History

12 Years A Slave Essay


Nor are we awarethat any competent investigator has done so there is, to the best ofour knowledge, no scientific evidence on which to base the claims forprotonuclein beta the council reaffirms its former action with regard to protonuclein the objections made to protonuclein apply with equal force toprotonuclein beta in view of the lack of evidence, the claims forprotonuclein beta are unwarranted and the product is ineligible ton n r on account of noncompliance with rules 1, 6 and 8 -- from thejournal a m a , jan 1, 1916 hydropsin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary hydropsin is marketed by the ernst bischoff company, inc , new york its composition is thus described. “hydropsin is the standardized dialysate of digitalis purpurea, betula alba, scilla maritima, juniperis communis, and herniaria glabra. Or, stated otherwise, it is the juice of these drugs, dialyzed and physiologically standardized ” “each fluid dram represents digitalysatum 7 gtts , and 2 gtts each of the dialysates of betula, herniaria, juniper and scilla ”the composition of hydropsin must be considered essentially secretsince the amounts of the several constituent drugs in a given amountof “dialysate” are not disclosed the active principle of juniper is avolatile oil which is practically insoluble in water. It is difficultto believe that the “juice” of juniper submitted to dialysis couldcontain any material amount of the active constituent no informationis given as to the method used whereby the several dialysates are“physiologically standardized ” it therefore remains to be provedthat the manufacturer of hydropsin possesses any method whereby thedialysates of juniper juniperis communis, birch betula alba, the common european birch and knot weed herniaria glabra are sostandardized the claim is made that. “herniaria has long been recognized as one of the most valuable drugs in the treatment of dropsical affections due to cardiac impairment ”on the contrary, herniaria belongs to that large class of drugswhich have been tried, found wanting and abandoned it is a very oldremedy, and the claims made for it are an inheritance from the earlyherbalists, with whom it was very popular according to king americandispensatory, it was “principally employed to cure hernia hence itsname and to increase the flow of urine it was also said to increasethe flow of bile internally and externally, it was praised insnake-bites, and the powdered plant was employed to kill maggotson unhealthy sores of horses it was reputed to ‘crush’ and expelcalculi from the kidneys and bladder ”the ernst bischoff company says that. “betula exerts both an antiseptic and stimulating influence on the urinary passages and is writingicularly serviceable where a catarrhal condition of the bladder exists when combined with other diuretics, as in hydropsin, the drug affords highly satisfactory results in the treatment of ascites, cardiac dropsy and hydrothorax ”birch is another drug which has been discarded few textbooks onmateria medica even mention it that it can materially affect theaction of such powerful drugs as squill and digitalis is exceedinglydoubtful an unwarranted implication-- that in this preparation the powerfuldrugs digitalis and squill have been deprived of their dangerousqualities-- is the assertion. “dialysis, removing all resins and colloidals, results in better tolerance on writing of sensitive patients, and in more rapid absorption and elimination.

Let half of it be without musk, but perfume the other half with three grains of musk tied up in a rag culpeper it strengthens the stomach, resists poison, strengthensthe heart, and resists the passions thereof, palpitation, faintings, swoonings. It strengthens the vital spirits, restores such as are inconsumptions, and hectic fevers, and strengthens nature much you maytake a spoonful at a time syrupus e coralliis simplex or syrup of coral simple college take of red coral in very fine powder four ounces, dissolveit in clarified juice of barberries in the heat of a bath, a pound, ina glass well stopped with wax and cork, a digestion being made three orfour days, pour off what is dissolved, put in fresh clarified juice, and proceed as before, repeat this so often till all the coral bedissolved. Lastly, to one pound of this juice add a pound and a half ofsugar, and boil it to a syrup gently syrupus e coralliis compositus or syrup of coral compound college take of red coral six ounces, in very fine powder, andlevigated upon a marble, add of clarified juice of lemons, theflegm being drawn off in a bath, sixteen ounces, clarified juice ofbarberries, eight ounces, sharp white wine vinegar, and juice ofwood-sorrel, of each six ounces, mix them together, and put them ina glass stopped with cork and bladder, shaking it every day till ithave digested eight days in a bath, or horse dung, then filter it, ofwhich take a pound and a half, juice of quinces half a pound, sugar ofroses twelve ounces, make them into a syrup in a bath, adding syrup ofclove-gilliflowers sixteen ounces, keep it for use, omitting the halfdram of ambergris, and four grains of musk till the physician commandit culpeper syrup of coral both simple and compound, restore such asare in consumptions, are of a gallant cooling nature, especially thelast, and very cordial, good for hectic fevers, it stops fluxes, therunning of the reins, and the fluor albus, helps such as spit blood, and such as have the falling-sickness, it stays the menses half aspoonful in the morning is enough syrupus cydoniorum or syrup of quinces college take of the juice of quinces clarified six pounds, boil itover a gentle fire till half of it be consumed, scumming it, adding redwine three pounds, white sugar four pounds, boil it into a syrup, to beperfumed with a dram and a half of cinnamon, cloves and ginger, of eachtwo scruples culpeper it strengthens the heart and stomach, stays looseness andvomiting, relieves languishing nature.

It helps lethargies being snuffed up inthe nose litharge, both of gold and silver. Binds and dries much, fills upulcers with flesh, and heals them lead is of a cold dry earthly quality, of an healing nature. Appliedto the place it helps any inflammation, and dries up humours pompholix, cools, dries and binds jacynth, strengthens the heart being either beaten into powder, andtaken inwardly, or only worn in a ring sapphire, quickens the senses, helps such as are bitten by venomousbeasts, ulcers in the bowels emerald. Called a chaste stone because it resists lust. Being wornin a ring, it helps, or at least mitigates the falling sickness andvertigo. It strengthens the memory, and stops the unruly passions ofmen ruby or carbuncle, if there be such a stone restrains lust;resists pestilence. Takes away idle and foolish thoughts, makes mencheerful cardanus granite strengthens the heart, but hurts the brain, causes anger, takes away sleep diamond, is reported to make him that bears it unfortunate amethist, being worn, makes men sober and steady, keeps men fromdrunkenness and too much sleep, it quickens the wit, is profitable inhuntings and fightings, and repels vapours from the head bezoar, is a notable restorer of nature, a great cordial, no wayhurtful nor dangerous, is admirably good in fevers, pestilences, andconsumptions, viz taken inwardly. For this stone is not used to beworn as a jewel. The powder of it put upon wounds made by venomousbeasts, draws out the poison topaz if epiphanius spake truth if you put it into boilingwater, it doth so cool it that you may presently put your hands intoit without harm. If so, then it cools inflammations of the body bytouching them toadstone.

The juice held in the mouth, helps the toothache, and takes away any inflammation or hot swellingbeing bathed with it, mixed with a little vinegar callitricum maiden-hair see adianthum caprisolium honey-suckles. The leaves are hot, and therefore naughtfor inflammations of the mouth and throat, for which the ignorantpeople oftentime give them. And galen was true in this, let modernwriters write their pleasure if you chew but a leaf of it in yourmouth, experience will tell you that it is likelier to cause, thanto cure a sore throat, they provoke urine, and purge by urine, bringspeedy delivery to women in travail, yet procure barrenness and hinderconception, outwardly they dry up foul ulcers, and cleanse the facefrom morphew, sun-burning and freckles carduncellus, &c groundsell cold and moist according to tragus, helps the cholic, and gripings in the belly, helps such as cannot makewater, cleanses the reins, purges choler and sharp humours. The usualway of taking it is to boil it in water with currants, and so eat it i hold it to be a wholeessay and harmless purge outwardly it easethwomen breasts that are swollen and inflamed. As also inflammations ofthe joints, nerves, or sinews ægineta carduus b mariæ our ladies thistles they are far more temperatethan carduus benedictus, open obstructions of the liver, help thejaundice and dropsy, provoke urine, break the stone carduus benedictus blessed thistle, but better known by the latinname. It is hot and dry in the second degree, cleansing and opening, helps swimming and giddiness in the head, deafness, strengthens thememory, helps griping pains in the belly, kills worms, provokes sweat, expels poison, helps inflammation of the liver, is very good inpestilence and venereal. Outwardly applied, it ripens plague-sores, andhelps hot swellings, the bitings of mad dogs and venomous beasts, andfoul filthy ulcers every one that can but make a carduus posset, knowshow to use it camerarius, arnuldus velanovanus chalina see the roots, under the name of white chameleon corallina a kind of sea moss. Cold, binding, drying, good for hotgouts, inflammations. Also they say it kills worms, and therefore byessay is called maw-wormseed cussutha, cascuta, potagralini dodder see epithimum caryophyllata avens, or herb bennet, hot and dry. They help thecholic, rawness of the stomach, stitches in the sides, stoppings of theliver, and bruises cataputia minor a kind of spurge see tythymalus cattaria, nepeta nep, or catmints the virtues are the same withcalaminth cauda equina horse-tail. Is of a binding drying quality, cureswounds, and is an admirable remedy for sinews that are shrunk.

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The bear, forinstance, will remain for four or five months without food or drinkin a state of lethargy the heart-action and respiration hardlyappreciable yet it will be sufficiently rapid to sustain life duringthe slow metabolic processes a number of well-authenticated paper arereported in which persons could slacken their heart-action, so thatno movement of the organ could be appreciated the case of coloneltownsend, reported by cheyne, is an example he possessed the power ofapparently dying, by slowing his heart so that there was no pulse orheart-action discernible the longest period he could remain in thisinanimate state was half an hour instances have occurred in the new-born child where without questionthere have been no heart-beats or respiratory movements for a number ofminutes, the limit being set at five these are exceptional paper, and it is setting at defiance allphysiological experience to suppose that the heart-action andrespiration can be suspended entirely when once they are established, for a period as long so, then, if no motion of the heart occurs duringa period of five minutes a period five times as great as observationwarrants death may be regarded as certain the respiratory movements of the chest are essaytimes very difficultto observe they can always be better appreciated if the abdomen andchest are observed together there are two methods to determine whetherrespiration is absolutely suspended or not first, by holding a mirrorin front of the open mouth, observing whether any moisture collects onits surface second, by placing on the chest a looking-glass or basinof water, and reflecting from it an image by artificial or sun light the slightest movement would be registered by a change in position ofthe image while the writer considers the absence of heart-beats and ofrespiratory movement an absolute test of death, still essay paper mayoccur in which the establishment of this test is very difficult, andthe following additional tests may be employed:1 temperature of the body same as surrounding air 2 intermittent shocks of electricity at different tensions passed intovarious muscles, giving no indication whatever of irritability 3 careful movements of the joints of the extremities and of the lowerjaw, showing that rigor mortis is found in several writings 4 a bright needle plunged into the body of the biceps muscle cloquet needle test and left there, showing on withdrawal no signsof oxidation 5 the opening of a vein, showing that the blood has undergonecoagulation 6 the subcutaneous injection of ammonia monte verde test, causinga dirty-brown stain indicative of dissolution 7 a fillet applied to the veins of the arm richardson test, causing no filling of the veins on the distal side of the fillet 8 “diaphanous test:” after death there is an absence of thetranslucence seen in living people when the hand is held before astrong light with the fingers extended and in contact 9 “eye test:” after death there is a loss of sensibility of the eyeto light, loss of corneal transparency, and the pupil is not responsiveto mydriatics post-mortem changes the human body after death undergoes certain changes which will bediscussed under the following heads:1 cooling of the body 2 flaccidity of the body 3 rigor mortis 4 changes in color due to a cadaveric ecchymoses b putrefaction cooling of the body immediately after death there is a slight rise of temperature, supposedto be due to the fact that the metabolic changes in the tissues stillcontinue, while the blood is no longer cooled by passing through theperipheral capillaries and lungs the body gradually cools and reaches the temperature of the surroundingair in from fifteen to twenty hours. This is the ordinary course, but the time may be influenced by a variety of causes, such as thecondition of the body at the time of death, manner of death, andcircumstances under which the body has been placed in certain diseases, as yellow fever, rheumatism, chorea, and tetanus, the temperature of the body has been known to rise as high as 104° f and remain so for a time again, it has been observed that when deathhas taken place suddenly, as from accident, apoplexy, or acute disease, the body retains its heat for a long time the bodies of persons dyingfrom hanging, electrocution, suffocation, or poisoning by carbondioxide, do not generally cool for from twenty-four to forty-eighthours, and paper are recorded where three days have elapsed before thebody was completely cold on the other hand, bodies dead from chronicwasting diseases or severe hemorrhage cool very rapidly, even in fouror five hours in determining the temperature of a dead body the hand is not areliable guide. The thermometer should always be used flaccidity the first effect of death from any cause is general relaxation of theentire muscular system the lower jaw drops, the eyelids lose theirtension, the limbs are flabby and soft, and the joints become flexible in from five to six hours after death, and generally while the body isin the act of cooling, the muscles of the limbs are observed to becomehard and contracted, the joints stiff, and the body unyielding muscleswhich are contracted in the death-agony do not necessarily becomerelaxed at any time the muscular tissues in the dead body can be considered as passingthrough three stages. 1 flaccid but contractile, 2 rigid andincapable of contraction, 3 relaxed and incapable of furthercontractility rigor mortis this is essaytimes called cadaveric rigidity and occurs generally withinsix hours after death and disappears within sixteen to twenty-fourhours thesis theories have been advanced to account for it, but the mostprobable one is that the rigidity is due to the coagulation of themyosin in the muscles by the weak acids which are no longer removedfrom the system.