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Act Essay


And they say awounded man that eats mint, his wound will never be cured, and that isa long day misselto descript this rises up from the branch or arm of the tree whereonit grows, with a woody stem, putting itself into sundry branches, and they again divided into thesis other smaller twigs, interlacingthemselves one within another, very much covered with a greyish greenbark, having two leaves set at every joint, and at the end likewise, which are essaywhat long and narrow, small at the bottom, but broadertowards the end at the knots or joints of the boughs and branches growsmall yellow flowers, which run into small, round, white, transparentberries, three or four together, full of a glutinous moisture, with act essay ablackish seed in each of them, which was never yet known to spring, being put into the ground, or any where else to grow place it grows very rarely on oaks with us. But upon sundry othersas well timber as fruit trees, plentifully in woody groves, and thelike, through all this land time it flowers in the spring-time, but the berries are not ripeuntil october, and abides on the branches all the winter, unless theblackbirds, and other birds, do devour them government and virtues this is under the dominion of the sun, ido not question. And can also take for granted, that which grows uponoaks, writingicipates essaything of the nature of jupiter, because an oakis one of his trees. As also that which grows upon pear trees, andapple trees, writingicipates essaything of his nature, because he rulesthe tree it grows upon, having no root of its own but why that shouldhave most virtues that grows upon oaks i know not, unless because itis rarest and hardest to come by. And our college opinion is in thiscontrary to scripture, which saith, god tender mercies are overall his works. And so it is, let the college of physicians walk ascontrary to him as they please, and that is as contrary as the eastto the west clusius affirms that which grows upon pear trees to beas prevalent, and gives order, that it should not touch the groundafter it is gathered. And also saith, that, being hung about theneck, it remedies witchcraft both the leaves and berries of misseltodo heat and dry, and are of subtle writings. The birdlime doth molifyhard knots, tumours, and imposthumes. Ripens and discusses them, anddraws forth thick as well as thin humours from the remote writings ofthe body, digesting and separating them and being mixed with equalwritings of rozin and wax, doth molify the hardness of the spleen, andhelps old ulcers and sores being mixed with sandaric and orpiment, it helps to draw off foul nails. And if quick-lime and wine lees beadded thereunto, it works the stronger the misselto itself of the oak as the best made into powder, and given in drink to those that havethe falling sickness, does assuredly heal them, as matthiolus saith:but it is fit to use it for forty days together essay have so highlyesteemed it for the virtues thereof, that they have called it lignumsanctiæ crucis, wood of the holy cross, believing it helps the fallingsickness, apoplexy and palsy very speedily, not only to be inwardlytaken, but to be hung at their neck tragus saith, that the fresh woodof any misselto bruised, and the juice drawn forth and dropped in theears that have imposthumes in them, doth help and ease them within afew days moneywort, or herb twopence descript the common moneywort sends forth from a small threadyroot divers long, weak, and slender branches, lying and running uponthe ground two or three feet long or more, set with leaves two at ajoint one against another at equal distances, which are almost round, but pointed at the ends, smooth, and of a good green colour at thejoints with the leaves from the middle forward come forth at everypoint essaytimes one yellow flower, and essaytimes two, standing each ona small foot-stalk, and made of five leaves, narrow-pointed at the end, with essay yellow threads in the middle, which being past, there standin their places small round heads of seed place it grows plentifully in almost all places of this land, commonly in moist grounds by hedge-sides, and in the middle of grassyfields time they flower in june and july, and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues venus owns it moneywort is singularlygood to stay all fluxes in man or woman, whether they be lasks, bloody-fluxes, bleeding inwardly or outwardly, or the weakness of thestomach that is given to casting it is very good also for the ulcersor excoriations of the lungs, or other inward writings it is exceedinglygood for all wounds, either fresh or green, to heal them speedily, and for all old ulcers that are of spreading natures for all whichpurposes the juice of the herb, or the powder drank in water whereinhot steel hath been often quenched.

Inthe middle whereof stands the small long pestle or clapper, smaller atthe bottom than at act essay the top, of a dark purple colour, as the husk is onthe inside, though green without. Which, after it hath so abided foressay time, the husk with the clapper decays, and the foot or bottomthereof grows to be a small long bunch of berries, green at the first, and of a yellowish red colour when they are ripe, of the bigness of ahazel-nut kernel, which abides thereon almost until winter. The rootis round, and essaywhat long, for the most writing lying along, the leavesshooting forth at the largest end, which, when it bears its berries, are essaywhat wrinkled and loose, another growing under it, which issolid and firm, with thesis small threads hanging thereat the wholeplant is of a very sharp biting taste, pricking the tongue as nettlesdo the hands, and so abides for a great while without alteration theroot thereof was anciently used instead of starch to starch linen with there is another sort of cuckow-point, with less leaves than theformer, and essay times harder, having blackish spots upon them, whichfor the most writing abide longer green in summer than the former, andboth leaves and roots are more sharp and fierce than it.

Infact, the throat symptoms were seemingly increased in severity by itsuse it has no effect on syphilids of the forearms and shins, and ifanything makes them worse it improves the appetite, as one would expect it has essay effect onthe kidneys, as noted in case 2. It has essay effect in healing theinitial lesion, as noted in all three of this series. Why, i do notknow i am entirely satisfied that it has no beneficial effect on syphiliticsand have discontinued its use entirely in my practice i am glad to have read cole excellent article, as it shows me that iwas correct in my decision not to use it again, as it was worthless william g ward, m d , lynn, mass to the editor:-- dr william g ward letter the journal, feb 3, 1917, p 390, and the recent admirable article by dr harold n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 recall to mind dr j b murphyclinical note on the use of sodium cacodylate in the treatment ofsyphilis the journal, sept 24, 1910, p 1113, and the experimentalwork of cap h j nichols, u s army the journal, feb 18, 1911, p 492 the results of nichols’ work conclusively proved, at leastfrom a laboratory standpoint, that this drug was of very little valueas a spirocheticide in combating syphilis prior to the publication ofdr murphy letter i had employed sodium cacodylate extensively as aremedy in psoriasis, and i still continue to use it in selected paperof the disease adopting dr murphy suggestion, i gave the agent an extensive trialin syphilis in all stages of the disease the results were extremelydisappointing, from both clinical and serologic points of view morerecently, during the scarcity of salvarsan, i gave the drug a secondtrial, employing it in large dosage in the hope that the previousfailure had been due to the employment of insufficient amounts theresults were not tabulated, but, judging roughly from my experience ina score of paper, its therapeutic value as an antisyphilitic was nil afew of the patients underwent a temporary improvement, probably owingto the tonic effect of the drug, but in every instance the serologicfindings were unaffected r l sutton, m d , kansas city, mo -- correspondence in the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917 tablets. Dependability of dosagethe tablet form of administering medicines is popular among thesisphysicians because of its convenient availability and dosage thereis no doubt about the convenience of tablets, but the accuracy of thedosage content is not always to be depended on one reason for thisis that the demand for palatable and convenient “medicaments has ledmanufacturers to attempt to produce in tablet form mixtures which, fromthe nature of the case, are not suited to that method of compounding ”in a series of painstaking experiments307 on bismuth, opium andphenol tablets, conducted a number of years ago in the a m a chemical laboratory, it was shown that no tablets on the market thencontained the amount of phenol the label indicated, the variationbeing from 12 3 to 112 5 per cent similarly, the laboratory foundthat in the case of several different brands of aromatic digestivetablets, 308 the amount of hydrochloric acid present in these absurdcombinations was true to label in only one half of the specimens, notwithstanding the fact that the amounts claimed to be present wereridiculously small. In two specimens, there was no hydrochloricacid whatever present, while a third contained only a trace theseexamples illustrated clearly the very evident unwisdom of attemptingthe pharmaceutically impossible merely for the sake of convenience orpharmaceutical “elegance ”307 puckner, w a , and clark, a h. Examination of tablets ofbismuth, opium and phenol, the journal a m a , july 25, 1908, p 330 puckner, w a , and hilpert, w s. Tablets of bismuth, opiumand phenol, dec 17, 1910, p 2169, may 6, 1911, p 1344 unreliablepharmaceutical products, editorial, may 6, 1911, p 1335 308 puckner, w a , and warren, l e. Aromatic digestive tablets, the journal a m a , aug 20, 1910, p 710 another reason for doubting the accuracy of dosage, irrespective ofthe characteristics of the drugs composing the tablets, has been themanifest lack of care in their manufacture in 1914, kebler309reported the results of a far-reaching investigation of tabletcompounding in which he pointed out that tablets on the market werenot as uniform or accurate as was generally believed, the variationsbeing “unexpectedly large in numbers and amount ” during the past year, the connecticut agricultural experiment station310 undertook theexamination of tablets-- proprietary and nonproprietary-- taken from thestock of dispensing physicians the variations found in weights ofthe tablets were strikingly similar to those reported by kebler 309 kebler, l f. The tablet industry, jour am pharm assn , 1914, 3, 820, 937, 1062 310 bull 200, connecticut agricultural station, food and drugproducts, 1917, p 161 variation in weights of tablets kebler connecticut variation per cent per cent less than 10 per cent 43 44 more than 10 per cent 57 56 more than 12 per cent 44 35 more than 15 per cent 28 26 more than 20 per cent 9 10the determinations of the composition of the tablets when comparedwith that claimed for them showed wide variation-- from 54 per cent above to 70 5 per cent below. In almost two thirds of the tabletsexamined, the variation amounted to more than 10 per cent. In threefifths of the tablets, the variation was more than 15 per cent. In onefourth, more than 20 per cent , and in one twentieth, more than 50 percent. Only in one eighth of the tablets was the variation less than 5per cent the connecticut investigators substantiate once again the workpreviously reported, namely, that there are a number of firms who areeither incompetent or careless for tablets of simple composition, a variation from the declaration of 10 per cent should be amplysufficient to compensate for the errors of careful manufacture it maybe added that the best tablets originate generally from firms havingcompetent chemical control -- from the journal a m a , july 27, 1918 therapeutic evidence. Its crucial testo torald sollmann, m d , clevelando read before the section on pharmacology and therapeutics at thesixty-eighth annual session of the american medical association, newyork, june, 1917 o this article clearly states the difficulties experienced by thecouncil in estimating the merits of a proprietary medicinal productand clearly defines the method which has been found to be practical injudging of the therapeutic value of such preparations the council hasapproved this discussion of the subject and has directed that the paperbe published in the annual council reports w a puckner, secretary according to the good old truism, the last and crucial proof of thepudding is in the eating thereof. And so, the last and crucial test ofa therapeutic agent is its consumption by a patient there is, however, one essential difference. When the pudding is eaten, with a sense ofsatisfaction, we know that it was a good, or at least an eatable, pudding if the patient improves after taking a remedy, we do not yet knowthat he improved on account of the remedy the post hoc type ofreasoning or logic is not respectable. But it is all too apt to creepin unawares, unless one takes great precautions indeed clinical evidence needs especially to be on its guard against thispitfall, for the conditions of disease never remain constant.

Being snuffed up in thenose, it helps spasmus cynicus, which is a wrying the mouth aside;it helps noise in act essay the ears being dropped into them, it provokesthe menses, and helps the biting of venomous beasts. It is a mostgallant oil to strengthen the body, the back being anointed with it;strengthens the muscles, they being chafed with it. Helps head-ache, the forehead being rubbed with it moschelæum, or, oil of musk college take two nutmegs, musk one dram, indian leaf or mace, spikenard, costus, mastich, of each six drams, styrax calamitis, cassialignea, myrrh, saffron, cinnamon, cloves, carpobalsamum or cubebs, bdellium, of each two drams, pure oil three pounds, wine three ounces, bruise them as you ought to do, mix them, and let them boil easily, till the wine be consumed, the musk being mixed according to art afterit is strained culpeper it is exceeding good against all diseases of cold, especially those of the stomach, it helps diseases of the sides, theybeing anointed with it, the stranguary, cholic, and vices of thenerves, and afflictions of the reins oleum nardinum or, oil of nard college take of spikenard three ounces, marjoram two ounces, woodof aloes, calamus aromaticus, elecampane, cypress, bay leaves, indianleaf or mace, squinanth, cardamoms, of each one ounce and a half, bruise them all grossly, and steep them in water and wine, of eachfourteen ounces, oil of sesamin, or oil of olives, four pounds andan half, for one day. Then perfect the oil by boiling it gently in adouble vessel oleum populeum nicholaus college take of fresh poplar buds three pounds, wine four pounds, common oil seven pounds two ounces, beat the poplar buds very well, then steep them seven days in the oil and wine, then boil them in adouble vessel till the wine be consumed, if you infuse fresh buds onceor twice before you boil it, the medicine will be the stronger, thenpress out the oil and keep it culpeper it is a fine cool oil, but the ointment called by thatname which follows hereafter is far better ointments more simple unguentum album, or, white ointment college take of oil of roses nine ounces, ceruss washed inrose-water and diligently sifted, three ounces, white wax two ounces, after the wax is melted in the oil, put in the ceruss, and make itinto an ointment according to art, add two drams of camphire, madeinto powder with a few drops of oil of sweet almonds, so will it becamphorated culpeper it is a fine cooling, drying ointment, eases pains, anditching in wounds and ulcers, and is an hundred times better withcamphire than without it unguentum egyptiacum college take of verdigris finely powdered, five writings, honeyfourteen writings, sharp vinegar seven writings, boil them to a justthickness, and a reddish colour culpeper it cleanses filthy ulcers and fistulas forcibly, and notwithout pain, it takes away dead and proud flesh, and dries unguentum anodynum or, an ointment to ease pain college take of oil of white lilies, six ounces, oil of dill, andchamomel, of each two ounces, oil of sweet almonds one ounce, duckgrease, and hen grease, of each two ounces, white wax three ounces, mix them according to art culpeper its use is to assuage pains in any writing of the body, especially such as come by inflammations, whether in wounds or tumours, and for that it is admirable unguentum ex apio or, ointment of smallage college take of the juice of smallage one pound, honey nine ounces, wheat flower three ounces, boil them to a just thickness culpeper it is a very fine, and very gentle cleanser of wounds andulcers liniment of gum elemi college take of gum elemi, turpentine of the fir-tree, of each oneounce and an half, old sheep suet cleansed two ounces, old hoggrease cleansed one ounce. Mix them, and make them into an ointmentaccording to art culpeper it gently cleanses and fills up an ulcer with flesh, itbeing of a mild nature, and friendly to the body unguentum aureum college take of yellow wax half a pound, common oil two pounds, turpentine two ounces, pine rozin, colophonia, of each one ounce and anhalf, frankincense, mastich, of each one ounce, saffron one dram, firstmelt the wax in the oil, then the turpentine being added, let them boiltogether. Having done boiling, put in the rest in fine powder, letthe saffron be the last and by diligent stirring, make them into anointment according to art basilicon, the greater college take of white wax, pine rozin, heifer suet, greek pitch, turpentine, olibanum, myrrh, of each one ounce, oil five ounces, powder the olibanum and myrrh, and the rest being melted, make it intoan ointment according to art basilicon, the less college take of yellow wax, fat rozin, greek pitch, of each half apound, oil nine ounces. Mix them together, by melting them according toart culpeper both this and the former, heat, moisten, and digest, procure matter in wounds, i mean brings the filth or corrupted bloodfrom green wounds. They clense and ease pain ointment of bdellium college take of bdellium six drams, euphorbium, sagapen, of eachfour drams, castoreum three drams, wax fifteen drams, oil of elder orwall-flowers, ten drams, the bdellium, and sagapen being dissolved inwater of wild rue, let the rest be united by the heat of a bath unguentum de calce or, ointment of chalk college take of chalk washed, seven times at least, half a pound, wax three ounces, oil of roses one pound, stir them all togetherdiligently in a leaden mortar, the wax being first melted by a gentlefire in a sufficient quantity of the prescribed oil culpeper it is exceeding good in burnings and scaldings unguentum dialthæ or, ointment of marsh-mallows college take of common oil four pounds, mussilage of marsh-mallowroots, linseed, and fenugreek seed two pounds. Boil them together tillthe watery writing of the mussilage be consumed, then add wax half a pound, rozin three ounces, turpentine an ounce, boil them to the consistenceof an ointment, but let the mussilage be prepared of a pound of freshroots bruised, and half a pound of each of the seeds steeped, andboiled in eight pounds of spring water, and then pressed out see thecompound unguentum diapompholygos college take of oil of nightshade sixteen ounces, white wax, washed, ceruss, of each four drams, lead burnt and washed, pompholixprepared, of each two ounces, pure frankincense one ounce. Bring theminto the form of an ointment according to art culpeper this much differing from the former, you shall have thatinserted at latter end, and then you may use which you please unguentum enulatum or, ointment of elecampane college take of elecampane roots boiled in vinegar, bruised andpulped, one pound, turpentine washed in their decoction, new wax, ofeach two ounces, old hog grease salted ten ounces, old oil fourounces, common salt one ounce, add the turpentine to the grease, wax, and oil, being melted, as also the pulp and salt being finely powdered, and so make it into an ointment according to art unguentum enulatum cum mercurio or, ointment of elecampane with quick-silver, college is made of the former ointment, by adding two ounces ofquick-silver, killed by continual stirring, not only with spittle, orjuice of lemons, but with all the turpentine kept for that intent, andwriting of the grease, in a stone mortar culpeper my opinion of this ointment, is briefly this. It wasinvented for the itch, without quick-silver it will do no good, withquick-silver it may do harm unguentum laurinum commune or, ointment of bays common college take of bay leaves bruised one pound, bay berries bruisedhalf a pound, cabbage leaves four ounces, neat-foot oil five pounds, bullock suet two pounds, boil them together, and strain them, that soit may be made into an ointment according to art unguentum de minie sive rubrum camphora or, ointment of red lead college take of oil of roses one pound and an half, red lead threeounces, litharge two ounces, ceruss one ounce and an half, tutty threedrams, camphire two drams, wax one ounce and an half, make it into anointment according to art, in a pestle and mortar made of lead culpeper this ointment is as drying as a man shall usually readof one, and withal cooling, therefore good for sores, and such as aretroubled with defluctions unguentum e nicotiona, seu peto or, ointment of tobacco college take of tobacco leaves bruised, two pounds, steep them awhole night in red wine, in the morning boil it in fresh hog grease, diligently washed, one pound, till the wine be consumed, strain it, andadd half a pound of juice of tobacco, rozin four ounces, boil it to theconsumption of the juice, adding towards the end, round birthwort rootsin powder, two ounces, new wax as much as is sufficient to make it intoan ointment according to art culpeper it would take a whole summer day to write the writingicularvirtues of this ointment, and my poor genius is too weak to give itthe hundredth writing of its due praise. It cures tumours, imposthumes, wounds, ulcers, gun-shot, stinging with nettles, bees, wasps, hornets, venomous beasts, wounds made with poisoned arrows, &c unguentum nutritum, seu trifarmacum college take of litharge of gold finely powdered, half a pound, vinegar one pound, oil of roses two pounds, grind the litharge ina mortar, pouring to it essaytimes oil, essaytimes vinegar, till bycontinual stirring, the vinegar do no more appear, and it come to awhitish ointment culpeper it is of a cooling, drying nature, good for itching ofwounds, and such like deformities of the skin unguentum ophthalmicum or, an ointment for the eyes college take of bole-ammoniac washed in rose water, one ounce, lapis calaminaris washed in eye bright water, tutty prepared, of eachtwo drams, pearls in very fine powder half a dram, camphire half ascruple, opium five grains, fresh butter washed in plantain water, asmuch as is sufficient to make it into an ointment according to art culpeper it is exceeding good to stop hot rheums that fall downinto the eyes, the eyelids being but anointed with it unguentum ex oxylapatho or, ointment of sharp-pointed dock college take of the roots of sharp-pointed dock boiled in vinegaruntil they be soft, and then pulped, brimstone washed in juice oflemons, of each one ounce and an half, hog grease often washed injuice of scabious, half a pound, unguentum populeon washed in juice ofelecampane, half an ounce. Make them into an ointment in a mortar culpeper it is a wholeessay, though troubleessay medicine for scabsand itch unguentum e plumbo or, ointment of lead college take of lead burnt according to art, litharge, of each twoounces, ceruss, antimony, of each one ounce, oil of roses as much as issufficient.

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Strew on a laying of fine sugar, on that a laying of flowers, and on that another laying of sugar, on that another laying of flowers, so do till your glass be full. Then tie it over with a paper, and in alittle time, you shall have very excellent and pleasant preserves there is another way of preserving flowers. Namely, with vinegar andsalt, as they pickle capers and broom-buds. But as i have little skillin it myself, i cannot teach you 2 fruits, as quinces, and the like, are preserved two ways. 1 boil them well in water, and then pulp them through a sieve, aswe shewed you before. Then with the like quantity of sugar, boil thewater they were boiled in into a syrup, viz a pound of sugar to a pintof liquor. To every pound of this syrup, add four ounces of the pulp;then boil it with a very gentle fire to their right consistence, whichyou may easily know if you drop a drop of it upon a trencher. If it beenough, it will not stick to your fingers when it is cold 2 another way to preserve fruits is this. First, pare off the rind;then cut them in halves, and take out the core. Then boil them in watertill they are soft. If you know when beef is boiled enough, you mayeasily know when they are. Then boil the water with its like weight ofsugar into a syrup.