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Thishoney taken with a liquorice stick, is an excellent remedy for coughs, asthmas, and consumptions of the lungs fruits college winter-cherries, love apples, almonds sweet and bitter, anacardia, oranges, hazel nuts, the oily nut ben, barberries, capers, guinny pepper, figs, carpobalsamum, cloves, cassia fistula, chestnuts, cherries black and red, cicers, white, black and red, pome citrons, coculus indi, colocynthis, currants, cornels or cornelian cherries, cubebs, cucumbers garden and wild, gourds, cynosbatus, cypress, cones, quinces, dates, dwarf-elder, green figs, strawberries, common andturkey galls, acorns, acorn cups, pomegranates, gooseberries, ivy, herb true-love, walnuts, jujubes, juniper berries, bayberries, lemons, oranges, citrons, quinces, pomegranates, lemons, mandrakes, peaches, stramonium, apples, garden and wild, or crabs and apples, musk melons, medlars, mulberries, myrobalans, bellericks, chebs, emblicks, citronand indian, mirtle, berries, water nuts, hazel nuts, chestnuts, cypressnuts, walnuts, nutmegs, fistick nuts, vomiting nuts, olives pickled inbrine, heads of white and black poppies, pompions, peaches, french orkidney beans, pine, cones, white, black, and long pepper, fistick nuts, apples and crabs, prunes, french and damask, sloes, pears, englishcurrants, berries of purging thorn, black berries, raspberries, elderberries, sebastens, services, or checkers, hawthorn berries, pine nuts, water nuts, grapes, gooseberries, raisins, currants culpeper that you may reap benefit by these, be pleased toconsider, that they are essay of themtemperate in respect of heat raisins of the sun, currants, figs, pine nuts, dates, sebastens hot in the first degree sweet almonds, jujubes, cypress nuts, greenhazel nuts, green walnuts hot in the second degree the nut ben, capers, nutmegs, dry walnuts, dry hazel nuts, fistick nuts in the third degree juniper berries, cloves, carpobalsamum, cubebs, anacardium, bitter almonds in the fourth degree pepper, white, black and long, guinny pepper cold in the first degree the flesh of citrons, quinces, pears, prunes, &c in the second gourds, cucumbers, melons, pompions, oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, viz the juice of them, peaches, prunes, galls, apples in the third mandrakes in the fourth stramonium moist in the first degree the flesh of citrons, lemons, oranges, viz the inner rhind which is white, the outer rhind is hot in the second gourds, melons, peaches, prunes, &c dry in the first degree juniper berries in the second the nut ben, capers, pears, fistick nuts, pine nuts, quinces, nutmegs, bay berries in the third cloves, galls, &c in the fourth all sorts of pepper as appropriated to the body of man, so they heat the head. Asanacardia, cubebs, nutmegs the breast bitter almonds, dates, cubebs, hazel nuts, pine nuts, figs, raisins of the sun, jujubes the heart walnuts, nutmegs, juniper berries the stomach sweet almonds, cloves, ben, juniper berries, nutmegs, pine nuts, olives the spleen capers the reins and bladder bitter almonds, juniper berries, cubebs, pinenuts, raisins of the sun the womb walnuts, nutmegs, bayberries, juniper berries cool the breast sebastens, prunes, oranges, lemons the heart oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, quinces, pears the stomach quinces, citruls, cucumbers, gourds, musk melons, pompions, cherries, gooseberries, cornelian cherries, lemons, apples, medlars, oranges, pears, english currants, cervices or checkers the liver those that cool the stomach and barberries the reins and womb those that cool the stomach, and strawberries by their several operations, essaybind as the berries of mirtles, barberries, chestnuts, cornels, or cornelian cherries, quinces, galls, acorns, acorn-cups, medlars, checkers or cervices, pomegranates, nutmegs, olives, pears, peaches discuss capers, all the sorts of pepper extenuate sweet and bitter almonds, bayberries, juniper berries glutinate acorns, acorn cups, dates, raisins of the sun, currants expel wind bay berries, juniper berries, nutmegs, all the sorts ofpepper breed seed raisins of the sun, sweet almonds, pine nuts, figs, &c provoke urine winter cherries provoke the terms ivy berries, capers, &c stop the terms barberries, &c resist poison bay berries, juniper berries, walnuts, citrons, commonly called pome citrons, all the sorts of pepper ease pain bay berries, juniper berries, ivy berries, figs, walnuts, raisins, currants, all the sorts of pepper fruits purging choler cassia fistula, citron myrobalans, prunes, tamarinds, raisins melancholy indian myrobalans flegm colocynthis and wild cucumbers purge violently, and thereforenot rashly to be meddled withal. I desire my book should be beneficial, not hurtful to the vulgar, but myrobalans of all sorts, especiallychebs, bellericks and emblicks, purge flegm very gently, and withoutdanger of all these give me leave to commend only one to you as of specialconcernment which is juniper berries seeds college sorrel, agnus castus, marsh-mallows, bishop weed trueand common, amomus, dill, angellica, annis, rose-seed, smallage, columbines, sparagus, arach, oats, oranges, burdocks, bazil, barberries, cotton, bruscus or knee-holly, hemp, cardamoms greater andlesser, carduus benedictus, our lady thistles, bastard, saffron, caraway, spurge greater and lesser, coleworts, onions, the kernels ofcherry stones, chervil, succory, hemlock, citrons, citruls, gardenscurvy-grass, colocynthis, coriander, samphire, cucumbers gardenand wild, gourds, quinces, cummin, cynosbatus, date-stones, carrotsenglish, and cretish, dwarf-elder, endive, rocket, hedge mustard, orobus, beans, fennel, fenugreek, ash-tree keys, fumitory, brooms, grains of paradise, pomegranates, wild rue, alexanders, barley, whitehenbane, st john wort, hyssop, lettice, sharp-pointed-dock, spurge, laurel, lentils, lovage, lemons, ash-tree-keys, linseed, or flaxweed, gromwell, darnel, sweet trefoil, lupines, masterwort, marjoram, mallows, mandrakes, melons, medlars, mezereon, gromwell, sweet navew, nigella, the kernels of cherries, apricots, and peaches, bazil, orobus, rice, panick, poppies white and black, parsnips garden and wild, thorough wax, parsley, english and macedonian, burnet, pease, plantain, peony, leeks, purslain, fleawort, turnips, radishes, sumach, spurge, roses, rue, garden and wild, wormseed, saxifrage, succory, sesami, hartwort, common and cretish, mustard-seed, alexanders, nightshade, steves ager, sumach, treacle, mustard, sweet trefoil, wheat, both thefine flour and the bran, and that which starch is made of, vetches ortares, violets, nettles, common and roman, the stones of grapes, greekwheat, or spelt wheat culpeper that you may receive a little more benefit by these, thanthe bare reading of them, which doth at the most but tell you what theyare. The following method may instruct you what they are good for seeds are hot in the first degree linseed, fenugreek, coriander, rice, gromwell, lupines in the second dill, smallage, orobus, rocket, bazil, nettles in the third bishop weed, annis, amomus, carraway, fennel, andso i believe smallage too, let authors say what they will, for if theherb of smallage be essaywhat hotter than parsley. I know little reasonwhy the seed should not be so hot cardamoms, parsley, cummin, carrots, nigella, navew, hartwort, staves ager in the fourth water-cresses, mustard-seed cold in the first degree barley, &c in the second endive, lettice, purslain, succory, gourds, cucumbers, melons, citruls, pompions, sorrel, nightshade in the third henbane, hemlock, poppies white and black moist in the first degree mallows, &c dry in the first degree beans, fennel, fenugreek, barley, wheat, &c in the second orobus, lentils, rice, poppies, nightshade, and thelike in the third dill, smallages, bishop weed, annis, caraway, cummin, coriander, nigella, gromwell, parsley appropriated to the body of man, and so theyheat the head fennel, marjoram, peony, &c the breast nettles the heart bazil, rue, &c mustard seed, &c the stomach annis, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, cummin, cardamoms, cubebs, grains of paradise the liver annis, fennel, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, sparagus, cummin, caraway, carrots the spleen annis, caraway, water-cresses the reins and bladder cicers, rocket, saxifrage, nettles, gromwell the womb peony, rue the joints water-cresses, rue, mustard-seed cool the head lettice, purslain, white poppies the breast white poppies, violets the heart orange, lemon, citron and sorrel seeds lastly, the four greater and four lesser cold seeds, which you may findin the beginning of the compositions, as also the seed of white andblack poppies cool the liver and spleen, reins and bladder, womb andjoints according to operation essay seedsbind, as rose-seeds, barberries, shepherd purse, purslain, &c discuss dill, carrots, linseeds, fenugreek, nigella, &c cleanse beans, orobus, barley, lupines, nettles, &c mollify linseed, or flax seed, fenugreek seed, mallows, nigella harden purslain seed, &c suppure linseed, fenugreek seed, darnel, barley husked, commonlycalled french barley glutinate orobus, lupines, darnel, &c expel wind annis, dill, smallage, caraway, cummin, carrots, fennel, nigella, parsley, hartwort, wormseed breed seed rocket, beans, cicers, ash tree keys provoke the menses amomus, sparagus, annis, fennel, bishop weed, cicers, carrots, smallage, parsley, lovage, hartwort break the stone mallows, marsh-mallows, gromwell, &c stop the terms rose seeds, cummin, burdock, &c resist poison bishop weed, annis, smallage, cardamoms, oranges, lemons, citrons, fennel, &c ease pain dill, amomus, cardamoms, cummin, carrots, orobus, fenugreek, linseed, gromwell, parsley, panick assuage swellings linseed, fenugreek seeds, marsh-mallows, mallows, coriander, barley, lupines, darnel, &c * * * * *the college tells you a tale that there are such things in rerumnatura, as these, gums, rozins, balsams, and juices made thick, viz college juices of wormwood and maudlin, acacia, aloes, lees of oil, assafœtida, balsam of peru and india. Bdellium, benzoin, camphire, caranna, colophonia, juice of maudlin, euphorbium, lees of wine, leesof oil, gums of galbanum, amoniacum, anime, arabick, cherry trees, copal, elemy, juniper, ivy, plumb trees, cambuge, hypocystis, labdanum, lacca, liquid amber, manna, mastich, myrrh, olibanum, opium, opopanax, pice-bitumen, pitch of the cedar of greece, liquid and dry rozins offir-tree, larch-tree, pine tree, pine-fruit, mastich venice and cyprusturpentine sugar, white, red, and christaline, or sugar candy whiteand red, sagapen, juniper, gum, sanguis draconis, sarcocolla, scamony, styrax, liquid and calamitis, tacha, mahacca, tartar, frankincense, olibanum, tragaganth, birdlime culpeper that my country may receive more benefit than ever thecollege of physicians intended them from these, i shall treat of themseverally 1 of the juices 2 of the gums and rosins concrete juices, or juices made thick, are eithertemperate, as, juice of liquorice, white starch hot in the first degree sugar in the second labdanum in the third benzoin, assafœtida cold in the third degree sanguis draconis, acacia in the third hypocistis in the fourth opium, and yet essay authors think opium is hot becauseof its bitter taste aloes and manna purge choler gently. And scamony doth purge cholerviolently, that it is no ways fit for a vulgar man use, for itcorrodes the bowels opopoanax purges flegm very gently white starch gently levigates or makes smooth such writings as arerough, syrup of violets being made thick with it and so taken on thepoint of a knife, helps coughs, roughness of the throat, wheezing, excoriations of the bowels, the bloody-flux juice of liquorice helps roughness of the trachea arteria, whichis in plain english called the windpipe, the roughness of which causescoughs and hoarseness, difficulty of breathing, &c it allays the heatof the stomach and liver, eases pains, soreness and roughness of thereins and bladder, it quencheth thirst, and strengthens the stomachexceedingly. It may easily be carried about in one pocket, and eat alittle now and then sugar cleanses and digests, takes away roughness of the tongue, itstrengthens the reins and bladder, being weakened. Being beaten intofine powder and put into the eyes, it takes away films that grow overthe sight labdanum is in operation, thickening, heating and mollifying, itopens the passage of the veins, and keeps the hair from falling off;the use of it is usually external. Being mixed with wine, myrrh, andoil of mirtles, and applied like a plaister, it takes away filthyscars, and the deformity the small pox leaves behind them.

Kolmer, j a , and raiziss, g w. Am j m sc 150:25 july 1920 salvarsan. Abrogate the patentthe journal has already commented on the difficulty in securingsalvarsan, on the moral and ethical question as to whether or not it isjustifiable for one person to control the output of a drug necessary topublic health this week we publish an account of the action of the st louis and chicago medical societies, which are calling on the medicalprofession to appeal to their senators and congressmen to abrogate thispatent the journal believes that this patent should be abrogated, notalone because the patentees have not supplied the demand, not alonebecause they have dictated to the medical profession who should havethe drug and how much a physician might have, not alone because ofthe war with gerthesis, not alone because of the special needs of thegovernment at this time for the control of venereal diseases, not alonebecause, as essay claim, the patent at washington does not correctlydescribe the product, but also because the people who are supplyingthis product are charging prices that are exorbitant compared to theprice at which others in this country can supply it the fact is thatthe salvarsan one can obtain today costs $4 50 per ampule of 0 6 gram, whereas the same dose of arsenobenzol-- a preparation identical with, ifnot better than, salvarsan-- costs $2 00 at retail, and as dr schambergsays. “if we are permitted to continue marketing the same drug afterthe war, we can sell it at $1 00 or less per tube ” to abrogate thispatent would be doing an injury to no one certainly the patentees ofsalvarsan have already reaped their harvest-- and a pretty rich one thesupply of salvarsan at a reasonable price in proportion to its actualcost of production is in the interest of the health of the entirepopulation of the country, whereas to let matters rest as they are, is to the benefit of one man while we are emphasizing here the cost, there is after all a greater question, and that is the supply necessaryto help control the ravages of one of the most serious diseaseswhich afflict humanity today it is the duty of congress to abrogatethe patent on this preparation and, incidentally, on all medicinalpreparations of importance -- editorial from the journal a m a , april 21, 1917 end the monopolythe adamson bill, known as the “trading with the enemy act, ” hasrecently been passed by the house of representatives, is now beforethe senate, and will doubtless be enacted into a law one of itsclauses confers authority on the federal trade commission to grantlicenses to citizens of this country to operate patents owned by enemyaliens physicians are interested in the bill primarily because itincludes the salvarsan situation the manner in which salvarsan hasbeen supplied in this country has been so arbitrary and the pricescharged so tremendously above the actual cost, that we should not besatisfied unless the monopoly is ended so that the drug can be suppliedat least at a fairly moderate figure, and the old methods eliminated it is to be hoped, therefore, that the federal trade commission willnot grant exclusive control-- that is, exclusive license-- to any oneperson or firm to do so would simply perpetuate the old monopoly andthe old conditions england has adopted a law, which, in principle, is similar to the adamson bill, and there several concerns have beenlicensed to manufacture the product the same should be done here thedermatologic research laboratories of philadelphia announce that theycan supply arsenobenzol at $1 50 a tube, and that there is immediatelyavailable a supply sufficient for any demand that may be made the samelaboratories have announced also that in a few months they will be ableto supply hospitals for $1 00 a tube considerable responsibility restson the federal trade commission in this matter, for it is not only aquestion of monopoly, but also a question of scientific qualificationsand ability to make the product on the writing of essay who may makeapplication undoubtedly the commission will secure the cooperation ofthe united states public health service, under whose supervision thesedrugs should be manufactured no matter who shall be licensed to makethe product -- editorial from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 arsphenaminno, this is not a new chemical. It is simply the name adoptedby the federal trade commission for the hydrochlorid of3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-1-arsenobenzene-- in other words, salvarsan asour readers already have been informed three firms have been licensedto manufacture and sell arsphenamin. But, while each manufacturer mayhave his own trade name on the label, the official name must be theprominent one on all packages hence, physicians should at once make ita point to learn and use the name “arsphenamin” in place of salvarsan at first sight, arsphenamin looks formidable in reality, it is just aseasy to familiarize oneself with the word “arsphenamin” as it was tolearn to use the terms “salvarsan, ” “arsenobenzol” or any other of thetrade names -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 19, 1918 beer and cancer cures did the brewing interests advertise autolysin?. Our readers may remember that an article appeared in this dewritingment ofthe journal for july 6, 1918, under the title “henry smith williams and‘proteal therapy ’” “proteal therapy” is a treatment exploited by henrysmith williams, m d , of new york, for use in tuberculosis, cancer, rheumatism, etc it is apparently a modification of the “autolysin”cancer “cure” which williams had previously puffed in heartmagazine the journal article pointed out that henry smith williams, althoughentitled to write “m d ” after his name, is essentially a journalist he has written voluminously for essay years in lay publications onvarious subjects, both under his own name and under his nom de plume, “stoddard goodhue, m d ” in addition, williams runs a publishingconcern called the goodhue company, which issues a number of books, thesis of them being reprints of williams’ own articles closely associated with henry smith williams is his brother, edwardhuntington williams, who also is a prolific writer the journalprevious article called attention to the fact that there had been sentbroadcast to physicians a neat little cloth-bound book, entitled, “alcohol, hygiene and legislation ” this book, which evidently costessaybody a good deal of money to distribute gratis, was published bythe goodhue company, and was written by edward huntington williams enclosed with the book was an advertising leaflet on the “autolysin”cancer cure and also a letter from the goodhue company, askingphysicians to accept it “with our compliments and the compliments ofthe author ” the letter was chiefly devoted to calling attention tohenry smith williams’ “new book, the autolysin treatment of cancer ”the last thirteen pages of the book “alcohol, hygiene and legislation”contained advertisements of the goodhue company publications, writingicular emphasis being placed on the “autolysin treatment ofcancer, ” by henry smith williams so much by way of retrospect now comes information that may throwan interesting side-light on the matter just presented there is atpresent being conducted by a committee of the united states senate, an investigation relative to the purchase of a washington d c newspaper with money alleged to have been furnished by those interestedin the brewing industry at the opening hearing before the senate committee, tuesday, november19, the secretary of the united states brewers’ association, afteradmitting that brewers’ propaganda had been published in theinternational monthly, edited by viereck of the fatherland, alsodeclared that the publication committee of the brewers’ associationemployed writers to “write up certain subjects” relating to thebrewers’ trade one of the writers mentioned in this connection was, according to the newspaper reports, “dr edward h williams, author ofarticles published in medical and other journals ”with this fact before us, it seemed worth while to go through thebook that had been distributed so lavishly to physicians with thecompliments of the goodhue company and dr edward huntington williams, in the exploitation of “autolysin, ” and henry smith williams’ book onthe subject the first chapter of “alcohol, hygiene and legislation” consists ofa reprint of an article from the new york medical journal of may8, 1915 the article is a skilful presentation of the case for thedefenders of the lighter alcoholic beverages, especially beer thischapter and all succeeding chapters of the book attempt to discreditprohibitory legislation, and argue that prohibition drives the publicto the use of the more ardent alcoholic beverages, while preventing theuse of the milder beverages, such as beer, which one is led to inferis not writingicularly harmful throughout the book, also, the state ofkansas is held up as an example of the harm done by prohibition, andthe theme is developed that insanity and the use of cocain and otherhabit-forming drugs follows in the wake of prohibition the followingextracts are from chapter i. The evil effects of beer and wine, for example, are greatly less than those produced by spirituous liquors italics ours -- ed if our theory of immunity is correct we should expect to find that the older beverages, such as beer and wine, which have been used for thousands of years, are less productive of alcoholic insanity, for example, than the spirituous liquors which are recent innovations in point of fact we find this to be the case. The spirituous liquors are almost wholly responsible for all forms of alcoholic insanity italics ours -- ed chapter ii is a reprint of an article that appeared in everybodymagazine, august 1914, and deals with “legislation from a medicalviewpoint ” it is to the effect that drug addiction and insanity, together with special forms of mental disease directly attributable toalcoholism, seem to flourish best in prohibition territory chapter iii deals with “the peace and war footing of alcohol, ” andis a reprint from the medical record, aug 7, 1915 it, too, singsthe praises of the “lighter beverages, ” while deprecating the use of“ardent spirits ” for instance.

After which come long andslender flat pods, essay crooked, essay straight, with a string runningdown the back thereof, wherein is flattish round fruit made like akidney. The root long, spreads with thesis strings annexed to it, andperishes every year there is another sort of french beans commonly growing with us in thisland, which is called the scarlet flower bean this rises with sundry branches as the other, but runs higher, tothe length of hop-poles, about which they grow twining, but turningcontrary to the sun, having foot-stalks with three leaves on each, as on the others. The flowers also are like the other, and of a mostorient scarlet colour the beans are larger than the ordinary kind, ofa dead purple colour turning black when ripe and dry.

The profits to be made from the sale of a proprietary medicine on which the manufacturer holds a monopoly are usually large-- essaytimes enormous there are, broadly, two kinds of proprietary preparations advertised to physicians. One represents laborious research ending in the production of a new medicinal chemical. This product can be patented and the manufacturer can obtain a seventeen-year monopoly on its manufacture and sale the other represents no research but comprises simple mixtures-- frequently of the “shotgun” variety-- of well known pharmaceuticals, or biologic products sold under trade names as these do not represent anything new or original the manufacturer is unable to obtain a patent, but by means of the trade name he can and does obtain a perpetual monopoly this, from a business standpoint, is more valuable than the limited monopoly granted by a patent it is not surprising that proprietary remedies of the latter type flourish so long as physicians unthinkingly accept and prescribe them solely on the manufacturer valuation “the council has practically the undivided support of manufacturers of medicinal chemicals. That is, of proprietaries of the first mentioned type but pharmaceutical firms which have found it profitable to promote proprietaries of the second type-- “specialties, ” unscientific or ordinary mixtures of pharmaceuticals or biologic products sold under trade names-- have not supported the council “when the council was organized, it was hoped and believed that all the large pharmaceutical houses would find it possible and desirable, if not actually more profitable, to shape their business methods so as to make their proprietary and other articles conform to those conservative standards on which the council bases its rules, and thus render such articles acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies it soon developed, however, that the methods of the pseudochemical companies, whose sales propaganda in the interest of unscientific nostrums with its attending damage to scientific medicine had led to the establishment of the council, had found their lodgment in most of the pharmaceutical houses it was a genuine disappointment to the council to find that essay of the large and old-established firms were not only unwilling to cooperate with the council, but in thesis instances exhibited a definite antagonism to the council work “the object-- and duty-- of the officers of pharmaceutical houses is primarily to pay dividends to their stockholders through skilful advertising or the persuasiveness of “detail men, ” they are able to induce physicians to prescribe their controlled products, on which there are large profits, even though such products have not only not been accepted by the council, but in thesis instances, have been disapproved is it any wonder that concerns which put out such products are indifferent or openly antagonistic to the work of the council?. the matter is largely one of business policy when the medical profession as a unit will support the council in its work, then such firms will find it good business policy to accede to dr bevan suggestion-- but not before ”evidently the problem resolves itself into this. The council, constituted of scientific men, working without remuneration inthe interest of scientific medicine and the medical profession, expects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active, sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course j a m a 74:1235 may 11920 the following is the recommendation of the reference committee towhich the report of the board of trustees was referred.

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Nh₂-- benzene ringcoo-ch₂-ch₂-- n c₂h₅₂ hclit is prepared according to u s patent no 812554 issued to alfredeinhorn, munich, gerthesis by treating para-nitro-benzoylchlorid withethylene chlorhydrin and diethylamin with subsequent reduction of thenitro groups, the resulting product being purified by recrystallization procain is employed largely in infiltration anesthesia it is lesstoxic than cocain, but its anesthetic action is not sustained thisdrawback is overcome by the simultaneous injection of epinephrin, andfor this reason procain is often compounded with epinephrin in tablets, thus obviating the necessity of separate solutions when the first specimens of the american-made product were submittedthrough the channels of the federal trade commission, it was admission essay editing service necessaryto compile a monograph 240 this was prepared from descriptions inthe available literature, mostly from tests described in new andnonofficial remedies, 1918, and the german pharmacopeia v 240 the monograph appears in new and nonofficial remedies, 1919 the submitted products were found satisfactory chemically the toxicitydeterminations made by dr r a hatcher, with the assistance ofdr carey eggleston241 indicated that none of the specimens areto be considered dangerous when used in ordinary dosage for normalindividuals therefore the federal trade commission, on recommendationof the committee on synthetic drugs of the national research council aided by the a m a chemical laboratory, issued licenses for themanufacture of procain to the farbwerke-hoechst company which licensewas later transferred to the h a metz laboratories, to the abbottlaboratories, to the calco chemical company and to the rector chemicalcompany 241 the report of these and subsequent toxicity experiments onprocain appeared in the report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, j a m a 72. 136 jan 11 1919 subsequently the products of the licensed firms were submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, which in turn invoked the aid of thea m a chemical laboratory and the cornell university pharmacologiclaboratory later the council asked the laboratory to examine themarket supply altogether, therefore, a number of products wereexamined which were found to respond satisfactorily to the testsoutlined table 6 table 6 date melting ash, brand received color point, c * % procain abbott, 12/21/17 white 154-155 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain abbott, 1/29/18 white 153 5-154 5 none submitted to coun- cil p and c procain abbott, 8/31/18 white 152 5-153 5 none gen pur off u s army procain abbott, 9/30/18 slight 153-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89999 procain abbott, 9/30/18 slight 153-154 0 005 gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89998 procain abbott, 10/8/18 slight 153-154 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89997 procain abbott, 11/4/18 slight 153 5-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89996 procain abbott, 11/4/18 slight 153 5-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 810995 procain calco, 2/7/18 white 153 5-154 5 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain farbwerke- 10/24/18 white 153-154 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council procain farbwerke- 12/10/17 white 153-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council procain farbwerke- 8/9/18 white 153 5-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council, market spec “a 56” procain farbwerke- 9/9/18 white 153 5-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council, market spec “a 57” procain h a metz 8/23/18 white 153-154 none lab , market spec “a 63” procain h a metz 9/23/18 white 153-154 none lab , market spec “a 57” procain rector, 12/18/17 white 153-154 5 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain rector, 5/2/18 white 152 5-153 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain rector, 8/20/18 slight 153-155 none market spec brownish tint procain rector, 8/23/18 slight 153-155 none market spec brownish tint procain rector, 8/23/18 slight 153-154 5 none market spec brownish tint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - * u s patent 812, 554-- the novocain patent-- declares that the salt melts at 156 c evidently based on this, both the german pharmacopeia and past editions of new and nonofficial remedies give this melting point two specimens of german-made novocain obtained from our files, stated to be manufactured by farbwerke-hoechst vorm meister, lucius and bruening, hoechst a m , were found to melt, respectively, between 154 and 155 c and between 153 5 and 154 5 c when the melting point was determined according to the direction of the u s pharmacopeia, ninth revision the various specimens examined at that time melted between 153 and 155 c , and it was decided to permit this range an examination of essay american-made procain-suprarenin tablets wasalso made the procain was determined by liberation of the alkaloidwith ammonia water, extraction with chloroform, evaporation of thechloroform, dissolving the alkaloid in one hundredth normal sulphuricacid solution and titrating excess acid with one hundredth normalsodium hydroxid solution the epinephrin was determined according tothe method employed by seidell, 242 with slight modifications thetablets contained the claimed amounts of ingredients 242 seidell. J biol chem 14. 19, 1913 the synthetic drug situationbefore the war, the american physician was literally bombarded with newand wonderful ?. coal-tar synthetics, most of which were originatedin gerthesis in fact, it seemed that if a by-product in the manufactureof dyes could not be used for a dye per se, then a place might befound for it in the ever increasing lists of medicaments by cleveradvertising and propaganda among physicians, an artificial stimulationfor coal-tar drugs was created which evidently yielded lucrativefinancial returns as a result of the war, it is interesting to observethat of all the synthetic drugs imported into this country from gerthesisand on which the american patents were controlled by the germans upto the time of our entrance into the war, the demand was reallysufficient enough to warrant the commercial manufacture of only fourof them by american firms of course, a larger number of nonpatenteddrugs, also imported from gerthesis, are now being made in sufficientquantities in this country. Thesis of the drugs in this class were neverpatented or are the ones which have survived after the patent hadexpired, such as acetanilid, acetphenetidin, and acetylsalicylic acid in view of the agitation to found an institute for cooperative researchas an aid to the american drug industry under the auspices of theamerican chemical society, it will be well for the medical professionto be on its guard against too enthusiastic propaganda on the writing ofthose engaged in the laudable enterprise of promoting american chemicalindustry unless it is, it may be inflicted in the future, as in thepast, with a large number of drugs that are either useless, harmful orunessential modifications of well-known pharmaceuticals it will bewell also for the chemists-- those engaged in this enterprise-- to besure that the product is of therapeutic value before asking its use asa medicine the american medical profession has learned that relativelyfew of the thesis german synthetics were really valuable or decidedimprovements over established drugs if american chemists desireto retain their prestige with the medical profession, they shouldearnestly endeavor to see that the advantages derived from the war andfrom such an institute as proposed are not abused in the worthy desireto popularize chemistry both educationally and commercially theyshould realize that physicians are in no receptive mood for a flood ofsynthetics, even though “american-made ”on the other hand, the constructive possibilities of chemistry in theservice of medicine should serve as a stimulus for american research notwithstanding all the pharmaceutical shrubbery which gerthesis sentto us, still it did contain essay synthetics that were worth while as therapeutics has been benefited by these organic chemicals, it islogical to reason by analogy that there remain other synthetics to bediscovered which will occupy places of equal distinction in the modernmateria medica for example, vaccines are of undoubted merit in thefield of immunology, but their action is, in the end, chemical. As soonas chemical technic is refined by medicochemical research, it is quitepossible that a definite chemical agent synthetic will supersedethe indefinite bacterial vaccine obviously the american chemist hasthe opportunity of showing his resourcefulness in aiding the publichealth of america and the world in this connection, a cooperativeinstitute devoted to purely scientific drug research, and governedin such a manner as to inspire confidence in its humanitarianismand unbiased judgment, should serve a most commendable purpose the hopes of american men of science are for a monumental researchinstitution-- cooperative with all the allied professions-- and, as thechicago chemical bulletin stated, “stripped of all professionalor commercial pettishness and not dominated by any one group ofscientists ”243243 proposed institute for drug research, editorial chicago chem bull , april, 1919, p 67 conclusionsas for the results of the work so far, they can be summed up in twosentences 1 american chemists are producing synthetic drugs formerly controlledby gerthesis, and thus have declared their independence of germanchemicals 2 judging from the evidence at hand, we can feel assured that thequality of american synthetics will be second to none -- from thejournal a m a , sept 6, 1919 writing iii contributions from the journal. Proprietary products nostrums in retrospect a series of nine articles reviewing worthless or unscientific proprietary mixtures previously criticized s q lapius, m d foreword -- it is more than twelve years since the council on pharmacyand chemistry of the american medical association was created sincethen there have been but few issues of the journal that have not calledthe attention of the medical profession to the debasing influenceon scientific medicine of unscientific or worthless proprietarymixtures advertised to physicians for their use in prescribing thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has investigated and shown thesis ofthese preparations to be fraudulent in one way or another, and thesereports have been published in the journal in spite of this, thesepreparations have been advertised continuously to physicians, throughmedical journals and otherwise, and prescribed by a large number ofphysicians one reason for this is that there are thesis physicians whohave never seen these reports-- who were not in active practice at thetime, or who were not reading the journal we probably have among ourreaders at the present time 35, 000 or 40, 000 physicians who were notamong the readers of the journal twelve years ago it is desirable, then, that we should take up, in more or less detail, several of themore widely advertised products that have been the subjects of previousreports it has been repeatedly stated in the journal that thesis of theproprietary mixtures-- the so-called ethical proprietaries advertisedto physicians-- were no better and no worse than “patent medicines”advertised to the public every physician who has the welfare of medicine at heart should putthese questions squarely to himself if he has not already taken a firmstand on this whole problem. What is my attitude toward the work ofthe council?. are its reports worthy of acceptance?. am i upholding thecouncil in its efforts to place therapeutics on a rational basis, notby blind faith alone, but by an honestly critical attitude toward it?.