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Two formamint advertisements reproduced in miniaturetypical of those appearing in a certain type of medical journals essay determinations were made of the germicidal power of formamintin vitro, that is, under controlled laboratory conditions atwenty-four-hour plain agar culture of staphylococcus aureus waswashed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chloridsolution a 1:100, 000 dilution of this was made in each of three flaskscontaining 100 c c of sterile saliva flask 1 contained 1 per cent offormamint, flask 2, 5 per cent. Flask 3, containing no formamint, waskept as a control at intervals samples were removed and dilutions madeand plated in duplicate on standard agar the plates were incubatedtwenty-four hours at 37 c , and plates containing less than 200colonies were counted the results are given in table 1 after sevendays there was no appreciable difference in the plates another test was made by adding a 1 per cent formamint solution toplain agar plates inoculated with b coli a twenty-four-hour plainagar culture of b coli was washed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 percent sodium chlorid solution a 1:1, 000, 000 dilution was made of thisand 1 c c added to each plate varying amounts of 1 per cent solutionof formamint were added to each plate they were incubated seventy-twohours at 37 c after seven days’ incubation the count was the same theresults are given in table 2 another experiment was made thus. One loopful of a twenty-four-hourplain agar culture of streptococcus lacticus was mixed with a tubeof north medium one loopful from the inoculated tube was mixed with asecond tube of north medium both tubes were poured into petri dishesand allowed to cool one half of each plate was well smeared with a 10per cent solution of formamint in saliva after twenty-four hours’incubation at 37 c , only a few colonies appeared on the side to whichthe formamint had been applied, while the other half was thicklycovered with colonies table 1 -- showing time in which cultures of staphylococcus aureus werekilled by different amounts of formamint amount of formamint| period of |average count| count on flask in saliva |standing at 37 c | when plated |of saliva without per cent | hours | | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 32 | 3200 1 | 6 | 0 | 7000 5 | 1 | few | 5000 5 | 2 | 0 | 4100 5 | 3 | 0 | 3200* 5 | 6 | 0 | 7000* -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the last two observations were made at the same time as on the 1 percent solutions this work so far corroborates that reported in the literature quotedby the manufacturers but the fact that a compound is a germicide whenbrought into intimate contact with bacteria in a solution or medium ina test tube or flask does not prove that it will be effective when usedin the human throat the alleged germicidal actionan attempt was made to discover whether or not the claims advanced bythe manufacturers as to the perfect germicidal action of formamint inall the nooks and crannies of the mouth and throat could be confirmed table 2 -- count of b coli cultures with different amounts of formamint no c c of 1 per cent formamint 0 0 1 0 3 0 5 0 7 1 0 1 5 2 0 3 0 count 160 33 39 26 15 12 2 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the first step in attacking this problem was to make comparative countsof the number of bacteria in the throat before and after the use offormamint the methods employed were as follows.

Prog méd , 1887, vi , pp 211-214 - two men, age 29 and25, insane attempted suicide by hanging both resuscitated 48 nobeling. Aertz intellig -bl , 1884, xxxi , p 213 - twosuicides by hanging. Men, ages 24 and 40 49 ritter. Allg wien, med zeit , 1886, xxxi , p 375 - soldier, found hanging cut down in ten minutes artificial respirationapplied.

The physiological action of fumes of iodin, j pharmacol &exper 4 paragraph essay outline therap 15. 1 march 1920 most important were the effects of iodin administered intratracheallyin the forms of fumes iodin given in this way seems to be rapidly andcompletely absorbed. But it was found that the administration of thefumes of iodin by inhalation through the respiratory passages, even insmall quantities, is fraught with great danger such administrationinduces dyspnea. And when it is given in large quantities, acute andfatal pulmonary edema ensues within twenty-four hours when respiratorydisorders are present at the time of administration, the fatal edemasupervenes very quickly thus far, no device designed to deliver fumescontrols the dosage it is interesting to consider, as do the authors, the fact that thefumes of iodin have the same effect as those of two other halogens, bromin and chlorin the results of these experiments with iodin fumeson the dog, as shown by necropsy findings, are practically identicalwith those reported by military surgeons as found in soldiers gassedwith chlorin during the war the results of these researches are additional evidence as tohow scientific research may confirm or deny conclusions based onempiric therapeutic observations the work may well serve as a modelfor similar experiments, now being made, on the therapeutic use, intravenously, of such substances as nonspecific proteins or organicpreparations of toxic drugs the patient should at least have thechance that is afford him by preliminary experiments, scientificallyperformed on animals in the research laboratory -- editorial from thejournal a m a , may 29, 1920 italian physico-chemical companythesis and various are the letters received by the journal asking forinformation about an alleged scientific organization in italy styledl’académie physico-chimique italienne this italian physico-chemicalacademy is operated from palermo, italy here is the scheme. Dr johndoe, an american physician receives an imposing-looking letter bearingthe palermo, sicily, postmark and addressed to “monsieur le docteurjohn doe, médecin ” on opening the letter “monsieur le docteur”finds that the “council” of l’académie physico-chimique italiennehas nominated him “honorary member of this academy” and furthermorehas bestowed on him “a first class medal for technical work andscientific merit ” all this, “in consideration of your thesis dignitiesand great learning ” dr doe is told that as soon as he will write anacceptance of this honor “in conformity with section 19 and 22 of theconstitution” he will be sent “the medal, diploma and all the otherdocuments relating to the title accorded ” the joker in the scheme liesin the necessity for dr john doe “conforming” with “section 19 and 22of the constitution ” here are the sections:illustration. Reduced photographic reproduction of the stock lettersent to american physicians by the italian physico-chemical academy the “joker” lies in the requirement around which we have drawn a line “sec 19 -- the entrance fee to cover office and postal expenses, including postage of diploma is 5 dollars, and is payable once at the admission to the academy by special bulletin filled up, stamped and signed ” “sec 22 -- those to whom medals are awarded and who wish to possess them must pay for their coinage 10 dollars as the academy does not, at present, possess the necessary funds for this purpose ”in short the whole thing means that if dr doe is willing to send $15in good american money he will receive in due time from the academy a“diploma” and a gilt not gold medal about four years ago when the “academy” seemed to be making awritingicularly heavy bid for american dollars the member of the journalstaff in charge of the propaganda dewritingment wrote to the “academy, ”on his personal stationery, asking about the cost of membership in the“academy” and asking also for a copy of the “prospectus ” and thatwas all in reply he received a letter stating that “in considerationof” his “thesis dignities and great learning” he had been nominated “anofficer of this academy” and had been awarded “la médaille de premièreclasse” for humanitarian work and scientific merit in order to obtainthese tokens of the “academy” regard it would be necessary to informthe “academy” of acceptance “in conformity with section 19 and 22 ”as the propaganda dewritingment did not consider the diploma and giltmedal worth $15 even as exhibit for its museum of fakes, the “form ofacceptance” was not filled in and returned “in accordance with section19 and 22 ”illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of the “form ofacceptance” to “membership” in the “italian physico-chemical academy ”filling out this blank and sending it with $15 00 to the “academy”will bring the gilt medal and “diploma ”the leading spirits in the operation of this diploma and medal mill ared and g bandiera, who, so far as we can learn, are neither physiciansnor pharmacists nor have any scientific standing the “academy” hasbeen referred to at various times294 by the journal -- from thejournal a m a , feb 26, 1916 294 j a m a 48. 2196 june 29 1907.

1 was worse than 2 or 3 in 6 paper 2 was worse than 4 paragraph essay outline 1 or 3 in 5 paper 3 was worse than 2 or 1 in 1 case the report from johns hopkins records a series of 117 injectionsfollowed by the estimated reactions recorded below. 1 severe, 13. Mild, 14. None, 4. Unrecorded, 8 39 2 severe, 5. Mild, 15. None, 16. Unrecorded, 5 41 3 severe, 7. Mild, 25. None, 3. Unrecorded, 2 37that is, when recorded in percentages. 1 biniodol severe, 33 3. Mild, 35 9.

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They contain an expression whichindicates that at that time the true function of the medical expertwas more correctly appreciated than it is to-day his function wasstated to be judicial rather than that of a witness 23 there isalso a provision that in paper of contested pregnancy, midwives whowere considered as belonging to the medical profession should, afterexamination of the woman, determine whether or no pregnancy exist, andthat their determination should be final the practice of medicine, surgery, and midwifery was regulated those desiring to practise musthave been found competent by an examination the number of physiciansin each town was limited they were divided into classes, and weresubject to the government of the archiatri penalties were imposed uponthose guilty of malpractice or of poisoning the justinian enactmentscontain abundant internal evidence of having been framed in the lightof medical knowledge they contain provisions relating to sterilityand impotence, rape, disputed pregnancy, legitimacy, diseased mentalconditions, presumption of survivorship, poisoning, etc , whichindicate that the medical knowledge of the time was fully utilized intheir construction 24the germanic peoples at about the same period possessed codes inwhich traces of a rudimentary medical jurisprudence existed the mostancient of these was the salic law a d 422, in which the penaltiesto be paid for wounds of different kinds are fixed the ripuarian law, of essaywhat later date, takes cognizance of the crime of poisoning the laws of the bavarians, burgundians, frisians, thuringians, andvisigoths contain practically nothing of medico-legal interest the lexalamannorum has numerous provisions relating to wounds, and expresslyprovides that the gravity of the injury shall be determined by aphysician 25during the period of about a thousand years, intervening betweenthe justinian and caroline vide infra codes, the advancement ofmedicine and jurisprudence suffered almost complete arrest the guiltor innocence of an accused person was determined rather by his ownconfession under torture, or by “the judgment of god” as shown byordeal or by judicial combat, than by testimony either expert or offact even during the night of the middle ages, instances are recorded inwhich the opinions of physicians were sought to determine questions offact in judicial proceedings in the duchy of normandy, in 1207-45, the laws provided for theexamination of those claiming to be sick to evade military service orappeal to judicial duel, of persons killed, and of women 26in a decretal of innocent iii , in 1209, the question whether a certainwound was mortal was determined by physicians 27there is extant in the statutes of the city of bologna, under date of1249, an entry to the effect that hugo di lucca had been assigned theduty, when called upon by the podesta, and after having been sworn, tofurnish a true report in legal paper 28in the kingdom of jerusalem ca 1250 a person claiming exemptionfrom trial by battle because of sickness or of wounds was visited bya physician fisicien au miége and a surgeon sérorgien, whoexamined him and made oath as to his condition 29sworn surgeons to the king are also mentioned in letters patent ofphilippe le hardi in 1278, of philippe le bel in 1311, and of jean ii in 1352 30 that of philippe le bel refers to jean pitardi as one of“his well-beloved sworn surgeons in his chastelet of paris, ” whosefunctions are writingly indicated by the extracts from the registers givenbelow the registers of the chtelet at paris from 1389 to 1392 record severalinstances in which medical aid was rendered in judicial proceedings under date of march 22d, 1389-90, “maître jehan le conte, sworn surgeonto the king our sire, ” reports to maître jehan truquam, lieutenant tothe provost, that “upon that day in the morning one rotisseur had gonefrom life unto death in consequence of the wounds which he had receivedon the monday evening preceding ”31 under date of july 22d, 1390, is an account of the examination of one jehan le porchier, accused ofintent to poison the king charles vi , in which there is referenceto a very early instance of toxicological expert evidence in thewallet of the accused certain herbs were found the account proceeds:“richart de bules, herbalist, was summoned, to him the above-mentionedherbs were shown, and he was commanded that he should examine them andconsider well and duly, reporting the truth of what he should find the said richart, after having examined them with great diligence, reported that in the box in which these herbs were he had found sixleaves, namely. One leaf of jacia nigra, and one of round plantain, called in latin plantago minor, and four of sow-thistle lasseron, called in latin rosti poterugni, and says that the leaf of jatrianigra is poisonous, but that in the others there is no poison knownto the deponent ”32 on august 12th, 1390, “jehan le conte and jehanle grant, sworn surgeons of our sire the king, ” are present at thetorture of a prisoner, but for what purpose does not appear in anothercase the same jehan le conte testified that a wound in the head of adeceased person was made with an axe 33 at a later period in italy, the infliction of “the question” took place under medical supervision zacchias devotes a chapter, de tormentis et pœnis, 34 to theconsideration of the different methods of torture, the degrees of painand danger attending each, and the conditions of age, sex, and healthwhich render its application inadmissible 35during this period, as indeed from the earliest times, the practiceof medicine was regulated by law thus a law of king roger of sicily 1129-54 punished those who practised medicine without authority withimprisonment and confiscation of goods. And an edict of frederick ii 1215-46 imposed like penalties upon those who presumed to practiseexcept after graduation at the school of salernum 36medico-legal science was formed in the middle of the sixteenth centuryby a simultaneous awakening of jurists and physicians to the importanceof the subject it was in gerthesis that expert medical testimony was first legallyrecognized in 1507, george, bishop of bamberg, proclaimed a criminalcode in his domains this was subsequently adopted by other germanstates, and finally was the model upon which the caroline code, thefirst general criminal code applying to the whole empire, was framedand proclaimed at the diet of ratisbon in 1532 37these codes, writingicularly the caroline, distinctly provide forutilizing the testimony of physicians wounds are to be examined bysurgeons who are “to be used as witnesses;”38 and in case of deathone or more surgeons are to “examine the dead body carefully beforeburial ”39 they also contain provisions for the examination of womenin paper of contested delivery, or suspected infanticide;40 for theregulation of the sale of poisons;41 for the detection and punishmentof malpractice;42 and for examination into the mental condition inpaper of suicide and of crime 43an early work on the practice of criminal law, based on the carolinecode, was published by the flemish jurist, josse de damhouder, in 1554 it contains a chapter treating of the lethality of wounds, which shouldbe determined by expert physicians and surgeons, 44 and describesthe course which is to be pursued in the judicial examination of deadbodies this is probably the earliest printed book other than the lawsthemselves containing reference to medico-legal examinations, 45 andantedates the writings of physicians upon the subject although it was only in 1670 that the ordinances of louis xiv gaveto france a uniform criminal code, medico-legal reports were made byphysicians and surgeons to the courts more than a century before indeed, the earliest medico-legal work written by a physician46 isthe 27th book of the œuvres d’ambroise paré, first printed in 1575, in which he directs the forms in which judicial reports shall bemade in various medico-legal paper 47 during the remainder of thesixteenth century france produced but three treatises on medico-legalsubjects 48 one of these, written by the jurist a hotman, distinctlymentions the employment of physicians to determine questions of fact in italy works on medical jurisprudence were published at the close ofthe sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century the earliestof these was a chapter of codronchius, treating of the “method oftestifying in medical paper, ” in 1597 49 at about the same time, butcertainly later, appeared the work of fortunatus fidelis, to whom thehonor of being the first writer on medical jurisprudence is given bythesis 50the great work of paulus zacchias, physician to pope innocent x , wasfirst printed at rome, 1621-35 this medico-legal classic containsin the first two volumes the “quæstiones” and in the third thedecisions of the roman rota it treats of every branch of medico-legalscience, and discusses physiological questions of legal interest, besides dealing with questions such as the infliction of torture andmiracles 51although the “quæstiones medico-legales” of zacchias was the firstsystematic work upon medical jurisprudence, his countrymen insucceeding centuries have contributed but little to this science it isonly during the latter writing of the present century that italians haveagain become prominent in medico-legal literature in france legal medicine progressed but little from the time of paré tothe latter writing of the eighteenth century several treatises appeared, being chiefly upon legitimacy and kindred subjects, 52 with a fewtreating of reports, signs of death, etc 53toward the end of the eighteenth century the labors of louis, petit, chaussier, and fodéré elevated legal medicine to the rank of a science the investigations of louis ant l were numerous and important inthis as in other subjects, 54 and the “causes célébres” containreports of thesis trials in which he threw light upon doubtful medicalquestions 55 antoine petit, a contemporary of louis, contributed anextensive work on the duration of pregnancy as affecting legitimacy 56essaywhat later fr b chaussier, between 1785 and 1828, publishedat dijon a number of treatises on infanticide, viability, surgicalmalpractice, etc 57 fodéré, a savoyard, was the first to publish asystematic treatise on medical jurisprudence in france, which was firstprinted in 1798 and in a much enlarged form in 1813 58 this lastedition is an exhaustive treatise upon all branches of legal medicineand public hygiene, and won for its author the appointment as professorof forensic medicine in the university of strassburg at about the same period appeared the works of mahon59 and ofbelloc, 60 both of which went through three editions in ten years, andthose of biessy 61the most industrious and original of french professors of legalmedicine was orfila a native of minorca, he graduated in medicineat paris in 1811, and devoting himself to chemical and toxicologicalinvestigations, published the first edition of his “traité despoisons” in 1814 this work, which may be regarded as the foundationof experimental and forensic toxicology, went through five editionsto 1852, and was translated into several foreign languages the firstedition of his “leçons de médecine légale” appeared in 1821, and thefourth in 1848 besides these orfila published a work on the treatmentof asphyxia and a great number of papers on medico-legal subjects, principally in the annales d’hygiène, of which he was one of thefounders with andral, esquirol, leuret, and devergie orfila occupiedthe chair of chemistry and medical jurisprudence in the universityof paris for upward of thirty years, and was employed as expert ininnumerable paper before the courts contemporaneous with orfila, and almost as prominent, was devergie, thefirst edition of whose “médecine légale, ” in three volumes, appeared in1836, and the third in 1852 in 1820 the first edition of the manual of briand and brosson waspublished this work, the tenth edition of which was published in 1879, is the first in which a jurist was associated with a physician in theauthorship, 62 and is one of five of which one of the authors is alawyer 63special treatises on the medico-legal relations of insanity werepublished by georget 1821, falvet 1828, esquirol 1838, and marc 1840, and on midwifery by capuron 1821 tardieu, professor of legal medicine in the university of paris 1861-79, published a most important series of monographs on hygienicand medico-legal subjects, 64 besides thesis papers, principally in theannales d’hygiène, etc , and testified before the courts in thesis“causes célébres ”the first work of medico-legal interest to appear in gerthesis was the“medicus-politicus” of rodericus à castro, a portuguese jew living inhamburg, printed in 1614, which deals principally with medical ethicsand the relations of physicians, but contains chapters on simulateddiseases, poisoning, wounds, drowning, and virginity 65it was only toward the end of the seventeenth century that thesubject was scientifically treated, and during the latter writing ofthe seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth greatprogress was made in the development of forensic medicine in gerthesis johannes bohn, one of the originators of the experimental method ofinvestigation in physiological chemistry and physics, at the universityof leipzig, was also one of the earliest german contributors to theliterature of legal medicine besides smaller works he published twonoteworthy treatises. In 1689 a work on the examination of woundsand the distinction between ante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, andbetween death by injury, strangulation, and drowning 66 in 1704 awork giving rules for the conduct of physicians in attending the sickand in giving evidence in the courts 67 at about the same period m b valentini, professor in the university of giessen, published threeimportant works, containing collections of medico-legal paper, and ofthe opinions and decisions of previous writers 68 another extensivecollection of paper and decisions was published in 1706 by j f zittmann, from a ms left by professor c j lange, of the universityof leipzig;69 and still another by j s hasenest70 appeared in1755 during the latter writing of the eighteenth century, the germanscultivated legal medicine assiduously, and a great number of works uponthe subject were published among these may be mentioned those of m alberti, professor at the university of halle;71 h f teichmeyer, of the university of jena;72 a o gölicke, of the universities ofhalle and duisburg, who was the first to prepare a bibliography ofthe subject;73 j f fasel faselius, professor at jena;74 j e hebenstreit and c s ludwig, professors at leipzig;75 c f daniel, of halle;76 j d metzger, professor at königsberg, the author ofa number of works, one of which, a compendium, was translated intoseveral other languages;77 j v müller, of frankfurt;78 j c t schlegel, who collected a series of more than forty dissertations byvarious writers;79 m m sikora, of prague;80 j j von plenck, professor in vienna, who published a work on forensic medicine andone on toxicology;81 k f uden, subsequently professor in st petersburg, who was the first to publish a periodical journal devotedto legal medicine, which was afterward continued by j f pyl atstendal;82 and j c fahner 83at this period compends for students were published in gerthesis, whichindicate by their number the extent to which this science was thesubject of study among these those of ludwig 1765, kannegieser 1768, von plenck 1781, frenzel 1791, loder 1791, amemann 1793, metzger 1800, and roose may be mentioned the germans of the present century have maintained the pre-eminencein legal medicine achieved by their forefathers among a greatnumber of investigators and writers a few may be mentioned. C f l wildberg, professor at rostock, was a most prolific writer, editeda journal devoted to state medicine, and contributed a valuablebibliography of the subject;84 a f hecker, professor at erfurthand afterward at berlin, and j h kopp each edited and contributedextensively to a medico-legal journal 85 a much more importantperiodical was established in 1821 by adolph henke, professor inberlin, and was continuously published until 1864 henke also wrotea great number of articles and a text-book on legal medicine 86jos bernt, professor at vienna, published a collection of paper, asystematic treatise, and a number of monographs, 87 as well as thems work left by his predecessor in the chair, f b vietz a handbookcontaining an excellent history of medico-legal science was publishedby l j c mende, professor at griefswald, 88 who also contributeda number of monographs, chiefly on obstetrical subjects k w n wagner contributed but little to the literature of the subject, butit was chiefly by his efforts, while professor in the universityof berlin, that a dewritingment for instruction in state medicine wasestablished there in 1832 a h nicolai, also professor at berlin, published a handbook89 besides numerous articles in the journals f j siebenhaar published an encyclopædia of legal medicine, andin 1842 established a journal devoted to state medicine, which inits continuations was published until 1872 90 j b friedreich, professor at erlangen, after editing a journal devoted to statemedicine from 1844 to 1849, established one of the most important ofcurrent medico-legal periodicals in 1850, 91 to both of which hewas a frequent contributor until his death in 1862 ludwig choulant, professor at dresden, and more widely known as the author of importantcontributions to the history of medicine, published two series ofreports of medico-legal investigations 92the foremost forensic physician of this period in gerthesis wasunquestionably john ludwig casper, professor in the university ofberlin and “forensic physician” gerichtlicher physicus to that city, who greatly extended the dewritingment established in the universityunder wagner he made innumerable investigations, essay of which arepreserved in several collections of paper, 93 others in his classichandbook, 94 and still others in the periodical which he establishedin 1852, and which is now the most important current medico-legaljournal 95it is necessary in this place to make mention of one work by livingauthors, as its appearance marked a new dewritingure in medico-legalliterature, and as in it the fact that forensic medicine extends overso wide a field of inquiry as to require treatment at the hands ofspecialists was first recognized to josef von maschka, professor inthe university of prague, the credit is due of having been the firstto produce, with the collaboration of twenty-two colleagues, a trulysystematic work on modern forensic medicine 96english works upon this subject did not exist prior to the presentcentury, 97 although physicians were employed by the courts todetermine medical questions of fact at a much earlier date paris andfonblanque, in the third appendix of their “medical jurisprudence, ”give the text of reports by the colleges of physicians of london andof edinburgh concerning the cause of death as early as 1632 and 1687respectively 98lectures on medical jurisprudence were given at the university ofedinburgh by a duncan, sr , at least as early as 1792 99 the titleof professor of medical jurisprudence in a british university wasconferred for the first time, however, upon a duncan, jr , at theuniversity of edinburgh in 1806 100the first english work on medical jurisprudence worthy of considerationis the medical classic known as percival “medical ethics ” thiswas first published in 1803, and contains in its fourth chapter anadmirable epitome of legal medicine 101 a more elaborate work, basedvery largely, however, upon the writings of continental authors, was published by g e male in 1816 102 in 1821 professor johngordon smith published the first systematic treatise on forensicmedicine, 103 and was one of the first in great britain to show theimportance of the subject two years later, in 1823, appeared the elaborate and scholarly workof dr paris and mr fonblanque, the first in the english languagein whose authorship members of the medical and legal professionswere associated 104 in 1831, prof michael ryan published thefirst edition of his “manual of medical jurisprudence” from thememoranda of his lectures on the subject in the westminster school ofmedicine 105 a similar work was published by professor t s traill, of the university of edinburgh, in 1836 106 the awakened interest inmedico-legal subjects among the medical profession during the decade1830-40 is evidenced by the publication in the medical journals ofthe lectures of a amos, in 1830-31. Of a t thomson, at the londonuniversity, in 1834-35. Of h graham, at westminster hospital, in1835.