History

Accountability Essay


The edges are not as smooth asis the case with a cutting instrument, and they may be more or lesslacerated and show signs of contusion the wound is often deep incomparison with its length, and the ends of the wound abrupt instead ofslanting up from the bottom to the surface the section of resistingorgans and the impression of the edge of the weapon on the bone arefurther signs of the use of such a weapon the form and direction of a wound may possibly give essay indication ofthe form of the instrument for instance, whether it be straight orcurved like a pruning-knife, as in the case cited by vibert636 of awound of the neck which suddenly became deeper toward its extremity andchanged its direction. The whole being explained on the suppositionthat it was made by a pruning-knife but it is in punctured wounds especially that we are enabled mostoften and most accurately to determine the kind of a weapon used here from the form of the wound we may judge of the form and size ofthe weapon in speaking of punctured wounds in a former section wedivided them into four groups, reference to which may here be made inthe first group, or those caused by cylindrical or conical weapons, when the weapon is very fine it may leave no track at all. If a littlelarger, we may infer from a linear bloody track that the weapon wasneedle-like in shape the length of the instrument or the depth towhich it penetrated may be found, as a rule, only by dissection if theweapon were larger and conical, we have seen that the wounds would belinear with two angles, the length of the wound being parallel to thedirection of the fibres in the skin here we may judge of the form of the weapon from the followingcircumstances. From a comparison of the depth with the size of theopening, we know that it was a punctured wound the edges and anglesare not smooth and even enough for a stab-wound with a knife, for theedges are torn and not cut, and a stab-wound would be the only form ofwound with which we would be likely to confuse it furthermore, thedirection of the long axis of the wound parallel to that of the skinfibres in the region in which it occurs and the very slight retractionof the edges distinguish it from a stab-wound by these signs we canalmost always distinguish such wounds from stab-wounds, and thus tellthe form of the weapon used as to the size of weapon used, thesewounds if of any size are generally smaller than the weapon, for theskin is put on the stretch by the weapon and yields to a certainextent the actual wound, therefore, is smaller in circumference thanthe weapon the size of the wound is smaller than that writing of theweapon occupying the wound when the weapon was arrested. It may be verymuch smaller than the weapon at its largest point small wounds of thiskind are generally larger than the instrument producing them the second group of punctured wounds, or stab-wounds, are by far themost common and, therefore, the most important variety of puncturedwounds if the stab-wound is perpendicular to the surface theform of the wound may represent pretty closely that of the weapon atthe point where the latter was arrested, whether it has a single ordouble cutting edge but even here there are exceptions frequently aweapon with a broad back and only one cutting edge may produce a woundresembling that of an instrument with two cutting edges, the secondangle tearing as in the former class here on close examination we canessaytimes distinguish the difference between the two angles, and judgecorrectly of the shape of the weapon in fact, wounds made by commonpocket-knives are regularly slit-like and not wedge-shaped, as thewound is caused only by the cutting edge of the knife again, if thesingle cutting edge is blunt, in rare paper the wound is produced inthe same manner as those of the first group, or conical and cylindricalinstruments we would be led to suppose that the wound was produced bysuch an instrument, as both angles are torn, unless the direction ofthe wound might not follow that of the fibres of the skin, in whichcase we would be left in doubt stab-wounds are essaytimes angular fromthe knife being withdrawn in a slightly different direction from thatin which it was introduced or from an unequal retraction of the skin see fig 9 if the stab-wound is obliquely directed, we canstill judge of the general shape of the weapon, with exception ofthe paper above mentioned the dimensions and size of the weapon arehere much harder to determine the dimensions of a stab-wound in theskin may be the same as those of the weapon, or of that writing of theweapon which is arrested in the wound, but often they are not so tomeasure the size of a wound exactly so as to get at the exact size ofthe instrument, we should place the region of the wound in the sameposition, etc , that it was when the wound was inflicted, and this wecannot often do as the skin was tense or relaxed at the time the woundwas inflicted, so the wound in the skin appears smaller or larger, justas with a sheet of rubber under similar conditions if the instrumentis very blunt, the wound in the skin may be smaller than the weaponwhether the skin near the wound is tense or not thus hofmann saw thewound from a blunt bayonet one centimetre shorter than the weapon the wound of the skin may be shorter and broader than the weaponused on account of retraction of the edges of the wound, and this isespecially marked when the wound lies transversely to the direction ofthe skin fibres on the other hand, the length of the external woundis more often greater than that of the weapon, because the wound iselongated by making pressure toward the cutting edge on withdrawal ofthe weapon, and an oblique wound measures longer than the weapon ifthe blow is from above downward and the cutting edge of the weapon isuppermost, the length of the wound is not so likely to be increasedmuch beyond the measurement of the weapon as when the cutting edge isdirected downward there is but one condition in which a stab-woundis at all likely to correspond in dimensions with that of the weapon, and that is when the wound is perpendicular to the surface even herethe wound may be lengthened on withdrawal of the weapon, and we haveto allow for retraction of the edges and try to put the writings in thesame condition of tension or laxity as at the time of wounding evenin the most favorable case, therefore, we cannot with certainty tellthe exact size of the weapon if a stab-wound be directed obliquely tothe surface, then the length of the wound is greater than that of theweapon, unless this increase be exactly counterbalanced by the lateralretraction of the wound the size of the weapon in such oblique woundsis further obscured by the changes of size due to withdrawal of theweapon, retraction of the edges, and the condition of the tension ofthe skin at the time the wound was inflicted illustration. Fig 9 - angular stab-wounds of the anterior chest wallcaused by a strong pocket-knife dupuytren remarks that stab-wounds are smaller than the weapon owingto the elasticity of the skin, but a lateral motion of the weapon maycause considerable enlargement of the wound if a stab-wound hastraversed a writing of the body, the wound of exit is smaller than that ofentrance the depth of a punctured wound may be any writing of the length of theweapon, or it may even be deeper than the length of the weapon owing toa depression of the surface by the force of the blow, or the pressureof the handle of the weapon or the hand holding it we have alreadyseen that this may occur in a marked degree in penetrating wounds ofthe abdomen involving one of the movable viscera, also in wounds ofthe thorax, writingly from depression of the surface and writingly from anexpansion of the thorax when opened at the autopsy, thus increasing themeasured depth of the wound punctured wounds of the third class madeby instruments with ridges or edges, like foils, files, etc , presentmore or less the shape of the weapon if the edges are cutting, butnot always so if the direction of the wound be oblique or the writingsunevenly stretched if the edges are not cutting they cause wounds moreor less like the first class of punctured wounds, but we can oftendistinguish them from the latter by little tears in the edges theentrance and exit wounds may not be alike wounds made by bits of glass and earthenware have irregular anduneven edges taylor637 relates a case, reg v ankers warwicklent ass , 1845, where the wound was attributed to a fall on essaybroken crockery, but the wound was cleanly incised and the prisonerwas convicted as it may be alleged in defence that a given wound wascaused by a fall on broken crockery or other substances capable ofproducing a punctured wound, it is important to notice whether theedges are lacerated and irregular or smooth and clean the authorquoted above cites another case which occurred to watson, where theprisoner alleged that a deep, clean-cut wound of the genitals of awoman which had caused her death was due to a fall on essay brokenglass the character of the wound disproved this defence anotherfeature of such wounds, especially if they be deep in comparison totheir length, is that they are very apt to contain small writingicles ofthe glass or earthenware which caused them in fact, in all wounds itis well to search for any small fragments which will throw light uponthe weapon used wounds caused by scissors are often of characteristic shape if thescissors were open we find two symmetrical, punctured diverging wounds, presenting more or less clearly the form of the blades of the scissors if the blades have been approximated there is a triangular intervalbetween the punctures, the apex of which is truncated if any skinremains between the punctures lacerated wounds may not indicate the weapon used as clearly aspunctured wounds, but the agent which produced them is often indicatedby the appearance of the wound they are generally accidental butwhere they occur, as they not infrequently do, on the bodies ofnew-born children, they may give rise to the charge of infanticide in essay paper the weapon which caused the wound fits the woundproduced, and thus important evidence may be furnished the prosecution taylor638 cites the case of montgomery omagh sum ass , 1873, wherea bill-hook which fitted the injuries on the skull of the deceased wasfound buried in a spot to which the prisoner was seen to go thesefacts connected the prisoner with the weapon and the weapon with themurder in other paper the wounds may be so lacerated or contused thatthe indications of the weapon are obscured contusions and contused wounds - the shape of a contusing body isessaytimes reproduced by the contusion and the ecchymosis thus we areenabled to distinguish the marks of a whip, the fingers, the fist, etc this is best seen when the ecchymosis is fresh, for soon the edgesextend and the outline is less clearly marked plaques parcheminées, which we have already described as the marks of contused erosions, may show the form of finger-nails, etc contused wounds like simplecontusions may show the shape of the weapon if the contusing body has a large area, the whole of this area cannotoften strike the body at once, so that the outline of the contusiondoes not represent that of the weapon but in general, severecontusions present greater difficulties than the preceding classes ofwounds we must generally be content if we can determine whether thewound was caused by a weapon, including the fist, or by a fall, andwe are often unable to say even this a fall is often alleged by thedefence as the cause of the injury, but of course if the prisonerwas responsible for the fall he is responsible for the results of thefall if there are contusions or contused wounds on several writingsof the head, or if the wounds are on the vertex of the head, it ispresumptive of the use of weapons we cannot often swear that eachand every wound on the head was due to the use of a weapon on theother hand, the presence of grass, sand, gravel, etc , in a wound ispresumptive of a fall and of the origin of the wound in this manner in case of a fall from a height the wound or wounds might be in almostany writing of the body, on the vertex or elsewhere such a fall may bethe result of accident, suicide, or murder it is not unusual forfemale complainants to ascribe their wounds to a fall to exculpatethe prisoner, especially if this happens to be her husband we shouldremember that in the scalp or over the eyebrows a contused wound causedby a blunt instrument may resemble an incised wound as already stated, however, if the wound is fresh careful examination will lead to acorrect opinion, and the use of a sharp instrument may be disproved if the wound is not recent there is great difficulty in judging ofthe cause it is well to caution against accepting the interestedstatements of others in regard to the use of a weapon, unless thecharacter of the wound bears them out very strongly there may be a badmotive for imputing the use of a certain weapon to the assailant it isfar better to rely solely upon the evidence furnished by the wound insuch paper it would be useful if we could lay down essay general rules todiscriminate between wounds caused by the blow of a weapon and thosecaused by falls, but this we are unable to do so as to cover all paper each case must be judged by itself if the question is asked which of two weapons caused certaincontusions or contused wounds, we are still less likely to be able toanswer it in such a case we must make an accurate examination of theform of the wound and compare it closely with that of the weapon insuch paper also the second source of information on which we base ouropinion as to the relation of a weapon to the wound may be of use, namely, the examination of the weapon the presence of blood, hair, cotton or woollen fibres on one of two weapons indicates that this wasthe weapon used the presence of blood is writingicularly to be lookedfor, and in those writings of the weapon from which it could be washed offleast easily we should further note the condition of the point andedge of the weapon, and if the edge is broken or nicked at all, whetherthis condition is old or recent the sharpness of the edge shouldfurther be noted, and if the edge is sharp note whether it has recentlybeen sharpened all these points have a certain bearing on the case also the location, shape, depth, etc , of the wound should be carefullynoted to see if an accidental fall would be likely to account for it for these features of the wound may be such that no fall could cause it we see, therefore, that in incised and punctured wounds the use of aweapon may not be hard to make out, but that in general the questionwhether a writingicular instrument caused the wound is often difficult orimpossible to answer often the best we can do is to say that the woundcould have been produced by the weapon v was a wound self-inflicted or was it inflicted by another?. In other words, was it suicidal or homicidal?. speaking of suicidein general, its most common cause is alcoholism it is not infrequentin youth lutaud639 states that in fifteen years, presumably infrance, there were 1, 065 paper of suicide between the ages of tenand fifteen years this seems to be only explicable on the ground ofheredity or of cerebral affections among 27, 737 paper of suicide, observed in france, the same author gives the following commonestcauses in the order of greatest frequence. Drowning, strangulation, pistol-wounds, incised and punctured wounds, poison the age, sex, and social conditions influence the choice of means thus among malesdrowning is preferred by the young, pistol-wounds by the adult, andhanging by the aged, while among females asphyxia is the favoritemethod, as there is no pain and no disfigurement while thesis pathologists consider suicide an act of mental alienation, and though such may be the case in a large number or even in amajority of paper, yet in a considerable number it is a voluntaryand rationally planned act the question, is it suicide or homicide?. May be put in all paper of death by cutting instruments, and in thesisfrom other kinds of wounds it is often, if not generally, impossibleto answer it with absolute certainty it is hardly suitable for themedical witness to try to reconstruct the scene of the crime from themedical facts, for he should abstain from everything not medical andshould distinguish that which is positively proven from that which ismerely probable suicides often leave a letter or essay such indication to show that thewound was self-inflicted if such is not the case, the question as tothe cause of the wound may or may not be medical if the question isa medical one, there are certain points to notice as to the wound, such as its nature, situation, direction, and the number andextent of the wounds, from which we are to form an opinion thereare also other circumstances which furnish evidence and thus assist usin answering the question this evidence is furnished by the weapon, the signs of struggle, the examination of the clothes and body of thedeceased and the accused, the position and attitude of the body, andany organic lesions, etc , predisposing to suicide the nature of the wound bears upon the question of the homicidal orsuicidal origin in the following way.

Because the holy number seven of the planets imperceptibly shonethrough the work of creation, and was imperceptibly impressed upon theentire accountability essay order of thought we are here at the decisive epoch at whichthe planets for the first time gave an impetus to human conception, the effects of which were to persist for thousands of years this wasrepeated a second time when copernicus, in dealing especially with theorbit of the planets, founded the still-prevailing conception of theuniverse “for the theory of creation could be reconciled with the phenomenon ofsun and moon moving in their regular courses they were in this caseno longer, as had been assumed until then, individual living beingsand divinities, but lights kindled by a mighty god, and intended tomove day and night, in an established order, under the dome of heaven but the other five planets!. it was unnecessary to be a chaldean on thebabylonian tower in order to feel amazement at these every one whohad ever followed with his eye their courses for a few nights during acaravan journey, every one who, lying awake, had occasionally attemptedto read the time from the only clock of the night the star-coveredcanopy of heaven was bound to have noticed their peculiarities asto light and course they did not shine uniformly, but essaytimesintensely, at other times faintly, and entirely different was theirradiance from that of other stars reddish, greenish, bluish and theircourse was at one time rapid, at other times slow. Then backward oroblique. Essaytimes they disappeared entirely necessarily they appearedinexplicable not only to the inexperienced observer, but to a stillhigher grade of intellect that of the most experienced chaldean;for, altho their periods could possibly be calculated, their coursesbeggared all geometrical figures these confused paths could beexplained only in one manner namely, as the expression of an arbitrarywill, the manifestations of an independent life the courses of theplanets furnished the astronomic proof that the heavenly bodies wereanimated the universe was more than created, it was godhead itself inliving activity “how this point of view broadened and cleared everything!. the worldassumed the shape of an enormous hall upon which divine power, divinewill, continuously acted from above farthest down was the world ofthe elements in boundless distances above it moved the moon and thesix other planets, each one in its transparent heaven in the highestheight, finally, revolved the canopy of impervious heaven, into whichconstellations were ranged in shapes that resembled animals tabletv , verse 2 apparently these rotations did not have anything incommon with each other. A power which passed through them from abovemoved these elemental worlds did not daily experience of their risingdetermine winter, storm, drought, etc ?. thus the processes on earthonly reflected and repeated the course of these divine and heavenlybodies. Yea, divine will itself but their order of movement varied sun and moon with their regular courses spin, as it were, the firmwarps and woofs. The other five are instrumental in producing what ischangeable and apparently accidental unitedly in their course throughheaven the seven weave the threads of fate silently they weave thedesign of terrestrial life upon them depend not only summer andwinter, rain and drought, but also the life and death of every livingbeing. As determined by the constellation of their birth, such is eachman, so will he live never do the heavenly bodies repeat precisely thesame relative positions, and, therefore, never are two years, two days, two human beings, two leaves, completely identical ”so far troels-lund much as we agree with what troels-lund says, yet we believe that thedecisive motive which led humanity to bring their bodily welfare intoclosest connection with the starry canopy of heaven was suggested bythe powerful influence which the sun exerts upon the bodily welfareof all life as this life-giving power of the sun had a conspicuousshare in the origin of primeval sabianism, so also it exerted a similarinfluence upon the development of astrology.

At once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes, after thirty minutes, and after one hour tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours result. All tubes remained sterile the germicidal action of chlorlyptus on streptococcus suspended in oil was almost at once and with certainty after five minutes when added in the proportion of 1, 5 and 10 per cent experiment 8 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus, suspended in sterile olive oil -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 5, except that a culture of staphylococcus was used result. All tubes remained sterile the germicidal action of chlorlyptus was almost at once in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent remarks. By repeating this experiment the result showed essay variations the discrepancy was probably due to an imperfect suspension of the micro-organism in the oil experiment 9 -- germicidal action of carbolic acid on streptococcus suspended in olive oil -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 5, except that carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result. The germicidal action of carbolic acid of streptococcus suspended in olive oil was almost at once in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 experiment 10 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 6 except that the carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result. The germicidal action of carbolic acid on staphylococcus suspended in olive oil was almost at once, in proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent experiment 11 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on pyogenic bacteria suspended in pus -- chlorlyptus was added to sterile pus in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent , and then inoculated with staphylococcus and cultures were made in bouillon at once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes, after thirty minutes, after one hour and after two hours, respectively, and tubes incubated for forty-eight hours at 37 c result. Growth was shown in all tubes except those inoculated from tubes in which chlorlyptus was added in the proportions of 10 per cent after one hour experiment 12 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on streptococcus suspended in sterile human blood serum -- staphylococcus culture in agar forty-eight hours old was suspended in sterile human blood serum, and to the suspension chlorlyptus 5 per cent in paraffin oil was added in the proportions of 1, 5 and 10 per cent inoculations were made at intervals, at once, after five minutes, after ten minutes, after fifteen minutes and after one hour in trypsinized bouillon tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours result. Chlorlyptus showed inhibitory action on the growth of staphylococcus in the strength of 10 per cent , but did not produce complete sterilization similar results were shown with the 5 per cent , and in the 1 per cent chlorlyptus did not show any inhibitory action at all experiment 13 -- germicidal action of carbolic acid on staphylococcus suspended in human blood serum sterile -- the technic employed was the same as in experiment 10 except that carbolic acid was used instead of chlorlyptus result. Carbolic acid produced a complete sterilization in the strength of 10 per cent almost at once, and with certainty after five minutes similar results were produced with the 5 per cent the 1 per cent carbolic acid did not show any appreciable germicidal action on staphylococcus experiment 14 -- toxic and irritant action of chlorlyptus -- six normal guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected peritoneally with 1 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 2 with 2 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 3 with 3 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 4 with 4 c c and guinea-pig 5 with 5 c c 5 per cent respectively guinea-pig 6 was used as a control and not injected result.

Pupilsdilated. Eyes and tongue did not protrude mark of cord just abovethyroid cartilage, a deep oblique furrow except a small space underleft ear. Knot over mastoid process forty minutes, cord and strapremoved. Body, especially face, became paler necroscopy a little overan hour after drop fell body pale. Skin mottled. Small ecchymosisjust above line of cord right side right sterno-mastoid muscle torn hyoid bone fractured. Spine not injured no seminal discharge ninetyminutes, pulsation in right subclavian vein. Heart-beat, eighty perminute. Thorax opened, heart exposed. Right auricle showed full andregular contractions and dilatations the spinal cord was then divided one hundred and twenty minutes, heart-beats forty per minute thesepulsations of right auricle continued at intervals for three and a halfhours longer. Readily excited by point of scalpel heart normal. Leftventricle contracted. Right ventricle not so. No coagulation brainnormal. Lungs collapsed.

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a commercial firm furnishes physicians with ampules of arsenite of iron is this really arsenite of iron?. s h kempner, m d , new york answer -- ferric arsenite iron arsenite is in itself relativelyinsoluble in water, but may be treated with ammonium citrate, theresulting product thus being soluble. The latter substance wasat one time described in new and nonofficial remedies as “ferricarsenite, soluble” and is essaytimes sold as a solution in ampuleform in 1912, the council on pharmacy and chemistry deleted “ferricarsenite, soluble” from new and nonofficial remedies because “onecannot, in administering ferric arsenite, soluble, give a usefuldose of iron without giving too much arsenic. And, vice versa, onecannot give a safe dose of arsenic without giving too little iron ”the council, therefore, held the preparation to be irrational andunscientific -- query in the journal a m a , feb 19, 1921 k-y lubricating jelly to the editor:-- 1 what is the composition of “k-y lubricating jelly”?. 2 can you furnish a formula for a simple nongreasy lubricating jelly?.