History

2500 Word Essay


Outwardly applied viz inplaisters they are of a discussing nature carrot seeds, are windy, provoke lust exceedingly, and encreaseseed, provoke urine and the menses, cause speedy 2500 word essay delivery to women intravail, and bring away the placenta all these also may be boiled inwhite wine nigella seeds, boiled in oil, and the forehead anointed with it, ease pains in the head, take away leprosy, itch, scurf, and help scaldheads. Inwardly taken they expel worms, they provoke urine, and themenses, help difficulty of breathing stavesacre, kills lice in the head, i hold it not fitting to be giveninwardly olibanum mixed with as much barrow grease beat the olibanum firstin powder and boiled together, make an ointment which will kill thelice in children heads, and such as are subject to breed them, willnever breed them a medicine cheap, safe, and sure, which breeds noannoyance to the brain the seeds of water-cresses, heat, yet trouble the stomach and belly;ease the pains of the spleen, are very dangerous for pregnant women, yet they provoke lust. Outwardly applied, they help leprosies, scaldheads, and the falling off of hair, as also carbuncles, and cold ulcersin the joints mustard seed, heats, extenuates, and draws moisture from the brain:the head being shaved and anointed with mustard, is a good remedy forthe lethargy, it helps filthy ulcers, and hard swellings in the mouth, it helps old aches coming of cold french barley, is cooling, nourishing, and breeds milk sorrel seeds, potently resist poison, help fluxes, and such stomachsas loath their meat succory seed, cools the heat of the blood, extinguishes lust, opensstoppings of the liver and bowels, it allays the heat of the body, andproduces a good colour, it strengthens the stomach, liver, and reins poppy seeds, ease pain, provoke sleep your best way is to make anemulsion of them with barley water mallow seeds, ease pains in the bladder chich-pease, are windy, provoke lust, encrease milk in nurses, provoke the menses, outwardly, they help scabs, itch, and inflammationsof the testicles, ulcers, &c white saxifrage seeds, provoke urine, expel wind, and break thestone boil them in white wine rue seeds, helps such as cannot hold their water lettice seed, cools the blood, restrains venery also gourds, citruls, cucumbers, melons, purslain, and endive seeds, cool the blood, as also the stomach, spleen, and reins, and allay theheat of fevers use them as you were taught to do poppy-seeds wormseed, expels wind, kills worms ash-tree keys, ease pains in the sides, help the dropsy, relieve menweary with labour, provoke venery, and make the body lean piony seeds, help the ephialtes, or the disease the vulgar call themare, as also the fits of the mother, and other such like infirmitiesof the womb, stop the menses, and help convulsions broom seed, potently provoke urine, break the stone citron seeds, strengthen the heart, cheer the vital spirit, resistpestilence and poison tears, liquors, and rozins laudanum, is of a heating, mollifying nature, it opens the mouth ofthe veins, stays the hair from falling off, helps pains in the ears, and hardness of the womb it is used only outwardly in plaisters assafœtida is commonly used to allay the fits of the mother bysmelling to it. They say, inwardly taken, it provokes lust, and expelswind benzoin, or benjamin, makes a good perfume sanguis draconis, cools and binds exceedingly aloes, purges choler and flegm, and with such deliberation that itis often given to withstand the violence of other purges, it preservesthe senses and betters the apprehension, it strengthens the liver, andhelps the yellow-jaundice yet is naught for such as are troubled withthe hemorrhoids, or have agues i do not like it taken raw see aloerosata, which is nothing but it washed with the juice of roses manna, is temperately hot, of a mighty dilative quality, windy, cleanses choler gently, also it cleanses the throat and stomach achild may take an ounce of it at a time melted in milk, and the drossstrained out, it is good for them when they are scabby scamony, or diagridium, call it by which name you please, is adesperate purge, hurtful to the body by reason of its heat, windiness, corroding, or gnawing, and violence of working i would advise mycountrymen to let it alone. It will gnaw their bodies as fast asdoctors gnaw their purses opopanax, is of a heating, molifying, digesting quality gum elemi, is exceeding good for fractures of the skull, as also inwounds, and therefore is put in plaisters for that end see arceushis liniment tragacanthum, commonly called gum traganth, and gum dragon, helpscoughs, hoarseness, and distillations on the lungs bdellium, heats and softens, helps hard swellings, ruptures, pains inthe sides, hardness of the sinews galbanum hot and dry, discussing. Applied to the womb, it hastensboth birth and after-birth, applied to the navel it stays thestrangling of the womb, commonly called the fits of the mother, helpspains in the sides, and difficulty of breathing, being applied to it, and the smell of it helps the vertigo or diziness in the head myrh, heats and dries, opens and softens the womb, provokes the birthand after-birth. Inwardly taken, it helps old coughs and hoarseness, pains in the sides, kills worms, and helps a stinking breath, helps thewasting of the gums, fastens the teeth. Outwardly it helps wounds, andfills up ulcers with flesh you may take half a dram at a time mastich, strengthens the stomach exceedingly, helps such as vomit orspit blood, it fastens the teeth and strengthens the gums, being chewedin the mouth frankinsense, and olibanum, heat and bind, fill up old ulcers withflesh, stop bleeding, but is extremely bad for mad people turpentine, purges, cleanses the reins, helps the running of them styrax calamitis, helps coughs, and distillations upon the lungs, hoarseness, want of voice, hardness of the womb, but it is bad forhead-aches ammonicaum, applied to the side, helps the hardness and pains of thespleen camphire, eases pains of the head coming of heat, takes awayinflammations, and cools any place to which it is applied juices that all juices have the same virtues with the herbs or fruits whereofthey are made, i suppose few or none will deny, therefore i shall onlyname a few of them, and that briefly sugar is held to be hot in the first degree, strengthens the lungs, takes away the roughness of the throat, succours the reins and bladder the juice of citrons cools the blood, strengthens the heart, mitigates the violent heat of fevers the juice of lemons works the same effect, but not so powerfully juice of liquorice, strengthens the lungs, helps coughs and colds things bred from plants these have been treated of before, only two excepted the first ofwhich is, agaricus agarick.

Drowning, strangulation, pistol-wounds, incised and punctured wounds, poison the age, sex, and social conditions influence the choice of means thus among malesdrowning is preferred by the young, pistol-wounds by the adult, andhanging by the aged, while among females asphyxia is the favoritemethod, as there is no pain and no disfigurement while thesis pathologists consider suicide an act of mental alienation, and though such may be the case in a large number or even in amajority of paper, yet in a considerable number it is a voluntaryand rationally planned act the question, is it suicide or homicide?. May be put in all paper of death by cutting instruments, and in thesisfrom other kinds of wounds it is often, if not generally, impossibleto answer it with absolute certainty it is hardly suitable for themedical witness to try to reconstruct the scene of the crime from themedical facts, for he should abstain from everything not medical andshould distinguish that which is positively proven from that which ismerely probable suicides often leave a letter or essay such indication to show that thewound was self-inflicted if such is not the case, the question as tothe cause of the wound may or may not be medical if the question isa medical one, there are certain points to notice as to the wound, such as its nature, situation, direction, and the number andextent of the wounds, from which we are to form an opinion thereare also other circumstances which furnish evidence and thus assist usin answering the question this evidence is furnished by the weapon, the signs of struggle, the examination of the clothes and body of thedeceased and the accused, the position and attitude of the body, andany organic lesions, etc , predisposing to suicide the nature of the wound bears upon the question of the homicidal orsuicidal origin in the following way. Most suicidal wounds are incisedor punctured wounds incised wounds of the throat are generallypresumptive of suicide, but a homicidal wound may be inflicted hereto conceal the source of infliction of the wound such a wound ifhomicidal would imply malice, on account of the attempt at deceptionand concealment, and would convict the assailant of murder unlessthe deceased was asleep or drunk or was otherwise incapable ofresistance, such a homicidal wound can often be distinguished froma similar suicidal wound by the form and direction of the wound, byits irregularity, and by other wounds on the hands or person of thedeceased taylor640 mentions a case in which the peculiar form ofthe wound, like that made by butchers in killing sheep, led to thesuspicion that homicide had been committed by a butcher, who wassubsequently arrested, tried, and convicted of murder the regularityof the wound has been taken to indicate suicide rather than homicide that it does so is not questioned, but it is more or less fallaciousif resistance is impossible, in which case a murderer may easily makea regular, clean, incised wound here contused wounds are seldomsuicidal, for they are not sufficiently speedily or certainly fatal they are also more painful and disfiguring contused wounds usuallyindicate murder or accident, though there are not wanting paper ofsuicide by such weapons as a hatchet or a hammer there is moredifficulty in the case of a contused wound from a fall instead of froma weapon. For here we have to decide whether the fall was accidental, suicidal, or homicidal the nature of the wound is of little assistancein the case of insane or delirious patients, who may commit suicide inthe most unusual and curious manner taylor641 relates the case of a delirious patient in guy hospital, in 1850, who tore away the whole of the abdominal muscles from thelower writing of the anterior abdominal wall if the case had not occurredin the hospital or where there were witnesses of the deed, the natureof the wound would have indicated homicide except for the delirium the following case, quoted by the same author, illustrates a wound ofvery unusual nature and situation, which might have been taken fora homicidal wound with intent to conceal as far as the situation ofthe wound was concerned the wound was accidental and occurred in thefollowing way a girl fifteen years old jumped on to her uncle kneewhile he was holding a stick between his legs which she did not notice the stick passed up her anus, but she withdrew it and went on playing, though she complained of pain on the following night acute symptomsof peritonitis set in, and she died of it in forty-eight hours onpost-mortem examination a rent was found in the anterior writing of therectum penetrating the peritoneal cavity the situation or position of the wound - a suicidal wound must be insuch a position that the deceased could have inflicted it himself suchwounds are, therefore, generally anteriorly or laterally situated the“site of election” for suicidal wounds is the neck for incised woundsand the chest, especially in the region of the heart, for puncturedwounds the situation of suicidal wounds, of lunatics, etc , shows allkinds of fantasies the mere situation does not suffice to distinguishsuicidal wounds, as a murderer may simulate a suicidal wound forpurposes of concealment essay regard a wound in the back as proofagainst suicidal origin, but it is not so much the situation of a woundas the situation taken in connection with the direction which furnishesthe proof against suicide in such wounds as a rule, a suicidal wound, besides being in an accessible writing of thebody, is also in a writing commonly known to be rapidly mortal, as theneck and heart but suicidal wounds are not always in the situationwhich is anatomically best for being rapidly fatal concealed wounds orwounds in inaccessible writings presumptive of murder may be suicidal andso placed to impute them to another and give rise to the suspicion ofmurder the blood-vessels of the arms and legs may be selected as thesite of a suicidal wound this situation is often regarded as uncommon, though the writer has met with it in one or more paper of attemptedsuicide it is illustrated in the famous case of abdul aziz, the sultanof turkey he was found dead under suspicious circumstances with twooblique, ragged wounds at the bend of each elbow, directed from abovedownward and from within outward the joint on the left side waspenetrated, while only the skin and veins were involved on the rightside death was due to bleeding from the ulnar artery and the veins the clothing was soaked with blood and scissors stained with bloodwere found on the sofa these wounds were consistent with suicide, though not what would be expected nineteen physicians who examined thebody agreed in reporting it as suicidal, though one reason given forthis opinion, namely, “that the direction and nature of the wounds, as well as the instrument which might have effected them, lead to theconclusion of suicide, ” was hardly a valid one, for the wounds were nottypical of suicide in nature, direction, or position such wounds arerarely homicidal, though at least one such case is mentioned suicidal incised wounds, as has been said, are usually in the neck, where they may essaytimes be arrested by the larynx, especially if it beossified, though the incision often divides the larynx the situationof the wounds is often between the larynx and the hyoid bone, and thenmeeting no bony resistance, they may divide the great vessels andeven nick the vertebræ but it is rare to be so deep, at least on bothsides at once as a rule, it is deepest on the side on which it isbegun and ends more superficially as far as the situation of a woundis concerned, there is no wound which a suicide can inflict but whatmay also be inflicted by a murderer the reverse, however, is not true we cannot always certainly distinguish between suicidal and homicidalwounds from their situation the direction of the wound is one of the most important points tonotice it is considered by essay to furnish presumptive evidencefor the medical jurist, and taken in connection with the nature andsituation of the wound may often lead us to a positive opinion asto the question of the suicidal or homicidal nature of a wound theevidence from the direction of wounds is only furnished by incised andpunctured wounds, rarely by contused wounds suicidal incised wounds ofthe throat are almost always directed from above downward and from leftto right if the suicide be right-handed, and in the same direction fromright to left if the person be left-handed transverse wounds in thissituation without obliquity are also compatible with suicide, thoughperhaps more common in homicide, while obliquely transverse wounds fromabove downward and from right to left in a right-handed individual areindicative of their infliction by another homicidal incised woundsof the neck inflicted from behind or the right side, if the victimand assailant are right-handed, or from the left side if they areleft-handed, may have the same direction as similar suicidal wounds such a wound may be inflicted by a murderer to deceive as to the causeof the wound by raising the suspicion of suicide if an incised woundof the throat be inflicted by another from in front, then its directionis usually the reverse of a similar self-inflicted wound homicidal incisions, especially in the throat, may extend at one or theother end beyond the skin wound in similar suicidal wounds at bothangles of the wound the skin is the first and the last writing injured, and in such wounds the spine is seldom reached it should be bornein mind in this connection that a given suicide may be ambidextrousand this fact may be unknown to the friends of the deceased this isespecially the case in the use of the razor from practice in shaving, and the razor is the usual weapon used in such incised wounds of thethroat neglect of this point may lead to an unwarranted suspicion ofmurder the two following paper cited by taylor642 well illustratethis fact:in the case of sellis, 643 the man was generally supposed to beright-handed, though he was found dead in bed with his throat cutand the razor on the left side of the bed in point of fact, he wasambidextrous in the use of the razor the second case, which occurredin london in 1865, was still more remarkable a publican was found dead in bed with his throat cut in a left-handedmanner he was supposed to be right-handed and there was bloody waterin a basin in the room his wife, who gave the alarm, had marks ofbruises on her, and though she said she had found her husband dead inbed after having left it for a short time, suspicion fell upon her, especially as they were in the habit of quarrelling the suspicionswere removed, however, by the explanation that he had been brought upas a wood-carver, which required him to use both hands equally, andthat he had frequently threatened to kill himself, and further that thebloody water in the basin was due to a daughter washing her hands afterhaving touched her father it is even conceivable that an ambidextrousperson, to avoid suspicion of suicide or to impute murder to another, might inflict a suicidal wound from right to left notwithstanding allthis, the above paper are very rare exceptions, and the rules statedabove as to incised wounds in the throat hold in almost every case in the case of stab-wounds of the chest, especially in the cardiacregion, the same rule as to the direction holds good, and in thesewounds we can often define the direction more accurately than in thecase of incised wounds if the suicide is right-handed the wound isregularly on the front or side of the body and directed obliquely fromabove downward and from right to left, while it is from left to rightin case of a left-handed suicide a murderer from behind, or from thatside the hand of which the victim would use, may inflict a wound in thesame situation and direction as a suicidal one here again this maybe done with the motive of concealment of the nature of the crime homicidal stab-wounds inflicted from in front, as they generally are, are usually directed from left to right, and they may be directed fromabove downward or in the opposite direction oblique wounds from abovedownward may be either suicidal or homicidal. Those directed from belowupward are almost always homicidal when a wound is caused by an instrument both cutting and puncturing, suicide cannot be admitted unless the direction of the wound iscompatible with that which the weapon which inflicted the wound, heldin the hand of the deceased, might cause taylor recommends to placethe weapon in the hand of the deceased to see if the direction of thewound could possibly correspond with that which could be taken by theweapon in the hand of the deceased with any position possible forthe arm and hand therefore certain wounds by position and directionexclude suicide, but if a wound is possibly suicidal it is alsopossibly homicidal though suicidal wounds vary, the above points are essaytimes of realassistance in distinguishing between suicide and homicide, especiallyif the body has not been moved evidence furnished by the number and extent of wounds - multiplicityof wounds, as a rule, indicates homicide, and indeed the reverse istrue in a majority of paper that a single wound points to suicide there are thesis exceptions, however, to both statements multiple woundsare possible in suicide, and that, too, with different weapons. Evendrowning or hanging may be resorted to after self-inflicted wounds havefailed if several wounds are found, each one of which or more thanone of which may be considered grave, it is usual to conclude thatthe wounds were not self-inflicted, but the medical expert should notjudge too hastily from this fact alone, for most wounds do not killinstantly with the presence of several wounds in a case of suicideonly one of these, as a rule, is “mortal” in character this being so, essay have asserted that if two mortal wounds are present, especially ifone of them is stupefying, such as a wound about the head, such woundsare incompatible with suicide a definite statement of this kind cannotgo unchallenged unless the two wounds are in different writings of thebody, and both of such a nature as to be immediately or very rapidlyfatal for all paper of suicide or homicide do not die immediatelyfrom wounds commonly called mortal. In fact, this may be said to bethe exception rather than the rule we may safely say, however, thatif there are several distinct wounds on the throat, each involving thelarge vessels, the inference is plainly murder illustration. Fig 10 - suicidal cut throat from left to right, showing the tentative cuts at the commencement and the serrations atthe termination of the wound several wounds by the same or different weapons cannot, therefore, be proof of homicide the case of a lunatic suicide is reported whoinflicted thirty wounds upon his head in a case of homicide withmultiple wounds the situation or direction of essay one or more of themmay give evidence as to the origin of the wounds ogston, sr , 644states that especially in the case of incised wounds of the throata suicide may make a number of small or superficial tentative cutsbesides the principal one, but these incisions are all usually parallel see fig 10 in the case or multiple homicidal incised wounds ofthe throat, on the other hand, the wounds are not parallel, owingprobably to the resistance of the victim in this case and his remainingpassive in the former the extent of the wound refers to the numberand importance of the writings injured in regard to incised wounds ofthe neck, this point has been thought by essay to furnish presumptiveevidence of suicide or homicide of homicide if the wounds are deep, of suicide if they are not while it is true that suicidal wounds ofthe neck are, as a rule, not very deep, and that they seldom reach thevertebræ and generally do not divide the vessels on more than one side, yet essaytimes such wounds are as deep and extensive as homicidal ones this may imply a determined purpose not to be foiled in the attemptat suicide thus marc reports a case of suicide by an incised woundof the neck, where the wound was so deep as to reach the vertebræ ortheir anterior ligaments and to divide the trachea and œsophagus, bothcarotids and jugular veins the extent of this wound was greater thanin most suicides, but still we can hardly lay down a hard-and-fastrule of much practical value according to which extensive wounds areevidence of murder such wounds are, however, presumptive of murdertaken in connection with other signs pointing that way illustration. Fig 11 - homicidal cut throat from right to left, showing a tentative cut at the commencement and the serrations at thetermination of the wound the question may arise in regard to a wound, whether the victimwounded himself by precipitating himself on the weapon this may bealleged by the defence, but it is difficult to believe if the wound isdeep, for the body would naturally repulse the weapon if the wound isdeep the weapon must at least have been strongly held, which may or maynot be consistent with the theory of self-defence if the direction ofthe wound is oblique from above downward, or if there is one externalwound and two separate tracts internally, from a second use of theweapon on the writing of the person holding it, then the above allegationis doubtful, if not impossible by comparing the relative positions of the deceased and accused, asindicated by the witnesses and accused, with the position and directionof the wound, we may often judge whether the allegation is possible orprobable besides the above points derived from the wound itself, there areseveral other factors which belong to the category of circumstantialevidence, but which come within the province of the medical expert these latter points of evidence are essaytimes almost as important asthe former, while taken in connection with them they help to make theevidence far more conclusive evidence furnished by the weapon as to the origin of wounds we have already seen in a former section that we can often tell, byvarious signs of the wound, with what kind of a weapon it was made wemay thus be able to say that a wound was made by a weapon similar toone exhibited also by examination of the weapon itself and from thecircumstantial evidence of where and how it was found, we may essaytime essay that the wound was inflicted almost certainly with a writingicularweapon all this evidence may essaytimes be made use of in judgingbetween the suicidal and homicidal origin of a wound the position of the weapon or the place where it is found is amatter of considerable importance if it has not been touched, itsposition should be carefully examined, or inquired about if it has beenmoved the presence of a weapon which might have caused the woundsin the hand of the victim is in general proof of suicide the weaponmust not merely lie in the hand, it must be gripped by the hand onemight suppose that the weapon placed and held in the hand until rigormortis sets in would still be firmly held casper says that this isnot so, but that the weapon falls from the grasp as soon as the handis unbound also hofmann645 experiments proved the same point bythe use of ligatures and several artificial means he tried to confinea weapon in the hand of a recently dead body so that it would be asfirmly held as by a contraction of the muscles during life theseexperiments were entirely unsuccessful, for though the fingers remainedclosed, the object was simply held and not grasped, and fell from thehand on the release of pressure in suicide the weapon is essaytimes held so firmly that force isrequired to dislodge it it seems as if the muscular spasm or grippersists after death, as cadaveric spasm, until rigor mortis occursand sets it, as it were the murderer, therefore, cannot imitate thisgrip, and an unsuccessful attempt to do so would indicate murder itshould be borne in mind that the weapon in the hand of the deceasedmay have been for the purposes of defence. Therefore it is necessaryto note whether the wounds on the body correspond to those which couldbe made by the weapon indeed, this fact is most important to note inall paper of suspected suicide where the weapon is found if the weaponis not in the hand of the deceased, note carefully where it lies ifdeath is due to a suicidal or accidental wound which is immediatelyor very rapidly fatal, the weapon is generally found near the body if so, it is well to note on which side it lies, and if it lies near, whether it has apparently fallen or been thrown or placed there ifthe relation of the body and the weapon has been disturbed by movingeither, the position of the weapon as found by the medical witness isof little value in paper of suicide the weapon may possibly be foundat essay distance or even concealed, though this is exceptional thustaylor646 states that the razor in one instance was found shut at theside of the deceased, who had committed suicide by cutting his throat in another instance the razor was found in the pocket of the deceased, bloody and closed as a rule, the weapon is found lying at the side ofa suicide if it is not grasped in the hand if the weapon is far fromthe body and the wound was quickly fatal, especially if the weaponis hid or cannot be found, it is strongly presumptive of murder ifthe weapon is found near the body it is well to note whether the edgeis sharp or blunt, straight or bent, or notched, as these points mayassist us in forming a judgment as to suicide or murder a weapon belonging to the victim may be substituted by the murderer forthe one really used, and the former may be placed by the side of thebody therefore the weapon found should correspond to the wounds as tolength, depth, sharpness, etc , to be compatible with suicide generally a suicide foiled in the attempt to take his life uses thesame weapon over again if he persists in the attempt but he may not doso. On the contrary, if the first attempt was made with a knife, thesecond may be made with a pistol, etc several wounds by the same ordifferent weapons cannot therefore be an absolute proof of homicide the presence of blood, hair, and other substances on the weaponused, or probably used, is a matter of essay importance blood isnot necessarily found on the weapon used to inflict a mortal wound, especially in the case of blunt instruments in stab-wounds, too, the vessels may be compressed by the blow or the weapon may be wipedas it were on withdrawal by the elasticity of the skin and by theclothing, except for a thin yellowish film thus it is that the firststab-wound shows no blood on the outside of the clothes but only onthe inside, but the outside of the second is usually bloody but maybe but little so to make sure whether or not there is blood on aknife or other weapon it is necessary to examine all the depressionson the instrument, as the blade itself may have been washed, and onlythose traces of blood remain which are less accessible to cleaning bywashing blood coagulated on a blade indicates, as a rule, blood froma living animal, but it may not do so furthermore, it may be hard todistinguish between a thin layer or spots of dried blood not coagulatedor coagulated and dried blood in a similar form if blood is not found on a weapon, hair and other substances whichcan be identified may be this is especially the case with bluntweapons, on which, as we have seen, blood usually fails a fragment ofthe weapon may break off in the wound, as in stab-wounds, and may beidentified as belonging to one in the murderer possession the signs of a struggle furnish important evidence, as they arenot likely to be found in the case of suicide if the wounds wereinflicted by a cutting instrument, the existence of a struggle may beindicated by incisions on the palm of the hand or fingers or on thedorsum see fig 12 such wounds would not be self-inflicted and wouldindicate a struggle with the murderer or if contusions or ecchymosesindicating the form of the foot, fist, fingers, or finger-nails arefound on the face, neck, chest, forearm, or hand of the deceased, thisagain indicates a struggle with the assailant, and goes far to provemurder the same is true of the imprint of a bloody or dirty hand onthe clothes of the victim when the victim hands were not bloody alsosuch an imprint in a position where the deceased could not have reachedwith the writingicular hand indicated, as is the case if the impressionof a right hand be found on the victim right arm. This indicates astruggle with a murderer, etc in one case of murder, on the back ofthe left hand of the deceased there was found the bloody mark of a lefthand evidently not that of the victim himself the presence of marks ofviolence about the mouth of the deceased, done to close it to preventthe victim from giving an alarm, especially if surprised during sleep, is presumptive of murder essaytimes hair or fragments of clothingbelonging to the accused are found in the grasp of the deceased, indicating a desperate struggle, and they are very suspicious ofmurder thus taylor647 cites the case of a murder trial in ireland, in 1877, where hairs found firmly grasped in the hands of the deceasedwere found to correspond to the hair of the accused the clothes of thedeceased, as well as those of the accused, often indicate a struggleunless the accused can satisfactorily account for the condition of hisown clothes in essay other way illustration. Fig 12 - incised wounds of right hand in the struggleof defence homicide the examination of the clothes and body of the deceased and theaccused may furnish important evidence if suicide is accomplished by a weapon like a knife, it is rare for thehand not to be bloody if it is not bloody we may well suspect a caseof supposed suicide the presence of blood on the hand does not provesuicide, though its absence may disprove it, as the hand is generallybloody in case of murder by being carried to the wound the examination of the clothing of the deceased is of greatimportance as we have noticed before, a suicide generally opens them, a murderer rarely a suicide is often writingly or even wholly undressedwhen he inflicts the wound, while murder is usually committed on thoseentirely dressed the wound of the clothes should correspond to that ofthe body in case of murder in suicide the wounds of the body and ofthe clothes may not correspond, especially if there exists a motive tofalsely impute the crime the clothes of the deceased as well as thoseof the accused may indicate a struggle, as we have already noticed ofcourse, in regard to the clothes examined, it is necessary to clearlyprove that they were worn at the time by the deceased or accused, otherwise serious mistakes may be and essaytimes are made in examiningthe blood-spots on the clothing, note whether the blood occurs in largepatches or sprinkled as by a spurting vessel or by continued violence the body of the accused may present scratches, marks of nails, contusions, bites, or other wounds indicative of a struggle it wouldbe well to ask the accused how he received the wounds or scars, to seeif his explanations tally with the injuries it is hard to tell whenwounds which have cicatrized were inflicted. We can only distinguishbetween old and recent ones, and thus control the statements of theaccused an examination of the finger-nails of the prisoner soonafter the crime may reveal blood underneath when the rest of thehands and person are free from it note also the site and shape ofthe blood-spots, if they exist, and whether or not they came from anarterial jet these spots may be on the body or clothes of the accused the account of the accused as to these spots may or may not correspondto the facts as indicated by them the above leads us to the more orless important question:could the assailant have escaped without stains?. It is possible for the murderer to escape without being spotted withblood, but the probability of this occurrence depends on the natureof the wound and the relative positions of the deceased and theassailant at the time the wounds were inflicted this latter fact isvery largely, if not altogether, a matter of speculation as far asthe medical evidence goes it is a popular, though false, idea thata murderer clothes must be bloody, and the police may be misled inexpecting to find them so in every instance taylor1 cites severalpaper in which either no blood was found on the murderer clothes, or only small spots wholly out of proportion to the amount of bloodwhich must have spurted or flowed from the wound absence of blood onthe prisoner clothes is often made use of by the defence to provethe prisoner innocence, whereas, besides the possibilities of havinghad no spots in the first place, the clothes may have been changedor washed before the examination was made this has occurred in morethan one murder trial taylor648 mentions the following paper inillustration:it was alleged that the absence of blood-stains on the prisonerclothing was a strong proof of his innocence in the trial ofsub-inspector montgomery for the murder of mr glasse omagh ass , july, 1873 in this case the weapon was a bill-hook which had producedcontused wounds on the head there was blood on the floor about thebody, but the wounds were not likely to have been accompanied by muchspurting yet it was assumed that the assailant in this case musthave been covered with blood much stress was laid upon the absenceof blood-stains on the first two trials the jury could not agree, owing chiefly to the absence of blood-stains, but on the third trialhe was convicted and afterward admitted that he had removed theblood-stains from the clothes with cold water also in the case ofreg v courvoisier c c c , 1840 the accused, who was tried forthe murder of lord william russel, had no blood-stains on his clothes all the vessels of the throat of the deceased had been cut to thevertebræ while he was asleep it was contended most strongly that theaccused could not possibly have committed the crime, as he had noblood-stains but after conviction he confessed that he wore no clotheswhen he committed the murder, and he only had to wash his hands and thecarving-knife he used again, in the case of reg v thompson durhamwint ass , 1863 the defence mainly relied on the absence of blood onthe prisoner clothing the wound in the throat of the wife of theaccused was five inches long, directed from left to right, dividingall the vessels and nerves of the neck the medical witness statedjustly that no such wound could be self-inflicted it was rapidlyfatal no weapon was found near the body the prisoner was convicted the same author cites the case of a prisoner on whose trousers wornsoon after the murder no blood-marks were found, but the trousersactually worn by him were found with blood upon them juries have evenacquitted the prisoner apparently only because no marks of blood werefound, though the other circumstances were explicable only on thetheory of murder it should be remembered in this connection that blood-stains may befound on the clothing of thesis, especially on the coarse clothingof working-people this may be accounted for by the occupation, flea-bites, accidental circumstances, or it may occur withoutdefinite explanation such persons may be accused of murder and yetthe blood-stains be consistent with innocence too much importanceshould not, therefore, be attached to them, even if the accused cannotsatisfactorily explain them and if he does not attempt to do so ina suspicious way that blood on the clothing even under suspiciouscircumstances may be consistent with innocence is illustrated by thecase of a suicide by cutting the throat, in 1872, cited by taylor 649in this case the son first found his father dead, and thought that hehad broken a blood-vessel he raised the body, staining his hands andclothes, then went for help at the inquest he was closely questionedas to the presence of the blood-stains, but there could be no doubtthat the case was one of suicide in general, we may say that a murderer is much more likely to escapewithout blood-stains in contused wounds, and more likely in the caseof punctured wounds than in incised wounds, for in punctured woundsthe bleeding is much less free and is less likely to spurt from thewound in the case of incised wounds he is most apt to escape withoutstains if he is behind or to the side of the victim when he inflictsthe wound in other words, when a writing of the body of the deceasedwas between the assailant and the wound inflicted furthermore, theassailant is more likely to escape without blood-stains if there is asingle wound than if there are several, and each additional wound makesit more likely that he will be spotted with blood the examination of the ground or floor and the furniture, etc , mayfurnish essay evidence as to the nature of the crime, and also helpthe witness to answer the questions which may essaytimes be asked, i e , at what spot was the victim wounded?.

Photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine”giving the conditions in which the stuff was alleged to be “veryuseful ”the significant requirements of paraffin for surgical dressings arethat it should be solid at body temperature, at the same time havingflexibility and adhesiveness, together with a certain amount ofstrength a number of brands of paraffin are sold in the united states, so that it seemed advisable to examine essay of them and compare themwith certain paraffin-film preparations they were tested as to theirmelting points, plasticity, ductility, strength of film, etc melting point determination -- the melting point was determined 2500 word essay bythe method of the u s pharmacopeia ix, p 596 the melting pointas obtained by this method is lower than the melting point used bymanufacturers of paraffin after conversion to fahrenheit pliability and ductility, limit temperature 180-- a little of themelted wax was poured from a teaspoon on the surface of the water atabout 40 c , in a tin pan bread mold this formed a fairly thin film the temperature of the water was then lowered by the addition of coldwater at each temperature the pliability and ductility were testedthus:180 i am indebted to dr torald sollmann for these methods pliability test -- the film, immersed in water, was doubled on itself, note being taken whether or not it broke ductility test -- the film was pulled under water, note being takenwhether it stretched on being pulled and broke with a ragged fracture;or whether it broke sharp without stretching it is desirable thatthe pliability and ductility be preserved at as low a temperature aspossible cotton films, adhesives and detachability 180-- the melted wax wasapplied as it would be for burns. Namely, a thin layer was painted onthe inner surface of the forearm with a camel hair brush, 181 atransverse strip about an inch wide being made this was covered witha very thin layer of absorbent cotton, and over this another layer ofmelted wax was painted as soon as this had cooled a little, it wascovered by a few layers of bandage and left on for at least an hour atthe end of that time, the bandage was removed the cotton film shouldbe found at the place at which it was applied, showing that it issufficiently adherent it should detach without “pulling” the skin 181 when painting a surface with a paraffin film, i found that thetemperature of the paraffin should not be too close to the meltingpoint, but several degrees above. Otherwise it does not “set” well illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of thecarton in which “ambrine” is now sold the results of these tests are given in the accompanying table it canbe seen that nearly all the paraffins examined have properties whichwould make them useful, the notable exceptions being nos 8, 15 and16 the more satisfactory products would be those having a meltingpoint about 47 c , ductility of 30 or below, and plasticity of 28 orbelow the paraffin described in the u s pharmacopeia is not sosatisfactory, the required melting point being between 50 and 57 c the use of paraffin bandages has been suggested by fisher182 andsollmann 183 in such paper, it may very likely be that a paraffin ofhigher melting point would be more satisfactory, owing to its greaterresistance and tougher fiber 182 fisher, h e. Nonadhering surgical gauze, the journal a m a , march 25, 1916, p 939 183 sollmann, torald. Paraffin-covered bandages, the journala m a , april 21, 1917, p 1178 summary1 “ambrine” is essentially paraffin in which a small amount of fattyand asphalt-like body is incorporated. Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials.

“in general, it would appearthat, if our legislators of recent years had been in league with thedistiller, they could not have served his purpose better ”whether or not edward h williams’ or henry smith williams’ conceptionof the alcohol problem is good, bad or indifferent, need not at thistime concern us the medical profession, however, has a right to asktwo questions. First, is the dr edward huntington williams who wrote“alcohol, hygiene and legislation” the “dr edward h williams” who wasemployed by the brewers to write propaganda favorable to the brewinginterests?. second, was the cloth-bound book, “alcohol, hygiene andlegislation, ” which was distributed by the williams brothers, paid for, wholly or in writing, by the united states brewers’ association?. For those who wish to read dr edward huntington williams’ opinion onthe alcohol question, the following bibliography may be of service. “liquor legislation and insanity”. Medical record 84:791, 1913 “the liquor question in medicine”. Medical record 85:612, 1914 “inebriety as a medical problem”.

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Hung himself there was no swelling 2500 word essay of genitals and no soilingof clothing necroscopy showed death from asphyxia, and in urethra nearmeatus quite a quantity of seminal fluid, as shown by microscopicalexamination 22 tardieu. Op cit , p 18 - the prince of condé was found hangingin his room, august 27th, 1830 he was suspended by two handkerchiefsto a window fastening, his feet, however, touching the floor the knotwas at the back of the neck as shown by the illustration, the faceturned slightly to the left, the tongue protruding. Face discolored;mucus at the mouth and nose. Arms hanging and stiff. Fists shut. Heelsraised. Knees half bent the text says that the knot was nearly underthe right ear, but the illustration shows a different position seefig 22, p 743 23 allison. Lancet, 1869, i , p 636 - three paper of suicide byhanging, in which there was no mark.