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2015 College Essay Prompts


After which in their placecome forth cornered seed, four for the most writing standing together. Theroot is small and thready, perishing every year, and the seed sheddingevery year, raises it again the next spring place it grows in gardens, and flowers and seeds with us, notwithstanding it is not natural to this land, but to italy, spain, and france, where it grows plentifully government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and a good onetoo dioscorides saith, that a good handful of this, which is calledthe great turnsole, boiled in water, and drank, purges both choler andphlegm. And boiled with cummin, helps the stone in the reins, kidneys, or bladder, provokes urine and women courses, and causes an easyand speedy delivery in child-birth the leaves bruised and applied toplaces pained with the gout, or that have been out of joint and newlyset, and full of pain, do give much ease. The seed and juice of theleaves also being rubbed with a little salt upon warts and wens, andother kernels in the face, eye-lids, or any other writing of the body, will, by often using, take them away meadow trefoil, or honeysuckles it is so well known, especially by the name of honeysuckles, white andred, that i need not describe them place they grow almost every where in this land government and virtues mercury hath dominion over the common sort dodoneus saith, the leaves and flowers are good to ease the gripingpains of the gout, the herb being boiled and used in a clyster ifthe herb be made into a poultice, and applied to inflammations, itwill ease them the juice dropped in the eyes, is a familiar medicine, with thesis country people, to take away the pin and web as they callit in the eyes. It also allays the heat and blood shooting of them country people do also in thesis places drink the juice thereof againstthe biting of an adder. And having boiled the herb in water, theyfirst wash the place with the decoction, and then lay essay of the herbalso to the hurt place the herb also boiled in swine grease, and somade into an ointment, is good to apply to the biting of any venomouscreature the herb also bruised and heated between tiles, and appliedhot to the share, causes them to make water who had it stopt before it is held likewise to be good for wounds, and to take away seed thedecoction of the herb and flowers, with the seed and root, taken foressay time, helps women that are troubled with the whites the seed andflowers boiled in water, and afterwards made into a poultice with essayoil, and applied, helps hard swellings and imposthumes heart trefoil besides the ordinary sort of trefoil, here are two more remarkable, andone of which may be properly called heart trefoil, not only because theleaf is triangular, like the heart of a man, but also because each leafcontains the perfection of a heart, and that in its proper colour, viz a flesh colour place it grows between longford and bow, and beyond southwark, bythe highway and writings adjacent government and virtues it is under the dominion of the sun, and ifit were used, it would be found as great a strengthener of the heart, and cherisher of the vital spirits as grows, relieving the body againstfainting and swoonings, fortifying it against poison and pestilence, defending the heart against the noiessay vapours of the spleen pearl trefoil it differs not from the common sort, save only in this writingicular, ithath a white spot in the leaf like a pearl it is writingicularly underthe dominion of the moon, and its icon shews that it is of a singularvirtue against the pearl, or pin and web in the eyes tustan, or park leaves descript it hath brownish shining round stalks, crested the lengththereof, rising two by two, and essaytimes three feet high, branchingforth even from the bottom, having divers joints, and at each of themtwo fair large leaves standing, of a dark blueish green colour on theupper side, and of a yellowish green underneath, turning reddish towardautumn at the top of the stalks stand large yellow flowers, and headswith seed, which being greenish at the first and afterwards reddish, turn to be of a blackish purple colour when they are ripe, with smallbrownish seed within them, and they yield a reddish juice or liquor, essaywhat resinous, and of a harsh and stypick taste, as the leaves alsoand the flowers be, although much less, but do not yield such a clearclaret wine colour, as essay say it doth, the root is brownish, essaywhatgreat, hard and woody, spreading well in the ground place it grows in thesis woods, groves, and woody grounds, as parksand forests, and by hedge-sides in thesis places in this land, as inhampstead wood, by ratley in essex, in the wilds of kent, and in thesisother places needless to recite time it flowers later than st john or st peter-wort government and virtues it is an herb of saturn, and a most nobleanti-venerean tustan purges choleric humours, as st peter-wort, is said to do, for therein it works the same effects, both to helpthe sciatica and gout, and to heal burning by fire.

The root small and hard, perishing everyyear the whole plant is of an exceeding bitter taste there is another sort in all things like the former, save only it bearswhite flowers place they grow ordinarily in fields, pastures, and woods, but thatwith the white flowers not so frequently as the other time they flower in july or thereabouts, and seeds within a monthafter government and virtues they are under the dominion of the sun, asappears in that their flowers open and shut as the sun, either shewsor hides his face this herb, boiled and drank, purges choleric andgross 2015 college essay prompts humours, and helps the sciatica. It opens obstructions of theliver, gall, and spleen, helps the jaundice, and eases the pains in thesides and hardness of the spleen, used outwardly, and is given withvery good effect in agues it helps those that have the dropsy, or thegreen-sickness, being much used by the italians in powder for thatpurpose it kill the worms in the belly, as is found by experience the decoction thereof, viz the tops of the stalks, with the leavesand flowers, is good against the cholic, and to bring down womencourses, helps to avoid the dead birth, and eases pains of the mother, and is very effectual in all pains of the joints, as the gout, cramps, or convulsions a dram of the powder taken in wine is a wonderful goodhelp against the biting and poison of an adder the juice of the herbwith a little honey put to it, is good to clear the eyes from dimness, mists and clouds that offend or hinder sight it is singularly goodboth for green and fresh wounds, as also for old ulcers and sores, toclose up the one and cleanse the other, and perfectly to cure themboth, although they are hollow or fistulous. The green herb especially, being bruised and laid thereto the decoction thereof dropped into theears, cleanses them from worms, cleanses the foul ulcers and spreadingscabs of the head, and takes away all freckles, spots, and marks in theskin, being washed with it. The herb is so safe you cannot fail in theusing of it, only giving it inwardly for inward diseases it is verywholeessay, but not very toothessay there is beside these, another small centaury, which bears a yellowflower. In all other respects it is like the former, save that theleaves are larger, and of a darker green, and the stalks pass throughthe midst of them, as it does in the herb thorowan they are all ofthem, as i told you, under the government of the sun. Yet this, ifyou observe it, you shall find an excellant truth. In diseases of theblood, use the red centaury. If of choler, use the yellow. But ifphlegm or water, you will find the white best the cherry-tree i suppose there are few but know this tree, for its fruit sake. Andtherefore i shall spare writing a description thereof place for the place of its growth, it is afforded room in everyorchard government and virtues it is a tree of venus cherries, as theyare of different tastes, so they are of different qualities the sweetpass through the stomach and the belly more speedily, but are of littlenourishment. The tart or sour are more pleasing to an hot stomach, procure appetite to meat, to help and cut tough phlegm, and grosshumours. But when these are dried, they are more binding to the bellythan when they are fresh, being cooling in hot diseases, and welcome tothe stomach, and provokes urine the gum of the cherry-tree, desolvedin wine is good for a cold, cough, and hoarseness of the throat. Mendsthe colour in the face, sharpens the eye-sight, provokes appetite, andhelps to break and expel the stone, and dissolved, the water thereof ismuch used to break the stone, and to expel gravel and wind winter-cherries descript the winter cherry has a running or creeping root in theground, of the bigness thesis times one little finger, shooting forthat several joints in several places, whereby it quickly spreads a greatcompass of ground the stalk rises not above a yard high, whereon areset thesis broad and long green leaves, essaywhat like nightshades, butlarger. At the joints, whereof come forth whitish flowers made of fiveleaves a piece, which afterwards turn into green berries inclosed withthin skins, which change to be reddish when they grow ripe, the berrylikewise being reddish, and as large as a cherry. Wherein are containedthesis flat and yellowish seeds lying within the pulp, which beinggathered and strung up, are kept all the year to be used upon occasions place they grow not naturally in this land, but are cherished ingardens for their virtues time they flower not until the middle or latter end of july. Andthe fruit is ripe about august, or the beginning of september government and virtues this also is a plant of venus they areof great use in physic.

Neither is there scarce a better remedy growingfor that disease in children which they commonly call the chin-cough, than it is it purges the body of phlegm, and is an excellent remedyfor shortness of breath it kills worms in the belly, and being anotable herb of venus, provokes the terms, gives safe and speedydelivery to women in travail, and brings away the after birth it is soharmless you need not fear the use of it an ointment made of it takesaway hot swellings and warts, helps the sciatica and dullness of sight, and takes away pains and hardness of the spleen ’tis excellent forthose that are troubled with the gout it eases pains in the loins andhips the herb taken any way inwardly, comforts the stomach much, andexpels wind wild thyme, or mother of thyme wild thyme also is so well known, that it needs no description place it may be found commonly in commons, and other barren placesthroughout the nation government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus, andunder the sign aries, and therefore chiefly appropriated to the head it provokes urine and the terms, and eases the griping pain of thebelly, cramps, ruptures, and inflamation of the liver if you make avinegar of the herb, as vinegar of roses is made you may find outthe way in my translation of the london dispensatory and anoint thehead with it, it presently stops the pains thereof it is excellentlygood to be given either in phrenzy or lethargy, although they are twocontrary diseases. It helps spitting and voiding of blood, coughing, and vomiting. It comforts and strengthens the head, stomach, reins, andwomb, expels wind, and breaks the stone tormentil, or septfoil descript this hath reddish, slender, weak branches rising from theroot, lying on the ground, rather leaning than standing upright, withthesis short leaves that stand closer to the stalk than cinquefoil towhich this is very like with the root-stalk compassing the branchesin several places. But those that grow to the ground are set uponlong foot stalks, each whereof are like the leaves of cinquefoil, butessaywhat long and lesser dented about the edges, thesis of them dividedinto five leaves, but most of them into seven, whence it is also calledseptfoil. Yet essay may have six, and essay eight, according to thefertility of the soil at the tops of the branches stand divers smallyellow flowers, consisting of five leaves, like those of cinquefoil, but smaller the root is smaller than bistort, essaywhat thick, butblacker without, and not so red within, yet essaytimes a little crooked, having blackish fibres thereat place it grows as well in woods and shadowy places, as in the openchampain country, about the borders of fields in thesis places of thisland, and almost in every broom field in essex time it flowers all the summer long government and virtues this is a gallant herb of the sun tormentilis most excellent to stay all kind of fluxes of blood or humours in manor woman, whether at nose, mouth, or belly the juice of the herb androot, or the decoction thereof, taken with essay venice treacle, andthe person laid to sweat, expels any venom or poison, or the plague, fever, or other contagious diseases, as pox, measles, &c for it is aningredient in all antidotes or counter poisons andreas urlesius is ofopinion that the decoction of this root is no less effectual to curethe french pox than guiacum or china. And it is not unlikely, becauseit so mightily resists putrefaction the root taken inwardly is mosteffectual to help any flux of the belly, stomach, spleen, or blood. Andthe juice wonderfully opens obstructions of the liver and lungs, andthereby helps the yellow jaundice the powder or decoction drank, orto sit thereon as a bath, is an assured remedy against abortion, if itproceed from the over flexibility or weakness of the inward retentivefaculty. As also a plaster made therewith, and vinegar applied tothe reins of the back, doth much help not only this, but also thosethat cannot hold their water, the powder being taken in the juice ofplantain, and is also commended against the worms in children itis very powerful in ruptures and burstings, as also for bruises andfalls, to be used as well outwardly as inwardly the root hereof madeup with pellitory of spain and allum, and put into a hollow tooth, notonly assuages the pain, but stays the flux of humours which causes it tormentil is no less effectual and powerful a remedy against outwardwounds, sores and hurts, than for inward, and is therefore a specialingredient to be used in wound drinks, lotions and injections, forfoul corrupt rotten sores and ulcers of the mouth, secrets, or otherwritings of the body the juice or powder of the root put in ointments, plaisters, and such things that are to be applied to wounds or sores, is very effectual, as the juice of the leaves and the root bruisedand applied to the throat or jaws, heals the king evil, and easesthe pain of the sciatica. The same used with a little vinegar, is aspecial remedy against the running sores of the head or other writings;scabs also, and the itch or any such eruptions in the skin, proceedingof salt and sharp humours the same is also effectual for the pilesor hæmorrhoids, if they be washed or bathed therewith, or with thedistilled water of the herb and roots it is found also helpful to dryup any sharp rheum that distills from the head into the eyes, causingredness, pain, waterings, itching, or the like, if a little preparedtutia, or white amber, be used with the distilled water thereof andhere is enough, only remember the sun challengeth this herb turnsole, or heliotropium descript the greater turnsole rises with one upright stalk, about afoot high, or more, dividing itself almost from the bottom, into diverssmall branches, of a hoary colour.

The belly anointed with it kills worms inchildren salvia sage. Hot and dry in the second or third degree, binding, it stays abortion in such women as are subject to come before theirtimes, it causes fruitfulness, it is singularly good for the brain, strengthens the senses and memory, helps spitting and vomiting ofblood. Outwardly, heat hot with a little vinegar and applied to theside, helps stitches and pains in the sides salix willow leaves, are cold, dry, and binding, stop spitting ofblood, and fluxes. The boughs stuck about a chamber, wonderfully coolthe air, and refresh such as have fevers. The leaves applied to thehead, help hot diseases there, and frenzies sampsucum marjoram sunicula sanicle. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses woundsand ulcers saponaria sope-wort, or bruise-wort, vulgarly used in bruises andcut fingers, and is of notable use in the veneral disease satureia savory summer savory is hot and dry in the third degree, winter savory is not so hot, both of them expel wind sazifragia alba white saxifrage, breaks wind, helps the cholic andstone scabiosa scabious.

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When it is desired to obtain theeffects of pancreatic extract by oral administration it must beadministered with a view of preventing its destruction by the gastricfluid with this end in view an antacid should be administered todecrease the acidity of the gastric juice the amount of alkali maybe supplied in the form of any of the official preparations, but theamount must be adjusted to the individual patient for the reason thatno two successive patients are likely to have the same degree ofgastric acidity ipecac has a well defined though limited field of usefulness when itis used, it should be given with a due regard to the amount needed bythe patient and the frequency of the repetition of the dose there isno reason to suppose that any two successive patients will requireipecac and extract of pancreas in a fixed proportion and with equalfrequency as a matter of fact, the amount of ipecac in carminzym is sosmall that no definite therapeutic action can be assigned to it and itsuse in this combination is purely empirical in a word, the employment of mixtures of pancreatic extract, alkalis, ipecac and carminatives in fixed proportion leads to slipshod treatmentand irrational therapeutics carminzym is an irrational mixture the useof which is detrimental to therapy the preceding report was sent to fairchild bros and foster for commentin accordance with the council usual procedure the following replywas received. The long established custom of the use of mixtures of remedial agents rests upon considerations well known and generally accepted this is equally true of combinations of drugs of similar and dissimilar properties the drugs of these combinations, especially those of marked therapeutic action, are well known and used by themselves when indicated in fact, dissimilarity of action is a cause of combination, an essential of synergism drugs classed as similar are by no means alike in action. Laxatives, tonics, carminatives, diuretics are combined with distinct advantage, economy of dose, enhanced effect, potency not obtainable with the single drug your sweeping arbitrary conclusions that complex mixtures of remedial agents are from every point of view inimical to therapeutic progress is not, it seems to us, sustained by fact and experience there is therapeutic progress in the considerate use and observation of combinations as well as in the use of a single drug indeed, in the production of a synthetic chemical substance as a therapeutic agent, the combination of potent and dissimilar elements is worked out to mitigate and correct an objectionable side effect, and promote desirable action as for ourselves, at the very outset in our line of work we quite voluntarily declared our principles and our intentions as opposed to incompatible and therefore unstable or inert combinations of the enzymes. And against the “unnecessary multiplication of preparations”-- see fairchild hand-book of the digestive ferments is not this after all the crux of the whole matter-- does a combination contain the ingredients stated, does it possess the demonstrable properties which are to be attributed to it in consequence of this composition. And if for a certain purpose, is it well designed therefor?. carminzym presents certain agents of well known properties, not in the least of incompatible or antagonistic action, but indeed especially suitable for the writingicular purpose designed. Its efficacy not to be measured and judged by theory or opinion as to the efficiency of a certain dosage of a writingicular drug by itself that the doses as contained are minimal and effective is distinctly advantageous the alkaline carbonates are in carminzym in stated quantities. The physician adjusts the dosage to the individual patient and with obvious evidence of the efficiency of the adjustment as we understand it, the employment of alkaline carbonates is not based on purely chemic considerations-- a definite known quantity of acid of the gastric juice is to be neutralized. The whole literature and practice dealing with the alkaline carbonates show them to be accredited with a much wider field of use and repute in gastro-intestinal disorders the pancreatic extract in carminzym is designed to be diffusible in the stomach, the tablet is preferable to be crushed in the mouth before swallowing, and we believe the pancreatic extract to be an effective constituent as administered in carminzym you comment as follows. “ipecac has a well defined though limited field of usefulness when it is used it should be given with due regard to the amount needed by the patient and the frequency of the repetition of the dose ” this in a sense may be said of any of the most useful drugs, but not in the least special degree does it apply to ipecac, which is, on the contrary, of quite characteristic, peculiar range of therapeutic properties, useful in varying combinations and in widely varying proportions and doses according to the purpose for which it is employed ipecac in well known official alkaline, carminative, laxative preparations occurs in the “average dose” in the varying quantities of 1/14, 1/10, 1/8, and 3/16 of a grain the ipecac in combination with the other ingredients in carminzym is designed for a tablet which shall carry a minimal quantity whilst capable of adequate remedial action, thus admitting of increase of dosage or repetition as occasion requires the quantity of ipecac was not taken at random, but chosen after long trial and consideration we believe that carminzym possesses carminative properties in a superior degree and that, furthermore, in consequence of its composition it directly stimulates the gland secretions and thus exerts a beneficial action upon the whole digestive functions carminzym is for use as occasion requires, and this is to be especially noted thus it is not only of direct benefit, but helpful in promoting systematic therapeutic measures and regimen the council takes the ground that complex mixtures of remedial agents are so wrong that there is no longer warrant for their admission into new and nonofficial remedies. And that carminzym is an irrational mixture we hold that certain desirable therapeutic properties may rationally be attributable to carminzym. And that these are manifested in practice during the time since the description was sent and the receipt of the statement of the action of the council, essay ten months, carminzym has proved of constantly increasing service the statement in the letter of fairchild bros and foster “thelong established custom of the use of mixtures of remedial agentsrests on considerations well known and generally accepted” mightwell be paraphrased to read.