History

100 Years Of Jrotc Essay


also it may be asked, has the number ofproprietaries marketed with false statements of composition decreasedsince the council and the laboratory began their work?. answering thelatter question first. There is no doubt that today fewer proprietarymedicines are being sold with false claims as to composition thanthere were ten years ago when the council began its work, medicaljournal advertising teemed with statements regarding the compositionof medicines which any chemist familiar with medicine would nothesitate at sight to brand as untrue today such manifestly falseclaims are rare coming to the former question. Thesis false statementsregarding the identity and composition of remedies have been made inignorance this is not surprising when it is remembered that the mostignorant may and do engage in the manufacture of medicine besidesignorance, however, an accommodating conscience on the writing of themanufacturer and a failure on the writing of the medical profession toappreciate the danger which lies in the use of medicines of unknowncomposition unquestionably have greatly encouraged the marketing offalsely declared medicines a glaring illustration of the ignoranceof manufacturers-- for it is hard to believe that any business concernwould deliberately court prosecution by the federal authorities throughfalse statements on labels-- is the fact that nearly thirty years agoa b lyons published a report147 pointing out that the proprietaryiodia was falsely declared as to composition and that in 1914 when thecouncil examined this preparation such incorrect declaration appearedon the label 148 that thesis physicians do not recognize the dangerto their patients and their reputation in the use of medicines, thecomposition of which they do not know, is illustrated by the fact, disclosed by inquiries sent to the laboratory, that physicians werefound willing to employ an arsenical preparation venarsen, advertisedfor intravenous use, although its promoters vouchsafed no informationin regard to the nature of the arsenic compound contained therein 147 lyons, a b. Detroit lancet, 1882, 6, 157 148 the journal a m a , nov 21, 1914, p 1871 unreliability of little used drugsthe purpose of the federal food and drugs act is to secure theprosecution and punishment of all who sell medicines which areadulterated or misrepresented as to composition as a matter of fact, the wording of the law relating to the adulteration and misbranding ofdrugs is such that the federal authorities have been able to do littlemore than to require that the drugs for which standards are providedin the pharmacopeia shall when sold comply with those standards similarly, those states which attempt to improve the quality of drugssold within their borders-- few states do efficient work along theselines-- limit their work to the enforcement of the pharmacopeialstandards this leaves the vast number of unofficial drugs andmedicaments beyond the control of federal or state authorities while most of these drugs are relatively unimportant, and while theamounts of them which are used are not great individually, the totalconsumption of them is large with a view of furnishing to physiciansstandards for drugs of this sort the council has described in new andnonofficial remedies not only distinctly proprietary drugs, but alsoessay of the unofficial drugs which are apparently of therapeutic valueand used to a considerable extent aiding the council in this line ofendeavor, the laboratory has attempted to establish standards for theselittle used drugs, and new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, providesstandards for such unofficial and non-proprietary drugs as quinin andurea hydrochlorid quinin, tannate, sodium acid phosphate, and sodiumperborate an example of work which furnished much needed standardsfor an unofficial article is the investigation of zinc permanganateby w s hilpert 149 reference to the published reports of thelaboratory will give an idea of the amount of work such standardizationentails a reference to the new u s pharmacopeia, when this comesfrom the press, will show that a considerable number of unofficialarticles described in new and nonofficial remedies have been admittedto the pharmacopeia along with the standards worked out in thislaboratory 149 zinc permanganate, j a m a , feb 6, 1909, p 488. Reportschem lab 2:15, 1909 while in a way the work done in connection with these less importantdrugs has attracted little attention from the medical profession, it has had an effect on pharmaceutical manufacturers in the past, pharmaceutical houses, ever anxious to market essaything new, on theslightest provocation have placed on the market, in the form of pills, powder, elixir, ampule, etc , every drug for which essay sort of medicalrecommendation could be found in marketing these dosage forms, themanufacturer has too often been little concerned about the quality ofthe drugs used 150 just at present, for instance, essay interest isbeing shown in iron cacodylate.

Also that the dog could not stand sixtytablets at all gar nicht vertragen, such doses causing vomiting, diarrhea and intestinal hemorrhages 100 years of jrotc essay. On repeated administration thesymptoms became progressively more severe joachimoglu also found that, compared on the basis of arsenic content, elarson, given intravenously, is from ten to twelve times as poisonous as arsenic trioxid elarsonis recommended for the class of paper in which fowler solution isused to sum up. None of the special claims made for elarson-- the arseniccontent, ready absorbability, freedom from irritating action on thegastro-intestinal tract and its alleged better adaptation for continuedadministration-- have been substantiated. On the contrary, they havebeen disproved as well as the theory of its mode of absorption proposedby fischer and klemperer furthermore, joachimoglu found that when itactually got into the circulation intravenous injection in the formin which fischer and klemperer supposed it to be absorbed, it was fromten to twelve times as toxic as arsenic trioxid the council voted to omit elarson from new and nonofficial remediesbecause it is sold under unproved and consequently unwarranted claimsand because it is an unscientific and relatively useless article elarson has not been shown to have advantages over fowler solution;on the contrary, in essay respects at least, it is inferior -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 75 iodiphos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya report which appears below was sent charles l heffner forconsideration no reply having been received, the council authorizedits publication w a puckner, secretary iodiphos, marketed by charles l heffner, brooklyn, n y , is declaredto contain ferric citro-iodine, 6 grains. Calcium glycerophosphate, 8 grains. Sodium glycerophosphate, 8 grains, and hypophosphorousacid, 2 minims in each fluidounce, and to present “the metallic andnon-metallic elements. Iron, iodine, phosphorous, calcium and sodium each in separate basic combination ”according to the label, iodiphos is “alterative, tonic, nervine andanti-tubercular” and is “for treatment of blood, nerves and pulmonaryorgans ” an advertising circular129 asserts that “iodiphos exerts itsphysiological action rapidly in hardening of the arteries, high bloodpressure, anaemia, glandular swelling, neurasthenia, hypochondria, phthisis, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and as an intestinal antisepticand appetizer, ” and declares it to be “indispensable as a tonic andrestorative ”129 after publication of the foregoing report had been authorized bythe council, a letter was received from charles l heffner, advisingthat the distribution of the circulars has been discontinued in the advertising circular it is averred that in the production ofiodiphos “chemistry again aids the modern physician ” iodiphos isanother instance when a decadent polypharmacy proposes haphazardmedication and so obstructs the efforts of modern medicine to establishthe use of single drugs to meet definite indications iodiphos is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because itis an irrational mixture of drugs sold with therapeutic claims thatare unwarranted, and under a name which is not descriptive of itscomposition -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 81 mervenol and armervenol not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the report which appearsbelow declaring mervenol and armervenol, marketed by the hillelaboratories, inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary mervenol is stated by the proprietors-- the hille laboratories, chicago-- to be a hydrosol colloidal suspension of the sulphides ofmercury and copper, containing sufficient sodium chloride to make itisotonic with blood serum, and “inert proteid” and “carbohydrate” tostabilize the colloidal suspension.

These experiments show. A solution of iodin in liquidpetrolatum is saturated when it contains about 1 4 per cent of iodin the amount of iodin absorbed disappearing as free iodin by liquidpetrolatum, when in contact at room temperature for as long as sevenmonths, or in contact at 100 c for four hours, or both, is relativelyinsignificant also all the absorption seems to take place during theheating and in the first month of contact -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1919, p 21 american-made synthetic drugs-- ii examination of procain novocain, barbital veronal, phenetidyl- acetphenetidin holocain, cinchophen or phenylcinchoninic acid atophan, manufactured under federal trade commission licensesg paul nicholas leech, ph d. William rabak, ph g , sc b , and a h clark, ph g , sc b g from the chemical laboratory of the american medical association g the first article of this series dealt with the purity ofacetylsalicylic acid leech, p n. Examination of american-madeacetylsalicylic acid, j indust & engin chem , april, 1918, p 288 “what in a name?. ” ibid , p 255 acetylsalicylic acid, or “what ina name?. ” editorial, j a m a 70. 1097 april 13 1918 before european hostilities, the united states was so dependent ongerthesis for synthetic drugs that the dependence was considered anecessity. This was strikingly manifested by the precipitous rise inprices immediately after the embargo was declared against gerthesis since then the shortage of german-made synthetics has caused twoimportant results. 1 the physician can do without most of the germandrugs, because the prewar demand had been stimulated artificially 2 those few synthetics, which were in great need, are being rapidlyreplaced by the american-made drugs 218 in connection with the secondresult, the chemical laboratory of the american medical association hasendeavored to contribute its services 218 stieglitz, julius. Synthetic drugs ii, j a m a 70. 688 march 9 1918 leech, p n.

For i have learnedto know their advantages in stings of scorpions, and also in boneswhich became lodged in the throat, and which were at once coughedup as a result of conjuration thesis remedies are excellent in everyrespect, and magic formulæ answer their purpose” “alexander oftralles, ” book 11, chapter i , vol ii , page 477 one of the mostprominent post-galenian physicians also, alexander of tralles, openlyavows, with reference to this utterance of galen, that he himself isa believer in magic cures, and he says. “if the great galen, as wellas thesis other physicians of ancient times, bear witness to this fact the efficacy of magic treatment of the sick, why shall we not imwritingto you what we have learned from our own experience and what we haveheard from trustworthy friends?. ” “alexander of tralles, ” ibid accordingly, his βιβλία ἰατρικά was filled with enumerations of themost various magical cures but, now, if the classics of antiquemedicine have proven themselves to be so friendly to the medicalscience of magicians, what was the condition of the mind, then, ofthe average physician of ancient times?. is it astonishing if youngand old, high and low, without distinction, were blind adherents ofmagical medicine?. thus medical literature of the last century, b c , and especially that of the centuries from the christian era untillate in the middle ages, was an actual treasury of conjuration andother mummeries this description applies specifically to the “materiamedica” of quintus serenus samonicus, written in hexameters it istrue, the magical sequel to this book entailed painful consequences onthe writer, for the emperor caracalla had the poor author executed ael swritingian , “caracalla, ” chapter iv , § 4 merely, as it isreported, because he dared to advise in his works as a remedy againstintermittent fever the wearing of amulets, a medical expedient whichhad been prohibited by the emperor himself the work of sextus placitus papyriensis, who lived in the fourthcentury, which treats of remedies derived from the animal kingdom, teems with magic nonsense but an actually inexhaustible stock of medical conjurations wascontained in the work of a layman, marcellus empiricus this gentleman, who had been foreign minister under the emperors theodosius the firstand the second, had written a thick folio volume on medicaments this literary performance, which, according to our ideas, appears tobe very odd for a minister of state, was by no means remarkable inthe fifth century, for the study of medical subjects was, so to say, fashionable among the laity of that period. In fact, even prelates andbishops did not think it beneath their dignity to busy themselves withvarious medical questions and to write medico-physical books thus thelaurels of medical renown haunted our good marcellus and would notlet him sleep, so that he abridged his hours of official duty to suchan extent that he was able to compile a materia medica of thirty-sixapparently never-ending chapters but if the statesmanship of marcelluswas on a par with his medical book-making, the two theodosii could nothave missed the time their cabinet minister stole from them, for hismedical scribbling is an utterly worthless compilation not only didmarcellus copy from medical authors of the most discordant opinion, but he writingicularly busied himself in collecting indiscriminately allthe magical nonsense of the ancient times. In fact, it seems that hewas very eager to obtain all this magical rigmarole direct from themouth of the people, for he says that he collected his remedies “abagrestibus et plebeiis ” accordingly his book is as worthless andinsipid to the physician as it is valuable to the historian, especiallythe historian of civilization here are a few examples of this medicineof the magicians:remedy against warts and corns pliny, book 28, chapter iv , § 12, page 268. “lie on your back along a boundary line on the twentiethday of the moon, and extend the hands over the head with whateverthing you grasp when so doing, rub the warts, and they will disappearimmediately ”“whoever, when he sees a shooting-star, soon afterward pours a littlevinegar upon the hinge of a door, is sure to be rid of his corns ”remedy against headache pliny, ibid. “tie the rope of a hungcriminal around the forehead ”remedy against bellyache priscian, physician of the fourth century, book 1, chapter xiv , and sprengel, vol ii , page 248. “if anyone suffer from colicky pains he may sit down on a chair and say tohimself. ‘per te diacholon, diacholon, diacholon ’”“a person who has an attack of colic may take the feces of a wolf, which, if possible, should contain small writingicles of bone, enclosethem in a small tube, and wear this amulet on the right arm, thigh, orhip ” alexander of tralles, book 8, chapter ii , page 374 “take the heart from the living lark and wear it as an amulet at theleft thigh ” alexander of tralles, ibid remedy against epilepsy advised by the physician, moschiondiorthotes “alexander of tralles, ” book 1, chapter xv , page 570:“the forehead of an ass is tied to the skin of the patient and worn ”“gather iris, peonies, and nightshade when the moon is on the wane, pack them into linen and wear as an amulet ” advised by the magicianosthanes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “take a nail from a cross and suspend it from an arm of the patient ”given by a physician of the second century, a d , by the name ofarchigenes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “wear on the finger a jasper of bluish-gray luster ” advised bydioscorides, book 5, 159 remedy against podagra gout “alexander of tralles, ” book 12, page582.

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It coolsthe heat of the liver, breaking the stone in the kidneys, and stayswomen courses the decoction of the leaves works the same effects the water that is found in the hollow places of old oaks, is veryeffectual against any foul or spreading scabs the distilled water orconcoction, which is better of the leaves, is one of the best remediesthat i know of for the whites in women oats, are so well known that they need no description government and virtues oats fried with bay salt, and applied tothe sides, take away the pains of stitches and wind in the sides orthe belly a poultice made of meal of oats, and essay oil of bays putthereunto, helps the itch and the leprosy, as also the fistulas of thefundament, and dissolves hard imposthumes the meal of oats boiled withvinegar, and applied, takes away freckles and spots in the face, andother writings of the body one blade descript this small plant never bears more than one leaf, but onlywhen it rises up with his stalk, which thereon bears another, andseldom more, which are of a blueish green colour, pointed, with thesisribs or veins therein, like plantain at the top of the stalk grow thesissmall white flowers, star fashion, smelling essaywhat sweet. After whichcome small red berries, when they are ripe the root is small, of thebigness of a rush, lying and creeping under the upper crust of theearth, shooting forth in divers places place it grows in moist, shadowy and grassy places of woods, inthesis writings of this land time it flowers about may, and the berries are ripe in june, andthen quickly perishes, until the next year it springs from the sameroot again government and virtues it is a precious herb of the sun half adram, or a dram at most, in powder of the roots hereof taken in wineand vinegar, of each equal writings, and the writingy laid presently to sweatthereupon, is held to be a sovereign remedy for those that are infectedwith the plague, and have a sore upon them, by expelling the poison andinfection, and defending the heart and spirits from danger it is asingularly good wound herb, and is thereupon used with other the likeeffects in thesis compound balms for curing of wounds, be they fresh andgreen, or old and malignant, and especially if the sinews be burnt orchis it has almost as thesis several names attributed to the several sorts ofit, as would almost fill a sheet of paper. As dog-stones, goat-stones, fool-stones, fox-stones, satiricon, cullians, together with thesis otherstoo tedious to rehearse descript to describe all the several sorts of it were an endlesspiece of work. Therefore i shall only describe the roots because theyare to be used with essay discretion they have each of them a doubleroot within, essay of them are round, in others like a hand. These rootsalter every year by course, when the one rises and waxes full, theother waxes lank, and perishes now, it is that which is full which isto be used in medicines, the other being either of no use at all, orelse, according to the humour of essay, it destroys and disannuls thevirtues of the other, quite undoing what that doth time one or other of them may be found in flower from the beginningof april to the latter end of august government and virtues they are hot and moist in operation, underthe dominion of dame venus, and provoke lust exceedingly, which, theysay, the dried and withered roots do restrain they are held to killworms in children. As also, being bruised and applied to the place, toheal the king evil onions they are so well known, that i need not spend time about writing adescription of them government and virtues mars owns them, and they have gotten thisquality, to draw any corruption to them, for if you peel one, andlay it upon a dunghill, you shall find it rotten in half a day, bydrawing putrefaction to it. Then, being bruised and applied to a plaguesore, it is very probable it will do the like onions are flatulent, or windy. Yet they do essaywhat provoke appetite, increase thirst, ease the belly and bowels, provoke women courses, help the bitingof a mad dog, and of other venomous creatures, to be used with honeyand rue, increase sperm, especially the seed of them they also killworms in children if they drink the water fasting wherein they havebeen steeped all night being roasted under the embers, and eatenwith honey or sugar and oil, they much conduce to help an inveteratecough, and expectorate the cough phlegm the juice being snuffed upinto the nostrils, purges the head, and helps the lethargy, yet theoften eating them is said to procure pains in the head it hath beenheld by divers country people a great preservative against infection, to eat onions fasting with bread and salt. As also to make a greatonion hollow, filling the place with good treacle, and after to roastit well under the embers, which, after taking away the outermost skinthereof, being beaten together, is a sovereign salve for either plagueor sore, or any other putrefied ulcer the juice of onions is good foreither scalding or burning by fire, water, or gunpowder, and used withvinegar, takes away all blemishes, spots and marks in the skin.