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If nota married woman, on nearest of kin who is an adult possessed ofsufficient means if deceased has no relatives, on coroner holdinginquest or overseers, etc , of poor pen code, sec 493 refusal of one on whom duty of burial is imposed by law, is punishable pen code, sec 494 arrest or attachment of a dead body is a misdemeanor pen code, sec 496 et seq coroner to hold inquest and direct autopsy pen code, sec 2, 309 etseq person whose duty it is to bury is entitled to custody except wherecoroner holds it until inquest is completed pen code, sec 495 arkansas bodies of persons dying in alms-house, prison, house of correction, orjail shall be surrendered to a physician for dissection, etc , unlessthe deceased request to be buried or the body is claimed by relatives, or unless deceased died suddenly and unknown. And after such use fordissection it shall be decently buried r s , sec 2, 552 removal of dead body for the purpose of dissection, or stealing, orfrom wantonness, or receiving same knowing it to have been unlawfullydisinterred, is a misdemeanor r s , secs 1, 902, 1, 903 dead body can be transported out of county in which death occurred onpermit of state board of health r s , sec 480 coroner to hold inquest and direct autopsy, etc r s , sec 692 and may order a body to be disinterred for inquisition r s , sec 718 california removal, mutilation, or disinterment of dead body without authority oflaw is a felony pen code, sec 290 removal of writing of body for sale, dissection maliciously or wantonly ispunishable pen code, sec 291 duty of burial - of married woman, on husband. Not a married woman, nearest of kin who is an adult with sufficient means. Where norelatives, on coroner who held the inquest or overseers, etc , of poor pen code, sec 292 refusal to bury by person on whom duty rests by law to bury, is amisdemeanor and he is liable for treble the expenses pen code, sec 293 custody of body is on him on whom duty to bury is imposed by law, except where coroner detains remains for inquest pen code, sec 294 arrest or attachment of dead body for any debt or demand is amisdemeanor pen code, sec 295 one who disinters or exhumes a body without permit of board of health, health officer, or mayor, or transports such exhumed remains throughstreets of town, city, etc , except in a sealed coffin, guilty of amisdemeanor laws, 1878, ch 673 a sheriff, coroner, or keeper of county poor-house, public hospital, county jail, or state prison, etc , must surrender bodies of those whoare to be buried at public expense, to any physician or surgeon fordissection, etc , unless deceased during his last sickness requestedto be buried or body is claimed by relatives, etc , or deceased was astranger or traveller, died suddenly pen code, sec 3, 094 coroner to bury body when no other person takes charge of same pen code, sec 4, 286 coroner to hold inquest, direct autopsy, and may exhume pen code, see 1, 510 colorado concealment of death of issue which, if born alive, would be a bastard, is punishable mill stat , sec 1, 195 body of criminal executed for capital offence shall be delivered toa physician or surgeon unless claimed by relative or friend millstat , sec 1, 204 board of health, mayor, etc , or officer, etc , having control of anyalms-house, prison, hospital, jail, etc , shall surrender bodies to beburied at public expense to any physician or surgeon for dissection, etc , unless deceased during last illness requested to be buried, orbody is claimed by relatives or friends, or deceased was a stranger ortraveller who died unknown mill stat , secs 1, 547, 1, 548 non-resident poor person to be decently buried mill stat , sec 3, 391 coroner to hold inquest, etc , or, if none, bury it decently at expenseof county mill stat , secs 870-882 removal of body unlawfully for sale, dissection, etc , punishable mill stat , sec 1, 367 board of health may direct removal of dead bodies from cemetery withina city laws, 1893, ch 113, sec 54 connecticut no body shall be buried or disinterred or removed beyond limits ofany town unless a permit is obtained, and where deceased died of aninfectious disease body shall be in a hermetically sealed case gen stat , secs 106, 108, 113 custody of remains is in husband or wife or next of kin gen stat , sec 536 coroner to hold inquest, etc gen stat , secs 2, 005, 2, 008 anddeliver body to friends or, if none, to town authorities for burial gen stat , sec 2, 015 mayor, etc , may deliver bodies of those not buried within twenty-fourhours after death to medical college for dissection, etc , unlessrelatives or friends do not consent, or deceased requested to beburied, or was a stranger or traveller gen stat , sec 1, 729 bodies of convicts dying in state prison and not having any knownrelatives, shall be delivered to medical institution of yale college gen stat , sec 1, 732 body of one dying in a hospital shall not be examined unless father, etc , consent, or if none, within forty-eight hours after death gen stat , sec 1, 735 removal of body from grave unlawfully, or receiving, secreting, ordissecting same, is punishable gen stat , 1880 body of executed criminal shall be buried by sheriff gen stat , sec 1, 640 delaware coroner to hold inquest, etc , or may cause body to be disinterred r l , ch 33 removal of body from grave unlawfully, a misdemeanor laws, 1883, ch 204 florida buying, selling, or having possession for purpose of buying or selling, a dead body is punishable r l , sec 2, 625 concealing birth of issue which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable r l , sec 2, 393 coroner to hold inquest, etc r l , secs 3, 011, 3, 019 georgia coroner to hold inquest or to disinter same for inquisition code, secs 590, 591, 410 et seq public officers and their assistants, and their deputies of everycounty, city, town, or other municipality, or of every prison, chaingang, penitentiary, county morgue, public hospital, having controlof dead body to be buried at public expense not dying of infectiousdisease shall deliver same to medical college for dissection, etc , unless claimed by friends or relatives or such friends or relativesrequest same to be buried, or unless deceased was a stranger ortraveller laws, 1887, vol 2, p 77 removal of body from grave, etc , unlawfully for dissection or sale isfelony, or receiving or purchasing it knowing it to have been so taken, or trafficking in dead bodies, or having them conveyed without thestate for sale, etc , is a felony laws, 1882, vol 2, p 87 idaho coroner to hold inquest, etc , and may exhume it for that purpose r l , sec 8, 377 coroner to bury body decently when not claimed by relatives, etc , andif necessary, at expense of county r l , sec 2, 081 illinois removal of body unlawfully or aiding in such removal is punishable as afelony one to ten years s & c am stat , vol 1, p 794 coroner to hold inquest, etc s & c am stat , vol 1, p 606 and to deliver body to friends or bury decently if no friends claim it, if necessary at county expense s & c am stat , vol 1, p 606 body of executed criminals may be delivered to any physician or surgeonfor dissection unless friends object s & c am stat , vol 1, p 869. Crim code, sec 503 in cities and counties where population exceeds one hundred thousand, superintendents of penitentiaries, wardens of poor-houses, coroner, city undertaker, having body required to be buried at public expense, may deliver remains to medical college or any physician or surgeon fordissection, unless claimed by relatives s & c am stat , vol 3, p 867 indiana removal of dead body or writing of same unlawfully is a felony r l , sec 2, 165 concealment of body or writing thereof, which has been unlawfully used fordissection, is a felony r l , sec 2, 167 receiving or buying a body knowing it to have been unlawfullydisinterred is a felony r l , sec 2, 168 dead body of one dying in a state, city, or county prison or jail, or county asylum or infirmary or public hospital, or dead body of anexecuted criminal, or dead body of a vagrant, or one killed whilecommitting a felony or escaping from prison or officers, may bedelivered to the faculty of a medical college in state for dissection, etc , unless deceased requested to be buried or body is claimed by nextof kin r l , sec 4, 258 et seq dissecting or possessing body for dissection except as prescribed bylaw is a felony r l , sec 4, 271 coroner to hold inquest, etc r l, secs , 5, 878, 5, 879 iowa coroner to hold inquest, etc mccl am code, sec 487 to bury body decently at expense of county, if necessary, or deliver itto relatives mccl am code, sec 501 removal, etc , of dead body unlawfully, or aiding such removal orknowingly receiving body so removed, etc , is punishable mccl am code, sec 5, 328 coroner, undertaker, superintendent of public asylum, hospital, poor-house, or penitentiary, may deliver body to medical college orphysician for dissection, etc , unless relatives, etc , refuse ordeceased desired to be buried mccl am code, sec 5, 329 bodies of those executed, or dying in hospitals or prisons undersentence for crime, shall be delivered to medical college orassociation or any physician or surgeon for dissection, etc , unlessrelatives or friends do not consent, or body shall have been interred, or is not claimed by relatives, or deceased expressed a wish to beburied, and after such use the remains shall be interred gen stat , sec 3, 758 state board of health shall issue permits for transportation of bodiesbeyond county where death occurred gen stat , sec 6, 030 kansas coroner to hold inquest, etc gen stat , secs 1, 780, 1, 794 to bury body if not claimed by friends, etc , and at public expense, ifnecessary gen stat , sec 1, 792 removal of a body unlawfully for dissection or wantonly, or receivingbody knowing it to have been so removed, is a misdemeanor gen stat , sec 2, 372 et seq kentucky coroner to hold inquest, etc gen stat , ch 25, secs 3, 11 to bury the body or deliver to friends gen stat , ch 25, sec 6 body of one dying on a steamboat, or other craft, if not claimed byfriends, shall be buried by master or officer in command on shore, atleast four feet deep gen stat , ch 29, art 17, sec 15 removal of body unlawfully from grave is punishable gen stat , ch 29, art 17, sec 16 louisiana coroner shall hold inquest, etc , and bury body when not claimed byfriends voorh rev l , secs 653, 660 maine coroner to hold inquest, etc r l , ch 139, sec 1 to bury the body at state or town expense r l , ch 139, sec 11 seizure of body on execution, punishable r l , ch 124, sec 26 removal, etc , of body unlawfully, or receiving it knowingly, orexposing, etc , body, is punishable r l , ch 124, sec 27 bodies may be buried and the expense recovered from the town r l , ch 24, sec 34 if any resident request or consent that his body be delivered to aphysician or surgeon for dissection, it may be so delivered, unlesskindred or family connection objects r l , ch 13, sec 1 body of criminal dying in state prison or jail, or who was executed, may be delivered to medical college or physician, etc , for dissection, unless deceased or kindred request to be buried r l , ch 13, sec 2 body of person dying in the state, which is not claimed by relatives, notice having been given, shall be delivered to medical school unlessten voters of the town object to such disposition in writing laws, 1893, ch 254 maryland coroner to hold inquest, etc md code, art 22, secs 3, 4 shall bury the body when necessary at public expense md code, art 22, sec 7 removal, etc , from graveyard, etc except potter field, of a bodyis a misdemeanor md code, art 27, secs 133, 134 massachusetts medical examiners shall hold inquest, etc pub stat , ch 26, secs 10, 11 and shall deliver it to relatives or friends, or if no one claims it, to overseer of poor etc , for burial laws, 1887, ch 310 body shall not be buried in city or town or removed therefrom without apermit laws, 1888, ch 306 body of one dying of infectious disease shall not be transportedwithout permit, and only in a sealed case laws, 1883, ch 124, sec 2 body shall not be cremated without permit and inquest by medicalexaminer, or within forty-eight hours after death, unless death wasoccasioned by contagious disease laws, 1885, ch 265, sec 4 overseers of poor, mayor and alderman of city, or superintendent ofstate alms-house, may deliver body of person required to be buried atpublic expense, to any physician or surgeon or medical college unlessdeceased requested to be buried, or relative request burial or claimit, or deceased was a stranger or traveller laws, 1891, ch 185 body of criminal executed shall be delivered for dissection to amedical college if requested. If not, to friends or relatives, or, ifnone, to any physician or surgeon pub stat , ch 202, sec 8 removal of body unlawfully from grave is punishable, or buying, selling, or possessing for such purpose, is punishable pub stat , ch 207, secs 47, 48 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable pub stat , ch 207, sec 11 seizing dead body on execution is punishable pub stat , ch 207, sec 46 body of a prisoner shall be buried by sheriff at town expense if notclaimed by relatives or friends pub stat , ch 220, sec 31 michigan justice of the peace to hold inquest, etc how am stat , vol 2, sec 9, 583 et seq and shall bury the body at the state or town expense how am stat , vol 3, sec 9, 593 woman concealing death of issue which, if born alive, would be abastard, is punishable how am stat , vol 3, sec 9, 284 board of health, officers, sheriff, etc , of any prison, etc , poor-house, alms-house, having body required to be buried at publicexpense, shall, if not claimed by relatives, or if it have died of anyinfectious disease, deliver it to university of michigan, etc , fordissection, etc how am stat , vol 3, sec 2, 284 body shall not be shipped out of state nor used in state for anypurpose but anatomical study how am stat , vol 3, sec 2, 286 removal of body unlawfully is punishable how stat , vol 2, sec 9, 297 minnesota gen stat , secs 6, 220, 6, 230, same as n y p c , secs 305-315 concealing birth of child which died before or after birth is amisdemeanor gen stat , sec 6, 210 coroner to hold inquest, etc gen stat , sec 1, 011 et seq and cause body to be buried at expense of county gen stat , sec 1, 021 section 6, 216, same as 303, n y p c body must be buried within four days, and if death was from contagiousdisease, within twenty-four hours and in a tightly sealed coffin whichmust not be reopened gen stat , sec 607 wardens, superintendents of poor, and other persons having control ofbodies shall deliver same to medical college committee, for dissection, unless claimed by relatives or friends, or relatives or friends donot consent, or one detained as a witness or on suspicion of havingcommitted a crime, or deceased requested to be buried gen stat , sec 678 mississippi body of paupers and strangers to be buried am code, secs 3, 145, 3, 146 coroner to hold inquest, etc am code, sec 816 removal of body unlawfully and wantonly, for sale or receiving same, ispunishable am code, secs 1, 023, 1, 024 missouri coroner to hold inquest, etc r l , sec 2, 438 et seq and shall bury the body, if not claimed by friends, at public expense r l , sec 2, 456 and may direct a chemical analysis and microscopical examination ofbody r l , sec 2, 469 superintendents or wardens of penitentiary, houses of correction, insane asylums, poor-houses, and coroners, sheriffs, city and countyundertakers, having charge of a body required to be buried at publicexpense, shall deliver the same to medical college for dissectionunless claimed by relatives or friends, and trafficking in such bodiesis a misdemeanor r l , sec 6, 883 et seq concealing birth of child, so that it may not be known whether it wasborn alive or dead, is a felony r l , sec 3, 479 removal of dead body from grave without authority except that ofcriminal executed for crime, for purpose of sale, etc , or receivingsuch body knowingly, is a felony r l , secs 3, 842, 3, 845 montana concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable crim laws, sec 41 coroner to hold inquest, etc gen laws, secs 869, 883 and bury body at public expense if not claimed by relatives, etc gen laws, sec 881 removal, etc , of dead body from grave without authority, and for thepurpose of sale or dissection, or from wantonness, is a felony laws, 1889, p 114 nebraska coroner to hold inquest, etc consol stat , sec 3, 130 et seq to bury body if not claimed by friends consol stat , sec 3, 144 removal of body from grave without authority for sale, dissection, etc , is punishable consol stat , sec 5, 847 fœticide is punishable consol stat , sec 5, 582 bodies of paupers or criminals unclaimed by friends or relatives maybe delivered to medical college or physician for dissection, etc , andsuch body shall not be transported out of state consol stat , secs 3, 299, 3, 301, 5, 848 nevada justice of peace to hold inquest, etc gen stat , sec 2, 256 etseq and cause the body to be buried at public expense gen stat , sec 2, 269 body shall not be buried without certificate of physician or coroner gen stat , sec 4, 872 et seq body shall not be transported out of state without a permit gen stat , secs 4, 870, 4, 871 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable gen stat , sec 4, 597 non-resident, et al , to be buried at public expense gen stat , sec 1, 986 new hampshire coroner to hold inquest, etc pub stat , ch 262, sec 1 et seq and bury body if a stranger, at public expense pub stat , ch 262, sec 16 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable pub stat , ch 278, sec 14 body of person dying in a county, city, or town, or state prison orjail, required to be buried at public expense, shall be delivered toany physician or medical college for dissection, etc , unless deceasedrequested to be buried, or friends claimed it or request burial, ordeceased was a stranger or traveller who died suddenly pub stat , ch 136 body not to be buried without permit or disinterred pub stat , ch 173, sec 6 removal of dead body without authority, or concealing it, knowing it tohave been so dug up, is punishable pub stat , ch 266, sec 7 new jersey coroner to hold inquest, etc rev stat , p 170 et seq and bury body if not claimed by friends rev stat , p 170, sec 5 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, isa misdemeanor rev stat , p 241, sec 83 body of executed criminal may be delivered to physician, etc , fordissection unless claimed by relatives rev stat , p 239, sec 69 removal of a body without authority for sale, dissection, etc , is ahigh misdemeanor rev stat , p 249, sec 122 exposing body of an executed murderer is a misdemeanor supp rev stat , p 194, sec 19 body must not be buried without a permit. Nor body brought into thestate without permit. Nor taken out of state without permit laws, 1888, ch 39, secs 5-8 new mexico justice of the peace to hold inquest, etc comp laws, sec 443 etseq and bury the body comp laws, sec 447 body of one dying of a contagious disease shall not be carried in anopen coffin, or be exposed laws, 1889, ch 79, sec 8 body shall not be buried within fifty yards of running stream laws, 1891, ch 93 new york duty of burial, etc pen code, sec 305 et seq attempt at sexual intercourse with dead body is a crime against nature pen code, sec 303 transfer of body of one who died of a contagious or infectious diseaseshall be in hermetically sealed casket laws, 1893, ch 661, sec 23 bodies of those dying in, or in custody of managers, etc , of anyprison, asylum, morgue, hospital, or in possession of undertakers, shall be delivered to medical college of this state, etc , for purposeof medical study, unless claimed by relatives or friends, or friends orrelatives do not assent to such disposal, or deceased requested duringlast illness to be buried laws, 1893, ch 661, sec 207 in certain paper bodies of convicts, unless claimed, shall be deliveredto certain medical colleges r s , pt 4, ch 3, secs 132, 133 district attorney may cause body to be exhumed, examined, etc pen code, sec 308 north carolina coroner to hold inquest, etc code, sec 657 concealing birth of child, by burying dead body, is a misdemeanor opening grave without authority for purpose of taking body is a felony laws, 1885, ch 90 coroner may order a chemical analysis of remains laws, 1887, ch 269 dead body of convict, unclaimed by friends, shall be delivered tomedical college except such dying of contagious disease laws, 1891, ch 129 body of one dying of contagious disease must not be transported bycommon carrier until disinfected, nor shall permit for removal beissued until such disinfection laws, 1893, ch 214, sec 16 north dakota coroner to hold inquest, etc comp laws, sec 664 et seq and bury the body if not claimed by friends, etc comp laws, sec 676 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, orof child dying within two years after birth, is punishable comp laws, sec 6, 947 comp laws sec 6, 549 same as 305 n y p c ” 6, 550 ” 306 ” ” 6, 551 ” 307 ” ” 6, 552 ” 308 1-3 ” ” 6, 553 ” 309 ” ” 6, 554 ” 310 ” ” 6, 559 ” 311 ” ” 6, 560 ” 312 ” ” 6, 563 ” 314 ”duty of burial of married woman, on husband if not married woman, onnearest of kin who is an adult or has means sufficient comp laws, sec 6, 556 refusal to bury by one on whom duty is imposed by law, a misdemeanor comp laws, sec 6, 557 custody of body pertains to one whose duty it is to bury comp laws, sec 6, 558 when cemetery is by law changed to other place, duty is on relative tomove body comp laws, sec 6, 562 body of executed criminal, and those dying in state penitentiary orcounty jail under sentence, shall be delivered to medical college orany physician for dissection, unless deceased requested to be buried, or friends ask to have it buried, or deceased was a stranger ortraveller laws, 1890, ch 92 ohio coroner to hold inquest, etc r l , sec 1, 221 et seq and bury body, etc r l , sec 1, 227 body of pauper or unknown, not an inmate of any penal, charitable, orreformatory institution, and not claimed by relative or delivered fordissection according to law, shall be buried at public expense laws, 1890, p 283 corpse shall not be conveyed to or from a city without a permit r l , sec 2, 119 bodies of those dying in city hospitals, city or county infirmaries, work-houses, asylums, charitable institutions, penitentiaries, orjails, which are required to be buried at public expense, shall bedelivered to medical college or society for study, etc , unless claimedby relative, or deceased was a stranger or traveller except tramps r l , sec 3, 763 removing body from grave without authority for dissection or receivingsuch body is punishable r l , sec 7, 034 body of executed criminal, if not claimed by relative or friends, maybe delivered for dissection, etc r l , sec 7, 343, 1 oklahoma coroner to hold inquest, etc stat , sec 1, 745 et seq and bury the body at public expense if not claimed by relatives stat , sec 1, 759 concealing birth of issue which, if born alive, etc , or dying withintwo years after birth, is punishable stat , sec 2, 179 2, 188-2, 190 same as 305-307 n y p c 2, 191 ” 308 ” except subd 4 2, 192-2, 193 ” 309-310 ” 2, 198 ” 311 ” ex punishment 2, 199 ” 312 ” 2, 202 ” 314 ”custody is in him whose duty it is to bury stat , secs 21, 97 duty of burial of married woman, on husband. If not married woman, onnearest of kin who is an adult and has sufficient means stat , sec 2, 195 refusal to bury by one on whom duty rests, is a misdemeanor stat , sec 2, 196 oregon coroner to hold inquest, etc crim code, sec 453 et seq and bury body if not claimed by friends crim code, sec 462 unmarried woman concealing birth of child so that it may not be knownwhether it was born alive or not, is punishable crim code, sec 649 bodies of criminals executed, those dying in hospitals, insane asylums, alms-houses, or penitentiaries, may be delivered to medical college orphysician for dissection, etc , unless they shall have been interred, or claimed by relatives, or relatives and friends do not consent, ordeceased expressed a wish to be buried.

Being bound to the wrists of the hands, and the solesof the feet, it helps the yellow jaundice the herb being made into apoultice, helps inflammations and st anthony fire the juice beingdropped admission college essay help into the ears, heals the pains, noise, and mutterings thereof a good ointment may be made of it for all wounds, especially wounds inthe head smallage this is also very well known, and therefore i shall not trouble thereader with any description thereof place it grows naturally in dry and marshy ground. But if it besown in gardens, it there prospers very well time it abides green all the winter, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of mercury smallage ishotter, drier, and much more medicinal than parsley, for it much moreopens obstructions of the liver and spleen, rarefies thick phlegm, and cleanses it and the blood withal it provokes urine and womencourses, and is singularly good against the yellow jaundice, tertianand quartan agues, if the juice thereof be taken, but especiallymade up into a syrup the juice also put to honey of roses, andbarley-water, is very good to gargle the mouth and throat of thosethat have sores and ulcers in them, and will quickly heal them thesame lotion also cleanses and heals all other foul ulcers and cankerselsewhere, if they be washed therewith the seed is especially used tobreak and expel wind, to kill worms, and to help a stinking breath the root is effectual to all the purposes aforesaid, and is heldto be stronger in operation than the herb, but especially to openobstructions, and to rid away any ague, if the juice thereof be takenin wine, or the decoction thereof in wine used sopewort, or bruisewort descript the roots creep under ground far and near, with thesisjoints therein, of a brown colour on the outside and yellowish within, shooting forth in divers places weak round stalks, full of joints, setwith two leaves a-piece at every one of them on a contrary side, whichare ribbed essaywhat like to plantain, and fashioned like the commonfield white campion leaves, seldom having any branches from the sidesof the stalks, but set with flowers at the top, standing in long huskslike the wild campions, made of five leaves a-piece, round at the ends, and dented in the middle, of a rose colour, almost white, essaytimesdeeper, essaytimes paler. Of a reasonable scent place it grows wild in thesis low and wet grounds of this land, bybrooks and the sides of running waters time it flowers usually in july, and so continues all august, andwriting of september, before they be quite spent government and virtues venus owns it the country people in diversplaces do use to bruise the leaves of sopewort, and lay it to theirfingers, hands or legs, when they are cut, to heal them up again essaymake great boast thereof, that it is diuretical to provoke urine, andthereby to expel gravel and the stone in the reins or kidneys, and doalso account it singularly good to void hydropical waters. And they noless extol it to perform an absolute cure in the french pox, more thaneither sarsaparilla, guiacum, or china can do. Which, how true it is, ileave others to judge sorrel our ordinary sorrel, which grows in gardens, and also wild in thefields, is so well known, that it needs no description government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus sorrelis prevalent in all hot diseases, to cool any inflammation and heatof blood in agues pestilential or choleric, or sickness and fainting, arising from heat, and to refresh the overspent spirits with theviolence of furious or fiery fits of agues. To quench thirst, andprocure an appetite in fainting or decaying stomachs. For it resiststhe putrefaction of the blood, kills worms, and is a cordial to theheart, which the seed doth more effectually, being more drying andbinding, and thereby stays the hot fluxes of women courses, or ofhumours in the bloody flux, or flux of the stomach the root also in adecoction, or in powder, is effectual for all the said purposes bothroots and seeds, as well as the herb, are held powerful to resist thepoison of the scorpion the decoction of the roots is taken to helpthe jaundice, and to expel the gravel and the stone in the reins orkidneys the decoction of the flowers made with wine and drank, helpsthe black jaundice, as also the inward ulcers of the body and bowels asyrup made with the juice of sorrel and fumitory, is a sovereign helpto kill those sharp humours that cause the itch the juice thereof, with a little vinegar, serves well to be used outwardly for the samecause, and is also profitable for tetters, ringworms, &c it helps alsoto discuss the kernels in the throat.

Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, admission college essay help even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement. ‘careful examination failed to showthe presence of either diastase or pancreatin ’ in this connectioni will cite to you the following experiment carried out by myself:a package containing a 1-ounce bottle of lactopeptine powder withseal unbroken was purchased in the open market and opened in thislaboratory the label bore the special number 6 2382 two hundredmilligrams of this product was dissolved in 50 c c of a 0 25 per cent solution of sodium carbonate in water this solution was divided intotwo portions of 25 c c each one of these portions was boiled at once, and after cooling was added to 1 gm of moist fibrin contained in aflask the other portion unboiled was also added to 1 gm of moistfibrin contained in a flask both flasks after addition of 5 c c of toluene to each were stoppered and placed in an incubator at 37degrees, and left there for twelve hours examination of the two flasksat the end of this period showed that the one to which the unboiledsolution of lactopeptine powder had been added contained much lesssolid protein than did the other although this fact was obvious tothe naked eye, the exact extent of digestion in the two flasks wasdetermined by heating both to boiling, acidifying with acetic acid, diluting to definite volume, filtering and determining the nitrogen inthe filtrate by kjeldahl method subtracting the trace of nitrogencontained in the filtrate of the control flask, the results showedthat 42 per cent of the original fibrin present had been dissolvedby the unboiled lactopeptine solution this can be ascribed only totryptic activity under the conditions of this experiment furthermore, this is not simply a ‘trace’ of activity, but is at least sufficientlymarked to warrant a statement that this sample showed a distincttryptic activity inasmuch as i have obtained exactly similar resultswith two other samples of lactopeptine powder these being the onlyones i have examined, i am inclined to question the correctness ofthe council statement regarding the absence of trypsin from thispreparation as noted above, a fresh preparation was used -- ed “may i again add that i am making no statement regarding therapeuticvalue of preparation, and that i have no opinion upon that matter oneway or the other?. my work was undertaken solely out of interest tosee whether trypsin could exist in the powder which gives a markedlyacid solution when dissolved in water the elixir lactopeptine couldtheoretically show no tryptic activity, nor have i found any trace ofsuch activity in one sample of the elixir examined “in making use of any of the contents of my letters kindly include thestatement that my work upon lactopeptine was done without remunerationof any kind, and was done only for the scientific interest attached tothe question ” conclusionsthe new york pharmacal association demanded that the referee reexaminelactopeptine, making use of fresh specimens the council held that thiswas unnecessary, for the following reasons:1 the previous finding of the council, that specimens of lactopeptinefound on the open market are essentially weak saccharated pepsins, isnot to be refuted by examination of fresh specimens even if it beassumed that all old specimens of lactopeptine have been withdrawnfrom the market since the last purchase of specimens for the use ofthe council referee, there can be no assurance that the stock willbe constantly kept fresh unless the manufacturers date their product, physicians cannot know that their prescriptions are filled with freshmaterial nor is it reasonable to ask that the council examine themarket supply of any given proprietary at a time selected by themanufacturers 2 without entering into all questions of detail in the analyses, the council is willing to accept the reports of drs benedict andhawk as representative of fresh lactopeptine powder it is thereforeunnecessary for the council to make further experiments along thisline the results of these two chemists in no wise contradict theconclusions of the council referees, being comparable with thoseobtained by the referee on the fresher specimens used by them theexperiments of drs hawk and benedict show a degree of trypticactivity which, though chemically not negligible, is quite withoutsignificance practically, even if it could be assumed that the trypsinin the fresh lactopeptine escaped destruction in the stomach thefigures for tryptic activity given by dr benedict do not differmaterially from those of the first referee those of professorhawk show a tryptic activity of from 18 to 20 per cent of that ofcommercial pancreatin-- and commercial pancreatins ordinarily are oflow tryptic activity, if not inert see long and muhleman. Arch int med , february, 1914, p 314 the reports of these chemistspresent no reason for changing the conclusion that “it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity ”the results which dr balch obtained in a test for tryptic activityshow a marked discrepancy with those obtained by drs hawk andbenedict, not to mention the council referees, and also with thefact that only about 11 per cent of “pancreatin” is claimed in thepublished formula of lactopeptine the council is unable to accept dr balch result for trypsin or rennin as reliable his other results arewithout significance and call for no special comment 3 even if tryptic activity were conceded to lactopeptine, thepreparation, like all preparations containing pepsin and pancreatin, would still be, as previously stated, therapeutically irrational the council approved the report report of referee ain view of the manufacturer reiteration of the claims forlactopeptine powder, i have carried out further experiments todetermine its proteolytic and amylolytic power for the proteolytic test i used fresh, well washed fibrin and examinedsamples of lactopeptine powder numbered as follows:no 1 a writing of the english product examined and reported on lastspring no 2 -- a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail drug store indecember, 1913 no 3 a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail store in december, 1913 portions of 1 gm each of these samples were mixed with 5 gm fibrin, 100 mg of sodium carbonate and 50 c c of water in flasks a littletoluene was added to each flask, which was then closed with a tuftof cotton and the mixtures were incubated at 40 degrees throughtwenty-four hours at the end of that time there was no marked changein the quantity of the fibrin remaining in each flask, the larger writingby far being undigested as a control i used the sample of an active commercial trypsin, ofwhich i added 500 mg to the same quantity of water, fibrin and sodiumcarbonate this was digested in the same bath at the same time thedigestion was practically completed in less than ten minutes, onlyminute flakes of the fibrin remaining it is evident that the digestive power of the lactopeptine must beextremely low, and only a small fraction of that exhibited by acommercially good trypsin in an experiment with the english sample carried out through nineteenhours as above, using 2 gm of fibrin and 100 mg of ferment, it wasfound by nitrogen tests on the filtrate that about 12 2 per cent of the protein had been brought into solution, an amount which ispractically without importance in a digestion of such duration to test the starch digestive power i have made a large number ofexperiments in a series just completed i mixed 1 gm portions ofsamples 1 and 2 with water to make 100 c c volumes before makingup to the final volumes 0 5 c c of normal sodium hydroxid wasadded to neutralize the slight acidity of the ferment as shown byphenolphthalein of these mixtures 4, 6, 8 and 10 c c portions were mixed with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste and incubated at 40 degrees to find thecolorless end-point in the starch digestion, by the iodin test at the end of twenty-two hours the iodin reaction was as strong as atthe beginning, indicating no appreciable starch digestion to the flasks in which no digestion had taken place under theseconditions, 5 mg of a pancreas ferment was added this gave an almostimmediate conversion to the colorless end-point this ferment was asample of holadin which had been in the laboratory about a year the5 mg completed the reaction to the colorless end-point in less thanten minutes in a similar test i used 2 gm of lactopeptine no 3, made up to100 c c with 1 2 c c of normal alkali ten and 15 c c portions wereincubated with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste through twenty hoursat 40 degrees with no apparent result the holadin then added, 5 mg being used, completed the conversion in less than ten minutes this shows that the medium was a proper one for the test and that thelactopeptine must be extremely weak no sugar tests were made becausethe lactopeptine contains milk sugar to the extent of about 60 per cent similar results for both protein and starch digestives have beenobtained in a large number of experiments these here quoted showthat the ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition practically the digestion of a few milligrams of fibrin orstarch after thesis hours of contact, while being perhaps scientificallypossible, is of no value when we come to a consideration of the use ofsuch bodies as digestive ferments in medicine the amount of lactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” present inlactopeptine is very small, since the total acid which may be titratedby sodium hydroxid and phenolphthalein is measured by 0 5 c c ofthe normal hydroxid for 1 gm of the lactopeptine powder, in themean in different samples examined the range was found to be from0 41 c c to 0 6 c c tests with methyl orange, methyl red and otherindicators showed that the free acidity is but trifling. If the wholeof this acid, as measured by phenolphthalein, were calculated to hcl, the amount would be too small to have any appreciable physiologicactivity, in view of the daily dose recommended, 10 to 20 grains of thepowder report of referee bthe following table gives a summary of the results of my investigationson lactopeptine the numbers in the extreme left-hand column are themanufacturer identifying marks these, it is assumed, run serially, the higher numbers indicating fresher specimens table showing enzymic power of lactopeptine preparations amylase pepsin rennin trypsin lipase 2275 - - - 2301 - - - 2312 - - - 2348 - - - 2352 - - - 2364 - ?. - 2374 - - ?. 2383 - ?. 1638 tablets - - - pancreatin old - -the conclusions in the foregoing summary depend on the followingcriteria:amylase. Removal of starch paste, small in proportion to beginwith pepsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in acid media rennin. Curdling of milk in moderate excess trypsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in neutral andalkaline media, and tryptophan test lipase. Coloration of litmus-milk. Exact color controls all tests were suitably controlled the responses for pepsin were weakeven when compared with those of old pepsin preparations in the table above, the interrogation points in parentheses ?.

Norwould any of these have any effect on “phosphaturia ”the mixture also conflicts with rule 10. For it is inadvisable toadminister the ingredients in fixed, but unknown proportions it is recommended that saloform be deemed inadmissible to n n r the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 71 secretogen report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryabout a year ago the council declared secretogen, 103 a product theactive ingredient of which was stated to be “pancreatic secretin” andadvertised as a remedy for certain conditions of defective digestionand assimilation, to be ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies the reasons for this decision were stated at the time as follows:103 j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 “1 no evidence has been presented that the absence of secretin is acause of gastro-intestinal diseases it is usually present, and if notpresent, as in achylia gastrica, there is evidently essay compensatingarrangement by which the pancreas is stimulated to perform its regularfunctions “2 there is no evidence that secretin in any form is physiologicallyactive when administered by mouth ”since secretogen was not the only so-called secretin preparation onthe market, and since the use of secretin preparations was recommendedby certain writers, notwithstanding the lack of evidence of its value, the council caused an experimental investigation of the question to bemade this was carried out by prof a j carlson of the university ofchicago no secretin was found in the commercial products examined, namely, secretogen tablets, secretogen elixir and duodenin furthermore, carlson results104 confirmed the council previous conclusionas to the inertness of secretin administered by mouth the councilendorsed professor carlson findings 105104 carlson a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208.

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The presence or absence of beard or mustache, and ifpresent the color. And the color of the eyes the arm - the following points should be determined. The color of theskin as indication of race. The probable sex from its shape and generalconformation. The probable age from its size and degree of development;marks of any kind, such as tattooing. And deformities, such as signs ofold or recent fracture, or dislocation.