of 5 grains each were given theinitial lesion disappeared in one week mucous patches of the mouthappeared and persisted the wassermann reaction was positive i gavemercurials and potassium iodid for seven months, and salvarsan once the wassermann reaction is now negative my conclusion after two trials of the use of sodium cacodylate in smallor large doses is that it has no effect toward curing the condition.

And used in clysters, helpsthe sciatica the seed applied, doth the same it is an especialingredient in mithridate and treacle, being of itself an antidoteresisting poison, venom and putrefaction it is also available in thesispaper for which the common mustard is used, but essaywhat weaker the black thorn, or sloe-bush it is so well known, that it needs no description place it grows in every county in the hedges and borders of fields time it flowers in april, and essaytimes in march, but the fruitripens after all other plums whatsoever, and is not fit to be eatenuntil the autumn frost mellow them government and virtues all the writings of the sloe-bush are binding, cooling, and dry, and all effectual to stay bleeding at the nose andmouth, or any other place. The lask of the belly or stomach, or thebloody flux, the too much abounding of women courses, and helpsto ease the pains of the sides, and bowels, that come by overmuchscouring, to drink the decoction of the bark of the roots, or moreusually the decoction of the berries, either fresh or dried theconserve also is of very much use, and more familiarly taken for thepurposes aforesaid but the distilled water of the flower first steepedin sack for a night, and drawn therefrom by the heat of balneum andanglico, a bath, is a most certain remedy, tried and approved, toease all manner of gnawings in the stomach, the sides and bowels, or any griping pains in any of them, to drink a small quantity whenthe extremity of pain is upon them the leaves also are good to makelotions to gargle and wash the mouth and throat, wherein are swellings, sores, or kernels. And to stay the defluctions of rheum to the eyes, or other writings. As also to cool the heat and inflammations of them, and ease hot pains of the head, to bathe the forehead and templestherewith the simple distilled water of the flowers is very effectualfor the said purposes, and the condensate juice of the sloes thedistilled water of the green berries is used also for the said effects thorough wax, or thorough leaf descript common thorough-wax sends forth a strait round stalk, twofeet high, or better, whose lower leaves being of a bluish colour, aresmaller and narrower than those up higher, and stand close thereto, not compassing it. But as they grow higher, they do not encompassthe stalks, until it wholly pass through them, branching toward thetop into thesis writings, where the leaves grow smaller again, every onestanding singly, and never two at a joint the flowers are smalland yellow, standing in tufts at the heads of the branches, whereafterwards grow the seed, being blackish, thesis thick thrust together the root is small, long and woody, perishing every year, afterseed-time, and rising again plentifully of its own sowing place it is found growing in thesis corn-fields and pasture groundsin this land time it flowers in july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues both this and the former are under theinfluence of saturn thorough-wax is of singular good use for all sortsof bruises and wounds either inward or outward. And old ulcers andsores likewise, if the decoction of the herb with water and wine bedrank, and the place washed therewith, or the juice of the green herbbruised, or boiled, either by itself, or with other herbs, in oil orhog grease, to be made into an ointment to serve all the year thedecoction of the herb, or powder of the dried herb, taken inwardly, andthe same, or the leaves bruised, and applied outwardly, is singularlygood for all ruptures and burstings, especially in children before theybe too old being applied with a little flour and wax to childrennavels that stick forth, it helps them thyme it is in vain to describe an herb so commonly known government and virtues it is a noble strengthener of the lungs, asnotable a one as grows. Neither is there scarce a better remedy growingfor that disease in children which they commonly call the chin-cough, than it is it purges the body of phlegm, and is an excellent remedyfor shortness of breath it kills worms in the belly, and being anotable herb of venus, provokes the terms, gives safe and speedydelivery to women in travail, and brings away the after birth it is soharmless you need not fear the use of it an ointment made of it takesaway hot swellings and warts, helps the sciatica and dullness of sight, and takes away pains and hardness of the spleen ’tis excellent forthose that are troubled with the gout it eases pains in the loins andhips the herb taken any way inwardly, comforts the stomach much, andexpels wind wild thyme, or mother of thyme wild thyme also is so well known, that it needs no description place it may be found commonly in commons, and other barren placesthroughout the nation government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus, andunder the sign aries, and therefore chiefly appropriated to the head it provokes urine and the terms, and eases the griping pain of thebelly, cramps, ruptures, and inflamation of the liver if you make avinegar of the herb, as vinegar of roses is made you may find outthe way in my translation of the london dispensatory and anoint thehead with it, it presently stops the pains thereof it is excellentlygood to be given either in phrenzy or lethargy, although they are twocontrary diseases. It helps spitting and voiding of blood, coughing, and vomiting. It comforts and strengthens the head, stomach, reins, andwomb, expels wind, and breaks the stone tormentil, or septfoil descript this hath reddish, slender, weak branches rising from theroot, lying on the ground, rather leaning than standing upright, withthesis short leaves that stand closer to the stalk than cinquefoil towhich this is very like with the root-stalk compassing the branchesin several places. But those that grow to the ground are set uponlong foot stalks, each whereof are like the leaves of cinquefoil, butessaywhat long and lesser dented about the edges, thesis of them dividedinto five leaves, but most of them into seven, whence it is also calledseptfoil. Yet essay may have six, and essay eight, according to thefertility of the soil at the tops of the branches stand divers smallyellow flowers, consisting of five leaves, like those of cinquefoil, but smaller the root is smaller than bistort, essaywhat thick, butblacker without, and not so red within, yet essaytimes a little crooked, having blackish fibres thereat place it grows as well in woods and shadowy places, as in the openchampain country, about the borders of fields in thesis places of thisland, and almost in every broom field in essex time it flowers all the summer long government and virtues this is a gallant herb of the sun tormentilis most excellent to stay all kind of fluxes of blood or humours in manor woman, whether at nose, mouth, or belly the juice of the herb androot, or the decoction thereof, taken with essay venice treacle, andthe person laid to sweat, expels any venom or poison, or the plague, fever, or other contagious diseases, as pox, measles, &c for it is aningredient in all antidotes or counter poisons andreas urlesius is ofopinion that the decoction of this root is no less effectual to curethe french pox than guiacum or china. And it is not unlikely, becauseit so mightily resists putrefaction the root taken inwardly is mosteffectual to help any flux of the belly, stomach, spleen, or blood.

“invaluable in all functional cardiac disorders such as tachycardia, palpitation, arrhythmia, and whenever the heart action needs regulating or support ”if these are merely functional disorders of the heart, it is highlydesirable to know what are the symptoms of really serious cardiacdisease!. since the manufacturers give us no information concerningthe mode of action of “cactina” we will turn to the literature ofdisinterested observers if one attempts to discover the origin of“cactina, ” he will probably meet with disappointment, for variousbibliographies fail to mention the name of sultan, who is said to haveisolated “cactina” from cactus grandiflorus it seems that sultanworked with cactus, or essay other plant, when a student of pharmacy, and it is to be remembered that cactina pillets are manufactured by thesultan drug company it is doubtful whether sultan actually worked with genuine cactusgrandiflorus. And, in fact, there is good reason for thinking thathe did not, for all subsequent workers who have taken pains to securegenuine cactus grandiflorus have failed to detect the presence of anyactive principle, except possible traces that are of no therapeuticimportance whatever what the council foundthe council on pharmacy and chemistry examined the literature relatingto cactus and certain proprietary preparations, including cactinapillets, alleged to be made from cactus, and has reported the resultsof its investigation j a m a 54:888 march 12 1910 and wewill quote from that report “the therapeutic value of this plant has been variously estimated by different observers experimental evidence as to its action is scanty and no complete chemical examination has ever been made “reputable men have testified that essay of the plants of the cactus family contain very active principles, but so far experiments seem to prove that cactus grandiflorus has neither the action of digitalis nor that of strychnin the principal contributions, clinical and experimental, for and against the drug are set out below ”illustration. Typical advertisements of “cactina pillets” from themedical record and new york medical journal, respectively the report then proceeds to analyze the work of o h myers, r a hatcher, boinet and boy-teissier, sayre, gordon sharp, s a matthews, p w williams, aulde and ellingwood, and comes to conclusions that areset forth as follows, in brief:1 it is uncertain what writing of the plant contains the activeprinciple, if any such principle exists 2 writing of the experimental and clinical work has been published underproprietary auspices 3 the value of clinical evidence when unsupported by animalexperimentation is much diminished by the tendency of enthusiastic anduntrained observers to attribute to the drug given the effect reallydue to general remedial measures, psychic suggestion and so forth in other words, the literature does not afford a report of a singlepiece of careful painstaking work the results of which lend support tothe claims made for cactina pillets as stated above, for it is obviousthat if cactus grandiflorus contains no active principle, no activeprinciple can be extracted from it essay time after the report ofthe council was published, hatcher and bailey secured genuine cactusgrandiflorus directly from a competent botanist, dr c a purpus, of vera cruz, mexico, and studied it experimentally they reported j a m a 56:26 jan 7 1911 in writing as follows. “we have been unable to obtain any evidence that the true mexican cactus grandiflorus possesses any pharmacologic action whatever. But, on the contrary, it appears to be a singularly inert substance when administered either by the mouth or by the vein ”when colossal doses of cactus grandiflorus are given by the vein, they essaytimes-- but not always-- appear to exert an extremely feebleaction on the heart. But this action is so slight that its naturecould not be determined even the most colossal doses of cactusgrandiflorus administered by the mouth to cats, dogs and frogs exertno perceptible effect sollmann thus satirizes the absurd claims made by the exploiters ofproprietary forms of cactus. “should the heart be too slow, cactusquickens it. If the heart is too fast, cactus slows it. Should theheart be too weak, cactus strengthens it. If the heart is too strong, cactus weakens it. Does the heart wobble, cactus steadies it. If theheart is normal, cactus does not meddle with it” j a m a 51:52july 4 1908 will physicians continue to accept the statements of an interestednostrum vender-- who submits not a shred of evidence to support hisclaims, but who has a financial interest in convincing them-- even whenhis statements are diametrically opposed to all the evidence that thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has been able to secure?. -- from thejournal a m a , jan 19, 1918 article v ammonol and phenalginat the time that synthetic chemical drugs were coming into fame andwhen every manufacturer who launched a new headache mixture claimedto have achieved another triumph in synthetic chemistry, ammonol andphenalgin were born of course, these twins of analgesic pseudotherapywere claimed to be synthetics and were duly christened with “formulas ”they were among the first of the nostrums examined for the council onpharmacy and chemistry, and the false claims made for them were exposed the analyses made for the council showed that ammonol and phenalginwere simple mixtures, having the following composition. Acetanilid sodium bicarbonate ammonium carbonate ammonol 50 25 20 phenalgin 57 20 10the reports of the council on, and numerous references to, these twonostrums may be found in the journal of various dates 245 the reportswill prove interesting to those who are not familiar with, or haveforgotten, the methods of nostrum exploiters at the time the councilwas formed following the council exposure of the false claims madeby the manufacturers of phenalgin, the medical record published anadvertisement of that nostrum in which an attempt was made to discreditthe council report the editor of the medical record was requestedby the council to publish the facts in the case but he refused to do so 245 j a m a 44.

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Blood in both air pollution essay pleural cavities heart empty. Bloody serum inpericardium brain congested. Slight hemorrhage on surface abdominalorgans normal dr harvey states that the boy was no doubt strangled bypressure of a lathi on his neck 12 ibid - in another subject two sticks were tightly tied together, one pressing on the front, the other on the back of the neck, flattening larynx and other soft writings in the following case essayhard substance, like a brick, had been wrapped in a cloth and usedfor compression boy, age 15 necroscopy. Large dark ecchymosis insubcutaneous tissue of front of neck and upper writing of chest alsomarks of violence on chest and left side of face dissection of neckshowed blood-clot and also laceration of muscles trachea folded onitself, showing that compression had lasted several minutes tongueprotruding and bitten eyes closed features calm trachea muchcongested lungs congested great veins of heart and neck full of fluidblood heart, dark fluid blood in both sides, mostly in right brainand membranes much congested 13 pemberton. Lancet, may 22d, 1869, p 707 - woman, age 60 found dead nose writingly displaced and cartilages injured lips pale mouth closed lividity of front of neck from jaw to sternum cricoidcartilage ossified cretified?. and broken on left side. Hemorrhage insurrounding tissues lungs and heart as usual in suffocation 14 cullingworth. Med chron , manchester, 1884-85, i , p 577 - woman, married, found dead bruise and ecchymosis beneath theear. Effusion of blood in underlying tissue other bruises on face, etc several bruises in mouth, on lips and tongue blood dark andfluid brain and membranes much congested no marks of injury onthroat lungs congested. Surfaces emphysematous heart contained darkfluid blood urine and fæces had been discharged 15 the gouffé case - murdered by eyraud and bompard in 1889 archivanthropologie criminelle, paris, 1890, v , pp 642-716. Vi , 1891, pp 17 and 179 reports by bernard, lacassagne, and others gouffé wasdecoyed into a room and strangled.